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Olympic Gemmes

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Olympic Games

The modren Olympic Gemmes (French: les Jeux olympiques, JO[1]) is the leadin internaitional sportin event featurin simmer an winter sports competitions in whilk thoosands o athletes participate in a variety o competitions. The Olympic Gemmes are considered tae be the warld's foremaist sports competeetion wi mair nor 200 naitions participatin.[2] The Olympic Gemmes are held quadrennially, (ilka fower year) wi the Simmer an Winter Gemmes alternatin, meanin ilk o thaim occur ilka fower year but twa year apairt fae ane anither. Thair creation wis inspired bi the auncient Olympic Gemmes, whilk war held in Olympia, Greece, frae the 8t century BC tae the 4t century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin foondit the Internaitional Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. The IOC is the govrening body o the Olympic Movement, wi the Olympic Charter definin its structur an authority.

Host naitions an ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cairt o Simmer Olympics locations. Kintras that haes hostit ane Simmer Olympics are shaded green, while kintras that hae hostit twa or mair is shaded blue.

The host ceety for an Olympic Gemmes is uisually chuisen seiven tae aicht year aheid o thair celebration.[3] The process o selection is cairried oot in twa phases that span a twa-year period. The prospective host ceety applies tae its kintra's Naitional Olympic Committee; gif mair nor ane ceety frae the same kintra submits a proposal tae its NOC, the naitional committee teepically hauds an internal selection, syne anly ane ceety per NOC can be presentit tae the Internaitional Olympic Committee for consideration. Ance the deadline for submission o proposals bi the NOCs is reakit, the first phase (Application) begins wi the applicant ceeties asked tae complete a questionnaire regardin several key criteria relatit tae the organisation o the Olympic Gemmes.[4] In this form, the applicants maun gie assurances that thay will comply wi the Olympic Charter an wi ony ither regulations established bi the IOC Executive Committee.[3] The evaluation o the filled questionnaires bi a specialised group provides the IOC wi an owerview o each applicant's project an thair potential tae host the Gemmes. On the basis o this technical evaluation, the IOC Executive Buird selects the applicants that will proceed tae the candidature stage.[4]

Ance the candidate ceeties are selectit, thay maun submit tae the IOC a bigger an mair detailed presentation o thair project as pairt o a candidature file. Ilka ceety is thoroughly analyzed bi an evaluation commission. This commission will veesit the candidate ceeties an aw, interviewin local offeecials an inspecting prospective venue steids, an submit a report on its findins ane month prior tae the IOC's final decision. Durin the interview process the candidate ceety maun an aa guarantee that it will be able tae fund the Gemmes.[3] Efter the wirk o the evaluation commission, a leet o candidates is presentit tae the General Session o the IOC, whilk maun assemble in a kintra that disnae hae a candidate ceety in the runnin. The IOC memmers gathered in the Session hae the final vote on the host ceety. Ance electit, the host ceety bid committee (thegither wi the NOC o the respective kintra) signs a Host Ceety Contract wi the IOC, offeecially becomin an Olympic host naition an host ceety.[3]

Bi 2016, the Olympic Gemmes will hae been hostit bi 44 ceeties in 23 kintras, but bi ceeties ootside Europe an North Americae on anly aicht occasions. Syne the 1988 Simmer Olympics in Seoul, Sooth Korea, the Olympics hae been held in Asie or Oceania fower times, a sharp increase compared tae the previous 92 year o modren Olympic history. The 2016 Gemmes in Rio de Janeiro will be the first Olympics for a Sooth American kintra. No bids frae kintras in Africae hae succeeded.

The Unitit States haes hostit aicht Olympic Gemmes, fower Simmer an fower Winter, mair nor ony ether naition. The Breetish caipital Lunnon haulds the distinction o hostin three Olympic Gemmes, aw Simmer, mair nor ony ether ceety.

The ether naitions hostin the Simmer Games twice are Germany, Australie, Fraunce an Greece. The ether ceeties hostin the Simmer Gemmes twice are Los Angeles, Paris an Athens.

In addition tae the Unitit States, naitions hostin multiple Winter Gemmes are Fraunce wi three, while Swisserland, Austrick, Norawa, Japan, Canadae an Italy hae hostit twice. Amang host ceeties, Lake Placid, Innsbruck an St. Moritz hae played host tae the Winter Olympic Gemmes mair nor ance, ilkane hauldin that honour twice. The 2010 Winter Gemmes war held in Vancouver, Canadae's third Olympics oweraw, an 2014 teuk place in Sochi, Roushie. The next Winter Gemmes will be in Pyeongchang in 2018, Sooth Korea's first Winter Olympics an seicont Olympics oweraw.

