Turku – Åbo
Tap:Aerial view o Turku frae Turku Cathedral, 2nt left:Statue o Per Brahe, 2nt middle:Turku Castle, 2nt richt:Turku Cathedral, 3rd left:Turku Medieval Mercat, 3rd middle:The Christmas Peace Balcony o Turku, 3rd richt:Twilicht in Aura River, Bottom left:Simmer in Aura River, Bottom richt:View o Yliopistonkatu pedestrian aurie
|• Mayor||Aleksi Randell|
|• Ceety||306.37 km2 (118.29 sq mi)|
|• Laund||245.67 km2 (94.85 sq mi)|
|• Watter||60.7 km2 (23.4 sq mi)|
|• Urban||252.65 km2 (97.55 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,331.1 km2 (900.0 sq mi)|
|Aurie rank||277t lairgest in Finland|
|• Rank||5t lairgest in Finland|
|• Density||0/km2 (0/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||999,3/km2 (25,880/sq mi)|
|Population bi native leid|
|• Finnish||88.1% (official)|
|• Swadish||5.2% (official)|
|Population bi age|
|• 0 tae 14||13.1%|
|• 15 tae 64||69.5%|
|• 65 or older||17.4%|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Municipal tax rate||18.75%|
Turku (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈturku] ( listen); Swadish: 'Åbo' [ˈoːbʊ] ( listen)) is a ceety on the soothwast coast o Finland at the mooth o the Aura River, in the region o Finland Proper. Turku, as a town, wis settled durin the 13t century an foondit maist likely at the end o the 13t century, makin it the auldest ceety in Finland. It quickly became the maist important ceety in Finland, a status it retained for hunders o years. Efter Finland became pairt o the Roushie Empire (1809) an the caipital o the Grand Duchy o Finland wis moved tae Helsinki (1812), Turku continued tae be the maist populous ceety in Finland until the end o the 1840s, an it remains a regional caipital an an important business an cultural centre.
Acause o its lang history, it haes been the steid o mony important events an haes extensively influenced Finnish history. Along wi Tallinn, the caipital ceety o Estonie, Turku wis designatit the European Caipital o Cultur for 2011. In 1996 it wis declared the offeecial Christmas Ceety o Finland.
As o 30 September 2014, the population o Turku wis 183,811, makin it the sixth lairgest ceety in Finland. As o 31 August 2008 thare were 303,492 indwallers livin in the Turku sub-region, rankin it as the third lairgest urban aurie in Finland efter the Greater Helsinki aurie an Tampere sub-region. The ceety is offeecially bilingual as 5.2 percent o its population identify Swadish as a mother-tongue.
Table o contents
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Turku haes a lang history as Finland's lairgest ceety an occasionally as the admeenistrative center o the kintra, but for the last twa hunder years haes been surpassed bi Helsinki. The ceety's identity stems frae its status as the auldest ceety in Finland an the kintra's first caipital. Oreeginally, the wird "Finland" referred anly tae the aurie aroond Turku (hence the title, "Finland Proper" for the region).
During the Middle Ages, Turku wis the seat o the Bishop o Turku (a title later upgraded tae Airchbishop o Turku), coverin the then eastren hauf o the Kinrick o Swaden (maist o the present-day Finland) until the 17th century. Even if Turku haed no offeecial caipital status, baith the short-lived institutions o Dukes an Govrenors-General o Finland usually haed their Finnish residences thare. In the eftermath o the War against Sigismund, the toun wis the steid o the Åbo bloodbath. In 1640, the first varsity in Finland, The Ryal Academy o Turku, wis foondit in Turku. Turku wis an aa the meetin place for the States o Finland in 1676.
Efter the Finnish War, which ended when Sweden ceded Finland tae Imperial Russia at the Treaty o Fredrikshamn in 1809, Turku acame briefly the offeecial caipital, but suin lost the status tae Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku wis too far frae Roushie an too aligned wi Sweden tae serve as the caipital o the Grand Duchy o Finland.[citation needit] The chynge offeecially took place in 1812. The govrenment offices that remained in Turku were finally moved tae the new caipital efter the Great Fire o Turku, which almost completely destroyed the ceety in 1827.[citation needit] Efter the fire, a new an safer ceety plan wis drawn up bi German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who haed an aa designed the new caipital, Helsinki. Turku remained the lairgest ceety in Finland for anither twenty years.
