Sverdlovsk Oblast

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Sverdlovsk Oblast
Свердловская область (Roushie)
—  Oblast  —

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Coordinates: 58°42′N 61°20′E / 58.700°N 61.333°E / 58.700; 61.333
Poleetical status
Kintra Roushie
Federal destrict Urals[1]
Economic region Urals[2]
Established 17 Januar 1934
Admeenistrative centre Yekaterinburg
Govrenment (as of March 2011)
 - Govrenor Alexander Misharin[3]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly
Statistics
Aurie (as o the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 194,800 km2 (75,212.7 sq mi)
Aurie rank 17t
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 4,297,747
 - Rank 5t
 - Density 22.06 /km2 (57.1 /sq mi)
 - Urban 83.9%
 - Landwart 16.1%
Population (2002 Census)
Time zone(s) YEKT (UTC+06:00)[6]
ISO 3166-2 RU-SVE
Number plates 66, 96
Offeecial leids Roushie[7]
http://www.midural.ru/

Sverdlovsk Oblast (Roushie: Свердло́вская о́бласть‎, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) o Roushie locatit in the Ural Federal Destrict. Its admeenistrative center is the ceety o Yekaterinburg umwhile kent as Sverdlovsk. Population: 4,297,747 (2010 Census).[5]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maist o the oblast lees on the eastren slopes o the Middle an North Urals an the Wastren Siberie Plain. Anerlie in the soothwast does the oblast stretch ontae the wastren slopes o the Ural Muntains.

The heichest muntains aw rise in the North Urals (Konzhakovsky Kamen at 1,569 m an Denezhkin Kamen at 1,492 m). The Middle Urals is maistly hilly kintra wi nae discernible peaks; the mean elevation is closer tae 300–500 m abuin the sea level. Principal rivers include the Tavda, the Tura, the Chusovaya, an the Ufa, the latter twa being tributaries o the Kama.

Sverdlovsk Oblast borders wi, clockwise frae the wast, Perm Krai, the Komi Republic, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Tyumen Oblast, Kurgan, an Chelyabinsk Oblasts, an the Republic o Bashkortostan.

The oblast is traversed bi the northeasterly line o equal latitude an langitude.

Natural resources[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oblast is rich in natural resources, particularly in metals (iron, copper, gold, platinum), minerals (asbestos, gemstones, talcum), marble an coal. It is maistly here that the bulk o Roushie industry wis concentratit in the 18t an 19t centuries.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The aurie enjoys continental climate patterns, wi lang cauld winters (average temperaturs reachin −15 °C (5 °F) tae −25 °C (−13 °F) on the Wastren Siberie Plain) an short wairm simmers. Anerlie in the sootheast o the oblast dae temperaturs reach +13 °C (55 °F) in Julie.

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Population: 4,297,747 (2010 Census preliminary results);[5] 4,486,214 (2002 Census);[8] 4,716,768 (1989 Census).[9]

Ethnic groups

There wur twinty-ane recognizit ethnic groups o mair than twa thoosand persons each. Residents identifeed thairsels as belangin tae a total o 148 different ethnic groups, includin:[5]

  • Births (2008): 54,500 [11]
  • Daiths (2008): 65,000

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Roushie conquest o the Khanate o Kazan in the 1550s pavit the way further east which wis nou free frae Tatar depredations (see Yermak Timofeyevich). The first survivin Roushie settlements in the aurie date back tae the late 16t — early 17t centuries (Verkhoturye, 1598; Turinsk, 1600; Irbit, 1633; Alapayevsk, 1639). In the 18t an 19t centuries the aurie became the industrial hertland o Roushie due tae its rich deposits o iron an coal (see abuin). In the 1930s mony industrial enterprises wur established an built wi the help o forcit labour.[12] Local industry receivit anither impetus durin the Warld War II when important producin facilities wur relocatit here frae the European pairt o Roushie tae safeguard them frae the advancin Germans (for example, IMZ-Ural). In the postwar period hintle o the region wis aff-limits tae foreigners an it wis ower Sverdlovsk that the American pilot Gary Powers wis shot doun on 1 Mey 1960, while on a reconnaissance mission. Anither historic event that teuk place in Yekaterinburg wis the execution o Nicholas II o Roushie an the Imperial family in Julie 1918.