Olympic Gemmes host ceeties[5]
Year Simmer Olympic Gemmes Winter Olympic Gemmes Youth Olympic Gemmes
Olympiad Host ceety No. Host ceety No. Host Ceety
1896 I Greece Athens, Greece
1900 II Fraunce Paris, Fraunce
1904 III United States St. Louis, United States[a]
1906 Intercalated[b] Greece Athens, Greece
1908 IV Unitit Kinrick Lunnon, Unitit Kinrick [c]
1912 V Swaden Stockholm, Swaden
1916 VI Germany Berlin, Germany
Cancelled acause o Warld War I
1920 VII Belgium Antwerp, Belgium
1924 VIII Fraunce Paris, Fraunce I Fraunce Chamonix, Fraunce
1928 IX Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands II Switzerland St. Moritz, Swisserland
1932 X United States Los Angeles, Unitit States III United States Lake Placid, Unitit States
1936 XI Germany Berlin, Germany IV Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
1940 XII Tokyo, Japan
Finland Helsinki, Finland →
Cancelled acause o Warld War II
V Sapporo, Japan
Switzerland St. Moritz, Switzerland →
Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Cancelled acause o Warld War II
1944 XIII Unitit Kinrick Lunnon, Unitit Kinrick →
Cancelled acause o Warld War II
V Italy Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
Cancelled acause o Warld War II
1948 XIV Unitit Kinrick Lunnon Unitit Kinrick V Switzerland St. Moritz, Swisserland
1952 XV Finland Helsinki, Finland VI Norawa Oslo, Norawa
1956 XVI Australie Melbourne, Australie +
Swaden Stockholm, Swaden[d][6]
VII Italy Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
1960 XVII Italy Rome, Italy VIII United States Squaw Valley, Unitit States
1964 XVIII Japan Tokyo, Japan IX Austrick Innsbruck, Austrick
1968 XIX Mexico Mexico Ceety, Mexico X Fraunce Grenoble, France
1972 XX Munich, West Germany XI Japan Sapporo, Japan
1976 XXI Canadae Montreal, Canadae XII United States Denver, Unitit States
Austrick Innsbruck, Austrick
1980 XXII Moscow, Soviet Union XIII United States Lake Placid, Unitit States
1984 XXIII United States Los Angeles, Unitit States XIV Sarajevo, Yugoslavie
1988 XXIV Sooth Korea Seoul, Sooth Korea XV Canadae Calgary, Canadae
1992 XXV Spain Barcelona, Spain XVI Fraunce Albertville, Fraunce
1994 XVII Norawa Lillehammer, Norawa
1996 XXVI United States Atlanta, Unitit States
1998 XVIII Japan Nagano, Japan
2000 XXVII Australie Sydney, Australie
2002 XIX United States Salt Lake Ceety, Unitit States
2004 XXVIII Greece Athens, Greece
2006 XX Italy Turin, Italy
2008 XXIX Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Beijing, Cheenae[e][7]
2010 XXI Canadae Vancouver, Canadae I (Simmer)  Singapore
2012 XXX Unitit Kinrick Lunnon, Unitit Kinrick I (Winter) Austrick Innsbruck, Austrick
2014 XXII Roushie Sochi, Roushie II (Simmer) Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Nanjing, Cheenae
2016 XXXI Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil II (Winter) Norawa Lillehammer, Norawa
2018 XXIII Sooth Korea Pyeongchang, Sooth Korea III (Simmer) Tae be determined
2020 XXXII Japan Tokyo, Japan III (Winter) Tae be determined
2022 XXIV Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Beijing, Cheenae IV (Simmer) Tae be determined
2024 XXXIII Fraunce Paris, Fraunce IV (Winter) Tae be determined


  1. Originally awardit tae Chicago, but muived tae St. Louis tae coincide wi the World's Fair.
  2. Nae recognized bi the IOC.
  3. Originally awarded tae Roum, but moved tae Lunnon efter Munt Vesuvius eruptit.
  4. Equestrian events were held in Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm haed tae bid for the equestrian competition separately; it received its ain Olympic flame an had its ain formal invitations an openin an closin ceremonies, as wi aw its ither Gemmes aforehaun.
  5. Equestrian events were held in Cheenae's Hong Kong. Although Hong Kong haes an independent Naitional Olympic Committee frae Cheenae, the equestrian competition wis an integral pairt o the Beijing Gemmes; it wis nae conductit unner a separate bid, flame, etc., as wis the 1956 Stockholm equestrian competition. The IOC wabsteid leets only Beijing as the host ceety.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "French an Inglish are the ofeecial leids for the Olympic Gemmes.", [1]."(..)
  2. "Overview of Olympic Games". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 Juin 2008. Cite has empty unkent parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  3. a b c d "Olympic Charter" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. pp. 72–75. Archived (PDF) frae the original on 23 Julie 2011. Retrieved 2 Apryle 2009.
  4. a b "Choice of the host city". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2 Apryle 2009.
  5. "Olympic Games" (registration required). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 Apryle 2009.
  6. "Official Report of the Equestrian Games of the XVIth Olympiad (Swedish & English)". Los Angeles 1984 Foundation. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  7. "Beijing 2008". The International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 Januar 2009.

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]

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