In 1918, a new varsity, the Åbo Akademi – the anly Swedish leid varsity in Finland – wis foondit in Turku. Twa years later, the Finnish leid Varsity o Turku wis foondit alangside it. These twa varsities are the seicont an third tae be foondit in Finland, baith bi private donations.
In the 20th century Turku wis cried "Finland's gateway to the West" bi historians such as Jarmo Virmavirta. The ceety enjoyed guid connections wi ither Western European countries an ceeties, especially syne the 1940s wi Stockholm across the Gulf o Bothnie. In the 1960s, Turku became the first Wastren ceety tae sign a twinnin agreement wi Leningrad in the Soviet Union, leadin tae greater inter-cultural exchange an providin a new meanin tae the ceety's 'gateway' function. Efter the faw o Communism in Roushie, many prominent Soviets came tae Turku tae study Western business practices[citation needit], among them Vladimir Putin, then Leningrad's deputy mayor.
As for airchitectur in the ceety, baith the body o airchitectural styles as well as the prevalent way o livin have experienced significant changes in the 20th century. While having survived relatively intact throughout the years o war 1939–1945, the ceety faced increasin changes in the 1950s an 1960s due tae risin demands for apartments, the eagerness tae rebuild an maist o aw the new development o infrastructure (especially increased automobile traffic). The wooden ane- tae twa-story hooses that were the dominant mode o biggin in the ceety wur maistly demolished in the 1950s an 1960s tae baith enable mair efficient biggin an tae ease car traffic. This resultit in the destruction o biggins that wis in later decades seen as beautiful an worth savin. Some individual biggins remain controversial tae this day when it comes tae their demolition in the decades efter the war. For example, the biggin o Hotel Phoenix that stood on corner o Kauppatori wis torn down tae mak way for a lairge, multistory apartment biggin in 1959. The biggin wis significant baith for its location an history: havin stood on ane o the maist valuable lots in the ceety centre syne 1878 the biggin haed for example served as the first main biggin o the Varsity o Turku. Ither biggins whose demolition wis seen as scandalous either already at the time o action or proved tae be so in later years include The Nobel Hoose (subject tae the very first photograph ever taken in Finland) an the biggin o Old Hotel Börs which wis biggit in jugendstil in 1909 bi Frithiof Strandel.
Name[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Finnish name Turku oreeginates frae an Old East Slavic wird, tǔrgǔ, meanin "market place". The wird turku still means "market place" in some idioms in Finnish. The Swedish wird for "market place" is torg, an wis probably borrowed frae Old East Slavic, an wis present already in Old Swedish.
The Swedish name Åbo mey be a simple combination o å ("river; creek; large stream") an bo ("dwellin"). As this pattern does nae appear in any ither Swedish place names in Finland, etymologists believe thare could be a different explanation. One theory is that it comes frae "Aabo", the Finnish rendition o the Roushie "Avram" (Abraham), which could an aa be the origin o the name o the river Aura. Thare is however an auld legal term cried "åborätt" (meanin roughly "right to live at"), which gave citizens (cried "åbo") the inheritable right tae live at land ained bi the croun.
Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]
Locatit at the mooth o the Aura river in the soothwastren corner o Finland, Turku covers an aurie o 245 square kilometres (95 sq mi) o land, spread ower baith banks o the river. The eastren side, where the Cathedral o Turku is locatit, is popularly referred tae as täl pual jokke ("this side o the river"), while the wastren side is referred tae as tois pual jokke ("the ither side o the river"). The ceety centre is locatit close tae the river mooth, on baith sides o the river, tho development haes recently been expandin wastward.[citation needit]
Thare are ten bridges ower the Aura river in Turku. The auldest o the current brigs is Auransilta, which wis constructit in 1904. The newest bridge is Kirjastosilta ('library bridge'), a pedestrian-only bridge biggit in 2013. The Föri, a small ferry that transports pedestrians an bicycles across the river without payment, is a well kent featur o the ceety.
Wi a population o approximately 300,000[citation needit], the Turku Region (LAU 1) is the third lairgest urban region in Finland, efter Greater Helsinki an the aurie aroond Tampere. The region includes, in addition tae the ceety itsel the follaein municipalities: Askainen, Kaarina, Lemu, Lieto, Masku, Merimasku, Mynämäki, Naantali, Nousiainen, Paimio, Piikkiö, Raisio, Rusko, Rymättylä, Sauvo, Vahto an Velkua.