In 1993, Govrenor Eduard Rossel respondit tae perceivit economic inequality bi attemptin tae create a "Urals Republic." Sverdlovsk led the "Urals Five" (Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Chelyabinsk Oblast an Sverdlovsk) in a caw for greater regional pouer. They argued that the oblasts deserved as hintle pouer as the ethnic hameland republics. The Urals Republic Constitution went intae effect on 27 October 1993. Roushie Preses Boris Yeltsin dissolvit the Urals Republic an Sverdlovsk Parliament 10 days later (on November 9).

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne 2009, the oblast's Govrenor is Alexander Misharin.[13]

The oblast's Chairter, adoptit on 17 December 1994, wi subsequent amendments, establishes the oblast govrenment. The Govrenor is the chief executive, who appoints the Govrenment, consistin o meenistries an depairtments. The Chairman/Preses o the Govrenment, commonly referred tae as the Prime Meenister, is appointit wi the consent o the lawer hoose o the legislatur, a process similar tae the appointment o the federal Prime Meenister; but the Govrenor canna nominate the same candidate mair than twice, yet he/she can dismiss the hoose efter three failed attempts tae appoint the Premier. The Legislative Assembly consists o the Oblast Duma, the lawer hoose, an the Hoose o Representatives, the upper hoose. Members o the legislatur serve fower-year terms; housomeivver, hauf o the Duma is re-electit ivery twa years. The Duma (28 members) is electit bi pairty leets; the 21 members o the Hoose o Representatives are electit in single-seat destricts in a first-past-the-post seestem. The Sverdlovsk Legislative Assembly wis the first bicameral legislatur ootside an autonomous republic, an the first regional legislatur in Roushie tae elect members bi baith pairty leets an single-seat destricts.

Compliance wi the Chairter is enforcit bi the Chairter Court. The existence o such regional courts in Roushie, formit an functionin ootside the federal judiciary, although challengit, haes been upheld an persistit successfully in maist constituent members o the Federation whaur they wur established.

Till Preses Putin's reforms o 2004, the Govrenor wis electit bi direct vote for fower-year terms. Eduard Rossel haes been the anerlie electit govrenor (first electit govrenor for an oblast in Roushie) syne 1995 (appointit in 1991 an dismissed in 1993 bi Preses Yeltsin), re-electit in 1999 an 2003.

Chairmen o the Oblast Duma[eedit | eedit soorce]

Name Period
Vyacheslav Surganov April 20, 1996-April 2000
Yevgeny Porunov April 26, 2000-April 2002
Nikolay Voronin April 24, 2002-April 23, 2003
Alexander Zaborov (actin) April 23, 2003-July 3, 2003
Nikolay Voronin 3 Julie 2003-23 Mairch 2010
Elena Chechunova 23 Mairch 2010-Incumbent

Chairmen o the Hoose o Representatives o the Legislative Assembly[eedit | eedit soorce]

Name Period
Aleksandr Shaposhnikov 20 Aprile 1996-14 Mey 1998
Pyotr Golenishchev 14 Mey 1998-21 Aprile 2000
Viktor Yakimov 21 Aprile 2000-6 Aprile 2004
Yury Osintsev 6 Aprile 2004-September 2007
Lyudmila Babushkina October 2007-Incumbent

Economy an transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oblast's industry is diverse although coud be mair modren. 12% o Roushie's iron an steel industry is still concentratit in Sverdlovsk oblast. Iron an copper are mined an processed here an the loggin industry an firth-processin are important, too.

Yekaterinburg is a prominent road, rail an air hub in the Urals region. As the economic slump subsides, several European airlines stairtit or resumit flichts tae the ceety. These include Lufthansa, British Airways, CSA, Turkish Airlines, Austrian Airlines an Finnair. Malév Hungarian Airlines uised tae be amang those carriers but they haed tae drop their flichts tae SVX (IATA airport code for Sverdlovsk) efter a few months.

Sister relationships[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart o the Roushie Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Official website of the Governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Alexander Sergeyevich Misharin (Roushie)
  4. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number o Destricts, Inhabitit Localities, an Rural Admeenistration bi Federal Subjects o the Roushie Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. Offeecial the whole territory o Roushie accordin tae Airticle 68.1 o the Constitution o Roushie.
  8. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  11. http://209.85.143.132/translate_c?hl=en&sl=ru&tl=en&u=http://www.urbc.ru/daynews.asp%3Fida%3D215822&prev=hp&usg=ALkJrhjM7oBrlX6_2gkCR-iusdlAw7vldw
  12. V.A. Kravchenko: I chose freedom (1946)
  13. Barry, Ellen (January 5, 2010). "In Russia, a Bankrupt Town Keeps Humming". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2010. 

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