Sakha Republic

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Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Республика Саха (Якутия) (Roushie)
Саха Республиката (Sakha)
—  Republic  —

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Coat o airms
Anthem: Naitional Anthem o the Sakha Republic
Coordinates: 66°24′N 129°10′E / 66.400°N 129.167°E / 66.400; 129.167
Poleetical status
Kintra Roushie
Federal destrict Far Eastren[1]
Economic region Far Eastren[2]
Established 27 Aprile 1922[3]
Capital Yakutsk[3]
Govrenment (as of August 2010)
 - President[4] Yegor Borisov[5]
 - Legislature State Assembly (Il Tumen)[4]
Statistics
Aurie (as o the 2002 Census)[6]
 - Total 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,152.2 sq mi)
Aurie rank 1st
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 - Total 958,291
 - Rank 55t
 - Density 0.31 /km2 (0.80 /sq mi)
 - Urban 64.1%
 - Landwart 35.9%
Population (2002 Census)[8]
Time zone(s) YAKT (UTC+10:00)[9]
YAKT (UTC+10:00)[9]
MAGT (UTC+12:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2 RU-SA
Number plates 14
Offeecial leids Roushie;[10] Sakha[11]
http://www.sakha.gov.ru/
Sakha Yakutia rep.png

The Sakha (Yakutie) Republic (Roushie: Республика Саха (Якутия), tr. Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya); IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə sɐˈxa jɪˈkutʲɪə]; Sakha: Саха Республиката, Sakha Respublikata) is a federal subject o Roushie (a republic). Population: 958,291 (2010 Census preliminary results),[7] consistin mainly o ethnic Yakuts an Roushies.

Comprisin hauf o the Far Eastren Federal Destrict, it is the lairgest subnaitional govrening body bi aurie in the warld at 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (juist smawer than Indie which covers an aurie o 3,287,240 km2). It haes a population o fewer than ane million inhabitants. Its caipital is the ceety o Yakutsk.

Releegion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Afore the arrival o the Roushie Empire, the majority o the local population believed in Tengrianism common tae Turkic-leid fowk o Central Asie, or in Paleoasie indigenous shamanism wi baith 'licht' (community leadin) an 'daurk' (healin through spirit journey) shamans. Unner the Roushies, the local population wis convertit tae the Roushie Orthodox Kirk an required tae tak Orthodox Christian names, but in practice generally continued tae follae traditional releegions. Durin the Soviet era, maist or aw o the shamen dee'd athoot successors.

Currently, while Orthodox Christianity maintains a follaein (housomeivver, wi vera few priests willin tae be stationed ootside o Yakutsk), there is interest an activity toward renewin the traditional releegions. As o 2008, Orthodox leaders describit the warld view o the republic's indigenous population (or, rather, those amang the population who are no completely indifferent tae releegion) as dvoyeverie (dual belief seestem), or a "tendency toward syncretism", as evidencit bi the locals sometimes first invitin a shaman, an then an Orthodox priest tae carry oot their rites in connection wi some event in their life.[12]

Releegion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the Information Center unner the Preses o Sakha Republic (Информационный центр при Президенте РС(Я)), the releegious demography o the republic wis as follaes:[13]

  • Orthodoxy: 44.9%
  • Shamanism: 26.2%
  • Non-releegious: 23.0%
  • New Releegious Movements: 2.4%
  • Islam: 1.2%
  • Buddhism: 1.0%
  • Protestantism: 0.9%
  • Catholicism: 0.4%

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sakha stretches tae the Henrietta Islands in the far north an is washed bi the Laptev an Eastren Siberie Seas o the Airctic Ocean. These watters, the cauldest an iciest o aw seas in the northren hemisphere, are covered bi ice for 9–10 months o the year. New Siberie Islands are a pairt o the republic's territory. Efter Nunavut wis separatit frae Canadae's Northwast Territories, Sakha became the lairgest subnaitional entity (statoid) in the warld, wi an aurie o 3,103,200 square kilometres (1,198,200 sq mi), slichtly smawer than the territory o Indie (3.3 million km²).

Sakha can be dividit intae three great vegetation belts. Aboot 40% o Sakha lees abuin the Airctic circle an aw o it is covered bi permafrost which greatly influences the region's ecology an limits forests in the soothren region. Airctic an subairctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen an moss grow as great green carpets an are favorite pasturs for reindeer. In the soothren pairt o the tundra belt, scattered staunds o dwarf Siberie pine an larch grow alang the rivers. Belaw the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north an staunds o fir an pine begin tae appear in the sooth. Taiga forests cover aboot 47% o Sakha an amaist 90% o the cover is larch.