A mair exclusive definition for the urban aurie is the ceety region o Turku wi a population aroond 235,000 consistin o fower major municipalities Kaarina, Raisio, Naantali an Turku.
Admeenistrative subdiveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]
The ceety is dividit intae 78 destricts an nine wards that dae nae function as local govrenment units. Thare are, however, some projects that are based on the destrict diveesions, pairteecularly in the eastren pairt o the ceety, where unemployment is heich in certain auries. The lairgest populatit destricts are Varissuo an Runosmäki. Bi aurie, houever, Kakskerta an Paattinen, formed frae umwhile municipalities that were annexed tae the ceety proper in the mid-20th century, constitute the lairgest districts.[citation needit]
As mony o the smaa neighbourin municipalities frae the north an sooth o the ceety wur annexed durin the mid-20t century, Turku is the day shaped lik an elongatit pear. The ceety centre an maist o the suburban auries lie in the middle, separatit frae the less densely populatit northren rural auries bi the Turku bypass, that forms pairt o European route E18. Islands such as Ruissalo, Hirvensalo an Kakskerta, formin the soothren pairt o the ceety, are an aa sparsely populat itan maistly contain simmer residences, wi the exception o some destricts in Hirvensalo which are currently growin intae upper-middle-class suburbs.
Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]
Situatit bi the Baltic Sea an sheltered bi the islands o the Archipelago Sea, Turku haes a humid continental climate. Lik much o soothren Finland, the ceety experiences warm simmers, wi temperatures rangin up tae 30 °C (86 °F), an relatively cauld winters wi frequent snawfaw. The warmest month o the year is Julie, wi an average temperatur o 17.5 °C (64 °F), whauras the cauldest month is Februar. The average year-roond temperature is 5.5 °C (42 °F). Winter usually staorts in early December, an ware in late Mairch.
Preceepitation in Turku averages 720 mm (28.3 in) a year. The rainiest month o the year is August, when the ceety receives on average 80 mm (3.1 in) o rainfaw. In Aprile, the driest month o the year, the figur is anly 32 mm (1.3 in). The average air pressur at sea level is 101.2 kilopascals (29.9 inHg), wi little variance throughoot the year.
|Climate data for Turku|
|Record heich °C (°F)||8.5
|Average heich °C (°F)||−1.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.4
|Average laich °C (°F)||−7.3
|Record laich °C (°F)||−35.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||61
|Avg. precipitation days||11||8||9||7||7||8||9||11||9||12||13||12||116|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||40||75||134||204||284||276||287||230||155||89||38||27||1,839|
|Source: Climatological statistics for the normal period 1981–2010 |
Govrenment an politics[eedit | eedit soorce]
Bein baith a regional an provincial caipital, Turku is an important admeenistrative centre, hostin the seat o the Airchbishop o Finland an a Coort o Appeal. Aleksi Randell haes been the mayor o Turku syne 2010.
The ceety cooncil an ceety buird have lang been dominatit bi the Social Democratic Pairty (SDP) an the Naitional Coaleetion Pairty (Kokoomus/Samlingspartiet), wi approximately equal representation. Currently, the cooncil haes 67 members, wi 19 frae Kokoomus an 14 frae SDP. The ither major pairties in the cooncil are the Green League (10 seats), the Left Alliance (9 seats) an The Finns (6 seats). The current chair o the ceety buird is Minna Arve frae Kokoomus.
Results o the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Turku:
- Naitional Coalition Pairty 23.7%
- Social Democratic Pairty 19.4%
- True Finns 15.8%
- Left Alliance 12.7%
- Green League 11.4%
- Swedish People's Party 5.8%
- Centre Party 4.7%
- Christian Democrats 3.1%
Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]
For a ceety o its size, Turku haes a moderate public transport network o bus routes, which is comparable tae bus network o seemilar-sized Tampere. The bus network is managed an supervised bi the Ceety o Turku Public Transport Office (Finnish: Turun joukkoliikennetoimisto, Swadish: Åbo kollektivtrafikkontor), an is operatit mainly bi private companies.[citation needit] Regional buses are operatit bi private companies, maist importantly TLO, wi very frequent services especially tae the neighbourin ceeties o Naantali, Raisio, an Kaarina.
