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Communism is a sociopolitical movement that aims for a classless society structured upon communal awnership o the means o production an the end o wage labour an private property.[1] The exact definition o communism varies an it is aften mistakenly uised interchangeably wi socialism, howsomeivver, communist theory contends that socialism is juist a transitional stage on the wey tae communism.

A variety o different forms o communism hae developt, each based upon the ideas o different politeecal theorists, uisually as additions or interpretations o various forms o Marxism, the collective philosophies o Karl Marx.[2] Marxism-Leninism is the synthesis o Vladimir Lenin's contreibutions tae Marxism, sic as hou a revolutionary pairty shoud be organised; Trotskyism is Leon Trotsky's conception o Marxism an Maoism is Mao Zedong's interpretation o Marxism tae suit the conditions o Cheenae at that time.

Communist theory generally states that the ae wey tae solve the problems existin athin caipitalism is for the workin class, referred tae as the proletariat, who is the main producer o wealth in society an is exploitit bi the caipitalist class, as explained in theories sic as surplus value, tae replace the bourgeoisie as the rulin cless tae establish a society athoot cless divisions, cawed socialism, as a prelude tae attemptin tae achieve the final stage o communism.[1]

Pure communism, or the stage in history efter socialism, refers tae a classless, stateless society, ane whaur decisions on wha tae produce an what policies tae pursue are made in the best interests o the collective society wi the interests o ivery member o society gien equal wecht in the practical decision-makin process in baith the politeecal an economic spheres o life.

Karl Marx, as well as some ither communist philosophers, purposely niver providit a detailed description as tae hou communism wad function as a social seestem. In the Communist Manifesto, Marx lays oot a 10-pynt plan advisin the redistribution o land an production tae achieve his social ideals. Housomeivver, Marx fervently denies that this plan is tae be carried oot bi ony specific group or "class". Accordin tae Marx, communal awnership o the means o production an the end o wage labour inevitably arises due tae contradictions an cless conflicts existin in caipitalism, an the communists are merely professors who help frame struggles in terms o cless struggle.[3] In this wey, communism avoids the contradiction o creautin a new cless tae replace the auld ane.

The origins o communism are debatable, an thare are various historical groups, as well as theorists, whose beliefs hae been subsequently describit as communist. Some theorists hae considered hunter-gatherer societies tae adhere tae a form o primitive communism, whilst historical figures lik Plato an Thomas More hae been describit as espousin early forms o the ideology. The communist movement as it is kent the day lairgely teuk shape in the nineteent century, when it wis developt.[2] In the twintiet century, revolutions led tae openly communist governments takin pouer in mony kintras, leadin tae the creation o states lik the Soviet Union, the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae an the Republic o Cuba.

In modren uisage, communism is aften uised tae refer tae the policies o thir governments, which wur ane pairty seestems operatin unner centrally planned economies an a state awnership o the means o production. Maist o thir governments based thair ideology on Marxism-Leninism. Thir seestems, whiles referred tae as state socialism are argued bi mony, includin those on the left, that states niver made an attempt tae transition tae a communist society, while ithers even argue that thay niver achieved socialism.

In the 20t an 21st centuries democratic elections led tae communist, an communist inspired, governments bein electit in ither pairts o the warld sic as in Chile an Venezuela. The day, awtho communism is a less influential politeecal force compared tae wha it wis in muckle o the twintiet century,[4] thare are still pouerful communist an aligned socialist movements in mony pairts o the warld, especially soothren Asie an Sooth Americae, an syne the Economic crisis o 2008 thare haes been a resurgence o interest in communist theory, especially the theories o Karl Marx.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Communism". Columbia Encyclopedia. 2008. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Holmes 2009. p. 01.
  3. Communist Manifesto
  4. Holmes 2009. p. xii.

Communism-pages[eedit | eedit soorce]