The Sakha Republic is the steid o Pleistocene Pairk, a project directit at recreatin pleistocene tundra grasslands bi stimulatin the growth o grass wi the introduction o animals which thrivit in the region durin the late Pleistocene — early Holocene period.

Time zones[eedit | eedit soorce]

Detailed map o the three timezones in the Sakha Republic (as o September 2011)

Sakha spans three different time zones:

  1. Map of Russia - Yakutsk time zone.svg
    Yakutsk Time Zone (YAKT, UTC+10). Covers the republic's territory tae the wast o the Lena River as well as the territories o uluses locatit on the baith sides o the Lena River.
  2. Map of Russia - Vladivostok time zone.svg
    Vladivostok Time Zone (VLAT, UTC+11). Covers maist o the republic's territory locatit atween 127°E an 140°E langitude.
  3. Map of Russia - Magadan time zone.svg
    Magadan Time Zone (MAGT, UTC+12). Covers maist o the republic's territory locatit east o 140°E longitude.

Rivers[eedit | eedit soorce]

Navigable Lena River (4,310 km), as it muives northward, includes hunders o sma tributaries locatit in the Verkhoyansk Range. Ither major rivers include:

Lakes[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are ower 800,000 lakes in the republic.[14] Major lakes an reservoirs include:

Muntains[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sakha's greatest muntain range, the Verkhoyansk Range, runs parallel an east o the Lena River, formin a great airc that begins the Sea o Okhotsk an ends in the Laptev Sea.

The Chersky Range runs east o the Verkhoyansk Range an haes the heichest peak in Sakha, Peak Pobeda (3,003 m). Recent satellite photos, housomeivver, revealed that Peak Mus-Khaya mey in fact be a heicher point, reachin 3,011 m.

The Stanovoi Range borders Sakha in the sooth.

Natural resources[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sakha is well endoued wi raw materials. The soil contains lairge reserves o ile, gas, coal, diamonds, gowd, siller, tin, tungsten an mony ithers. 99% o aw Roushie diamonds are mined in Sakha, accoontin for ower 25% o the warld's diamond production.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sakha is kent for its climate extremes, wi the Verkhoyansk Range being the cauldest aurie in the northren hemisphere. Winters here are extremely cauld. Some o the lawest natural temperaturs iver recordit hae been here. The Northren Hemisphere's Pole o Cauld is at Verkhoyansk, whaur the temperaturs reached as law as −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) in 1892, an at Oymyakon, whaur the temperaturs reached as law as −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) in 1926.

  • Average Januar temperatur: −28 °C (−18 °F) (coast) tae −47 °C (−53 °F) (Pole o Cauld).
  • Average Julie temperatur: +2 °C (36 °F) (coast) tae +19 °C (66 °F) (central pairts). Housomeivver, it gets vera hot durin the day in Yakutsk in Julie (record = +38.3 °C (100.9 °F)).
  • Average annual precipitation: 200 mm (central pairts) tae 700 mm (muntains o Eastren Sakha).

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Admeenistrative diveesions o the Sakha Republic

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Breakdoun o population changes, 1939–2002

The offeecial leids are baith Roushie an Sakha, an aw kent as Yakut, which is spoken bi approximately 25% o the population. The Yakut leid is Turkic wi Mongolie influence an some borraeins frae Sakha's Paleosiberie indigenous fowks.

  • Population: 949,280 (2002 Census)[8]
    • Urban: 609,999 (64.3%)
    • Rural: 339,281 (35.7%)
    • Male: 464,217 (48.9%)
    • Female: 485,063 (51.1%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,045
  • Average age: 30.0 years
    • Urban: 31.0 years
    • Rural: 27.4 years
    • Male: 30.0 years
    • Female: 26.6 years
  • Number o hoosehaulds: 305,017 (wi 937,954 fowk)
    • Urban: 212,593 (wi 600,696 fowk)
    • Rural: 92,424 (wi 337,258 fowk)
  • Vital statistics:
Source: Roushie Federal State Statistics Service
Births Daiths Birth rate Daith rate
1970 13,899 5,700 20.6 8.5
1975 15,636 6,242 20.2 8.1
1980 18,132 7,501 20.4 8.5
1985 22,823 7,266 22.8 7.3
1990 21,662 7,470 19.4 6.7
1991 19,805 7,565 17.8 6.8
1992 17,796 8,710 16.3 8.0
1993 16,771 9,419 15.6 8.8
1994 16,434 10,371 15.6 9.9
1995 15,731 10,079 15.3 9.8
1996 14,584 9,638 14.4 9.5
1997 13,909 9,094 13.9 9.1
1998 13,640 8,856 13.8 9.0
1999 12,724 9,480 13.1 9.8
2000 13,147 9,325 13.7 9.7
2001 13,262 9,738 13.9 10.2
2002 13,887 9,700 14.6 10.2
2003 14,224 9,660 15.0 10.2
2004 14,716 9,692 15.5 10.2
2005 13,591 9,696 14.3 10.2
2006 13,713 9,245 14.4 9.7
2007 15,268 9,179 16.1 9.7
2008 15,363 9,579 16.2 10.1
  • Ethnic groups: Accordin tae the 2002 Census the ethnic composition is:

• 432,290 Yakuts (45.54%), • 390,617 Roushies (41.15%), • 34,633 Ukrainians (3.65%), • 18,232 Evenks (1.92%), • 11,657 Evens (1.23%), • 10,755 Tatars (1.13%), • 7,266 Buriats (0.77%), • 4,236 Belaroushies (0.45%), • 2,764 Armenies (0.29%), • 2,355 Bashkirs (0.25%), • 2,293 Azeris (0.24%), • 2,283 ethnic Germans (0.24%), • 2,255 Moldovans (0.24%), • 2,072 Mordovies (0.22%), • 1,815 Koreans (0.19%), • 1,700 Chuvash (0.18%), • 1,454 Kyrgyz (0.15%), • 1,272 Dolgans (0.13%), • 1,272 Uzbeks (0.13%), • 1,105 Tajiks (0.12%), • 1,097 Yukagirs (0.12%), • 1,000 Ingush (0.11%), an ither groups o less than ane thoosan persons each. (0.28% o the inhabitants declined tae state their naitionality on the census questionnaire.)[15]
Historical population figures are shown belaw:

census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Yakuts 233,273 (56.5%) 226,053 (46.4%) 285,749 (43.0%) 313,917 (36.9%) 365,236 (33.4%) 432,290 (45.5%)
Dolgans 10 (0.0%) 64 (0.0%) 408 (0.0%) 1,272 (0.1%)
Evenks 10,432 (2.5%) 9,505 (2.0%) 9,097 (1.4%) 11,584 (1.4%) 14,428 (1.3%) 18,232 (1.9%)
Evens 3,133 (0.8%) 3,537 (0.7%) 6,471 (1.0%) 5,763 (0.7%) 8,668 (0.8%) 11,657 (1.2%)
Yukaghir 267 (0.1%) 285 (0.1%) 400 (0.1%) 526 (0.1%) 697 (0.1%) 1,097 (0.1%)
Chukchis 400 (0.1%) 325 (0.1%) 387 (0.1%) 377 (0.0%) 473 (0.0%) 602 (0.1%)
Roushies 146,741 (35.5%) 215,328 (44.2%) 314,308 (47.3%) 429,588 (50.4%) 550,263 (50.3%) 390,671 (41.2%)
Ukrainians 4,229 (1.0%) 12,182 (2.5%) 20,253 (3.0%) 46,326 (5.4%) 77,114 (7.0%) 34,633 (3.6%)
Ithers 14,723 (3.6%) 20,128 (4.1%) 27,448 (4.1%) 43,695 (5.1%) 76,778 (7.0%) 58,826 (6.2%)

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart o the Roushie Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1630ff. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Constitution, Article 53.1
  5. Offeecial wabsteid o the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Yegor Afanasyevich Borisov (Roushie)
  6. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number o Destricts, Inhabitit Localities, an Rural Admeenistration bi Federal Subjects o the Roushie Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. Offeecial the whole territory o Roushie accordin tae Airticle 68.1 o the Constitution o Roushie.
  11. Constitution, Article 46
  12. Елена Дятлова (Yelena Dyatlova) (October 1, 2008). "В Якутии господствует двоеверие (Ч. 1) (Yakutia is dominated by a dual belief system)". "Во многих случаях нам говорили, что при совершении тех или иных обрядов или просто действий приглашают сначала шамана, потом священника. Правда, именно в таком порядке, признавая христианство чем-то высшим по отношению к местной магической языческой традиции, но это соединяя. Даже среди тех представителей якутской интеллигенции, с которыми мы общались, это стремление к синкретизму было отчетливо приметно."  (An interview with Maxim Kozlov, a Moscow priest who had recently returned from a missionary trip down the Lena along with the Bishop of Yakutsk).
  13. www.religare.ru/2_43720.html
  14. . Government of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) http://www.sakha.gov.ru/main.asp?c=2305.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation (XLS). 2002 Russian All-Population Census. 2002. Retrieved July 20, 2006. 

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Верховный Совет Республики Саха (Якутия). 4 апреля 1992 г. «Конституция (основной закон) Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Конституционного закона №581-З 53-IV от 22 июля 2008 г. (Supreme Council of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. April 4, 1992 Constitution (Basic Law) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #581-Z 53-IV of July 22, 2008. ).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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