Rail traffic tae an frae Turku is handled bi the Finnish naitional carrier, VR. The nummer o services haes fallen an anly the railways towards Tampere an Helsinki are nou in uise. The railway stations currently uised for passenger traffic are the Turku Central railway station in Pohjola, an twa smawer stations in Kupittaa an the Port o Turku.
Thare is no local rail traffic at the moment, as the ceety's popular tram services were discontinued in 1972, an the various local railway lines tae neighbourin towns an municipalities were aw abolished during the late 20t century.[citation needit] Houever, thare are plans for a licht rail seestem in the Turku region in the near future. This seestem would mair ably serve major suburbs o the ceety such as Varissuo an Runosmäki, as well as the neighbourin ceeties.
The State o Finland haes announced plans tae support Espoo wi 30% o full expenses on a new metro rail, the Regional Cooncil o Soothwast Finland is gangin tae uise this as a test case for a new light rail network in Turku.:
The Turku Bus Station an the Turku Central Railway Station are currently locatit in different places. The Ceety o Turku is plannin tae combine these twa in a new greater station complex in the near future. This new travel center will consist o a hotel an several shoppin estates. This center will connect aw public transportation frae commuter trains tae lang distance buses.
Thare are an aa daily ferry services frae the Port o Turku tae Sweden an the Åland Islands, operatit i Silja Line, Viking Line an SeaWind Line. These are something o a Finnish cultural tradeetion (see ruotsinlaiva), an fowk eften travel lang distances across Finland tae Turku just tae take a cruise across the Gulf o Bothnie.
Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]
At the end o 2004 the Turku region (includin the economic destricts o Turku an Åboland) haed a population o 319,632, oot o which 174,824 fowk lived in the ceety o Turku. The ceety's population density is 718 indwallers per square kilometre.
89.4% o Turku's population speak Finnish as their [[native leidile 5.2% speak Swedish. The next maist widely spoken languages are Roushie (1.3%), Arabic (0.6%), Albanie (0.5%). 95.8% o the population are Finnish ceetizens, an the maist sizeable minorities are frae Russia, Estonia, Iraq, an Iran. Like aw ither Finnish ceeties, Turku does nae collect information aboot the ethnic an releegious makeup o its population.
Notable fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]
Famous fowk frae the ceety o Turku include:
- Paavo Nurmi, The Flying Finn, a Finnish 9 time Olympic Champion in lang-distance runnin
- Mauno Koivisto, the 9th Preses o Finland
- Matti Salminen, a Finnish bass sangster
- Johan Gadolin, a Finnish chemist, physicist an mineralogist
- Herman Spöring, a Finnish explorer an botanist
- Miikka Kiprusoff, a Finnish umwhile professional ice hockey goalkeeper who played in Calgary Flames an San Jose Sharks during his NHL career
- Christina Krook (1742-1806), educator
- The brothers Saku an Mikko Koivu, Finnish ice hockey players playin respectively in Anaheim Ducks an Minnesota Wild as an alternate captain an captain.
- Darude, a Finnish dance muisicker, airtist o the hit sang Sandstorm
- Teemu Brunila, a Finnish sangster, songwriter, muisicker an producer
- Michael Monroe, a Finnish rock muisicker, the vocalist o Hanoi Rocks
- Makwan Amirkhani, Kurdish Finnish MMA fighter in UFC
- Jarno Saarinen, Grand Prix motorcycle racer
Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]
The business destrict in the ceety's economy is centred on the Port o Turku an ither service-orientit industries. The ceety is an aa a renowned high-tech centre – the Turku Science Park aurie in Kupittaa hosts ower 300 companies[citation needit] frae the fields o biotechnology an information technology, as well as several institutions o heicher learnin that wirk in closely wi the business sector. This cooperative element is seen as a particularly important factor wi regards tae the ceety's expectit future economic development, as outlined in the Turku Strategy that is published annually bi the ceety cooncil.[citation needit] At least the follaein major Finnish companies have their corporate headquarters in Turku: HKScan an Hesburger. Other major companies which have operations in Turku include Bayer, Fläkt Woods, Meyer Werft, Orion Corporation an Wärtsilä.
Education[eedit | eedit soorce]
Turku haes a langer eddicational history than any ither Finnish ceety – the first schuil in the ceety, the Cathedral School, wis foondit along wi the Cathedral o Turku in the late 13th century. The first varsity in Finland, the "The Ryal Academy o Turku" (nou Varsity o Helsinki), wis established in the ceety in 1640. In 1820, the first school in Finland conformin tae the Bell-Lancaster method wis foondit in Turku wi the aim o makin primary eddication mair inclusive tae the lower classes.
The Finnish Varsity o Turku is the seicont lairgest varsity in Finland (18,000 students), as measurt bi student enrollment, an ane o the auldest as well, havin been foondit in 1920. Åbo Akademi, foondit 1918 as the seicont varsity o Finland, is Finland's only Swedish-language varsity. Turku School of Economics merged wi The Varsity of Turku in 2010, an Åbo handelshögskola, its Swedish counterpart, wi Åbo Akademi 1980. The central hospital of Turku, Turku Varsity Hospital, is affiliatit wi the Varsity an it is uised as a teachin hospital.
Turku Varsity o Applee'd Sciences is the seicont lairgest polytechnic in Finland efter Metropolia Varsity o Applee'd Sciences. An aa Novia Varsity o Applee'd Sciences an Diaconia Varsity o Applee'd Sciences hae campuses in the toun.
Turku is ane o anly twa ceeties in Finland tae have an established international school (the ither ceety bein Helsinki). Turku International School, locatit in the eastren destrict o Varissuo, haes been operatin syne 2003. Bi an agreement signed atween the ceety o Turku an the Varsity o Turku, Turun normaalikoulu takes care o the teachin in the international school.
Media[eedit | eedit soorce]
The maist widely read newspaper o Turku, an the aurie aroond it, is the daily regional morning newspaper Turun Sanomat, wi a readership o ower 70% o the population every day. Åbo Underrättelser, a Swedish language newspaper published in Turku, is the auldest newspaper in Finland, havin been published syne 1824. The free-of-charge Turkulainen newspaper is an aa among the maist popular newspapers, together wi the local edeetion o Metro International an the naitional evening tabloid Ilta-Sanomat. Thare are an aa a nummer o local newspapers such as Kulmakunta (for the eastren suburbs o Turku, includin Varissuo an Lauste), an Rannikkoseutu (for the aurie aroond the neighbourin ceeties o Raisio an Naantali).
The first Finnish newspaper Tidningar Utgifne Af et Sällskap i Åbo, in Swedish, wis stairtit in Turku in 1771, as well as the first Finnish-language newspaper Suomenkieliset Tieto-Sanomat which wis stairtit in 1775.
The newspaper, Turun Sanomat, an aa operates a regional televeesion station, cried Turku TV. The Finnish naitional broadcaster, Yleisradio, screens local news, daily frae Monday tae Friday, for the Soothwast Finland (includin the regions o Finland Proper an Satakunta) residents. Aw Finnish naitional TV channels are viewable an naitional radio channels audible in the Turku aurie. In addeetion, a nummer o local radio stations, e.g. Auran Aallot, Radio Sata an Radio Robin Hood are operational. Local public service radio stations are YLE Turun Radio in Finnish language (the regional version o YLE Radio Suomi) an YLE Radio Vega Åboland in Swadish leid (the regional version o YLE Radio Vega).
Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]
Cultural venues in Turku include several theatres, cinemas, an airt galleries, an a ceety philharmonic orchestra. The ceety's cultural centre organises a nummer o regular events, maist notably the Medieval Mercat in Julie each year. Turku is an aa the offeecial Christmas ceety o Finland, an 'Christmas Peace' in Finland is declared on every 24 December frae the Brinkkala Hall balcony. The Turku Music Festival an the rock festival Ruisrock (held on the island o Ruissalo) are among the auldest o its kind in Scandinavie. The ceety an aa hosts anither rock festival, Down by the Laituri, an ane o the lairgest electronic music festivals in Northern Europe, UMF (Uuden Musiikin Festivaali, "New Music Festival"), in addition tae a vibrant nightlife, centred on the Market Square.
Thare are an aa numerous museums, such as the Turku Art Museum an the Wäinö Aaltonen Museum o Airt. The Åbo Akademi University maintains the Sibelius Museum, which is the anly museum in Finland specialisin in the field o miusic. Apart frae these, thare are an aa several historical museums that display the ceety's medieval period, such as the Turku Castle, which haes been a functional historical museum syne 1881, an the Aboa Vetus museum, biggit in the late 1990s ower the 14th century archaeological site. The Luostarinmäki handicrafts museum, convertit frae residential biggins that survived the Great Fire o Turku in 1827, wis the first Scandinavian venue tae receive the "Golden Apple" tourism awaird.
Turku is European Capital o Culture in 2011, an the ceety cooncil haes approved numerous projects tae boost the ceety's image in preparation for that status.
The Declaration o Christmas Peace haes been a tradition in Finland frae the Middle Ages every year, except in 1939 due tae the Winter War. The declaration takes place on the Old Great Squerr o Turku, Finland's offeecial 'Christmas Ceety', at noon on Christmas Eve. The declaration ceremony begins wi the hymn Jumala ompi linnamme (Martin Luther's Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott) an continues wi the Declaration o Christmas Peace read frae a parchment roll in Finnish an Swedish.
Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]
The ceety haes twa fitbaa teams playin at the top naitional level, the Veikkausliiga: FC Inter an TPS, which is playin in seicont highest level Ykkönen, but TPS is ane o the auldest fitbaa clubs in Finland. Both teams play their home matches at Veritas Stadion in the destrict o Kupittaa.
HC TPS o Turku is ane o the maist successful teams in Finnish ice hockey history. It plays in the Finnish top league, SM-liiga. HC TPS haes won the naitional championship 11 times, the latest bein frae season 2009-2010. HK Arena, locatit in the Artukainen destrict, is uised as the venue for HC TPS games.
Turku Titans is a lacrosse club based in Turku wi a relevantly successfu history wi three siller medals an ane gowd medal in the naitional lacrosse league in Finland. The Titans weemen's team haes an aa haed a successfu history. The FIL U19 2012 World Lacrosse Championships are an aa held in the ceety.
Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]
Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]
Turku is twinned wi:
Turku haes co-operation greements wi the follaein ceeties:
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "Area by municipality as of 1 Januar 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 9 Mairch 2011.
- "Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31.12.2011". Tiedote (in Finnish). Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus). 2011-12-31. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 31.8.2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Register Center of Finland. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 Dizember 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 Mairch 2009.
- "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 Dizember 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 Apryle 2009.
- "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2011.
- "Statistical yearbook of Turku" (in Finnish). 2008-07-17.
- 'Aluetietopankki' at the Kuntaliitto website
- "Christmas City » Turku, the Finnish Christmas City". www.turku.fi. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "Destinations in Finland - Official Travel and Tourism Guide". Visitfinland.com. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- Aki Pihlman (2006-09-13). "Varhainen Turku rakennettiin pellolle" (in Finnish). Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Andrew Spicer (2012). Lutheran Churches in Early Modern Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-7546-6583-0.
- "Keskiaika - Suomen kaupungit keskiajalla". Katajala.net. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Svenska Akademiens ordbok, "torg", column T2031 
- YLE, 1000 km ortnamn, 2003, http://vetamix.net/video/ortnamnet-%C3%A5bo_2273. Retrieved 2015-
- "Kirjastosilta avattiin tulen ja valon juhlassa". www.turku.fi. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- 'Turku' at EuroWeather
- "Normal period 1981-2010". Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Laaksonen, Mikko. "Raitiovaunulla Naantaliin, Kaarinaan, Runosmäkeen, Varissuolle?". raitio.org (in Finnish). Finnish Tramways Society. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
- "Turun Sanomat". Turunsanomat.fi. 2006-09-27. Retrieved 2009-05-06.[deid airtin]
- "www.turku.fi » turku.fi » Turku.info » Publications and Reports". turku.fi. 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- see Turun kaupungin tilastollinen vuosikirja, 2005/2006
- "www.turku.fi » turku.fi » Turku.info » Turku in Brief". turku.fi. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "Turku International School". Varsity o Turku. 15 January 2006.
- see Tutkimus: Lehtien lukijapeitot
- Finnish Wikipedia article about Tidningar Utgifne Af et Sällskap i Åbo: http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidningar_Utgifne_Af_et_S%C3%A4llskap_i_%C3%85bo
- "www.uudenmusiikinfestivaali.org". www.uudenmusiikinfestivaali.org. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- "Turku Titans history". Turku Titans. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- "2012 World Lacrosse". FIL U19 2012 World Lacrosse Championships. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
- "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish & English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- "Bratislava City - Twin Towns". © 2003-2008 Bratislava-City.sk. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
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