Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Scots)
Южно-Сахалинск (Roushie)
-  Ceety[1]  -
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk overview.jpg
View ower a residential aurie o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Map of Russia - Sakhalin Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location o Sakhalin Oblast in Roushie
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is located in Sakhalin Oblast
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Location o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in Sakhalin Oblast
Coordinates: 46°58′N 142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733
Coat of Arms of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.png
Coat o airms
Admeenistrative status (as o December 2011)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast[1]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk[1]
Admeenistrative center o Sakhalin Oblast,[1] ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk[1]
Municipal status (as o Mey 2010)
Urban okrug Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug[2]
Admeenistrative centre o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug[2]
Heid[citation needit] Andrey Lobkin[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
181,728 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 99th
Time zone [4]
Founded 1882[citation needit]
Ceety status since 1946[citation needit]
Previous names Vladimirovka (until 1882),[citation needit]
Toyohara (until 1946)[citation needit]
Postal code(s) 693000[citation needit]
Dialin code(s) +7 4242[citation needit]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Roushie: Ю́жно-Сахали́нск‎) is a ceety an the admeenistrative center o Sakhalin Oblast, Roushie. It wis formerly cried Vladimirovka (Влади́мировка) frae 1882 tae 1905, then Toyohara (豊原市 Toyohara-shi?)) frae 1905 tae 1946. Population: 181,728 (2010 Census preliminary results);[3] 175,085 (2002 Census);[5] 159,299 (1989 Census).[6]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early days o Vladimirovka
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive staunds ootside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railwey Station

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk began as a smaa Roushie settlement cried Vladimirovka, foondit bi convicts in 1882. The Treaty o Portsmouth in 1905, which broucht an end tae the Russo-Japanese War o 1904–1905, awairded the soothren hauf o the Sakhalin Island tae Japan. Vladimirovka wis renamed Toyohara (meanin "boontiful plain"), an wis the prefect caipital o Japanese Karafuto Prefectur.

Efter the end o Warld War II, the Japanese portion o Sakhalin island wis occupied bi Soviet troops. Awnership o the ceety transferred back tae the Soviet Union an it wis renamed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Toun status wis grantit tae it in 1946.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is the admeenistrative center o the oblast.[1] Within the framework o admeenistrative divisions, it is, together wi ten rural localities, incorporatit as the ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk—an administrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, the ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is incorporatit as Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy an infrastructur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk museum in Japanese days
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk museum in 2008

Due tae significant investment frae ile companies like ExxonMobil an Shell, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk haes experienced substantial economic growth. Although this growth haes primarily occurred in the northren part o the island, baith companies maintain heidquarters an residential complexes in the ceety o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk itself. The demand for naitural resources bi the Japanese, Cheenese, an Sooth Koreans haes ensured continued prosperity in the foreseeable futur for the entire island.

There haes been significant criticism, includin frae Presidential Envoy Kamil Iskhakov, that Sakhalin is nae carin for its citizens. Despite sizable gas deposits an incomin investments frae gas companies, the regional admeenistration daes nae yet hae plans for the installation o gas services on the island. The oblast also continues tae hae the heichest rate o juvenile crime in aw o Roushie, an mair than 40% o its businesses are unprofitable.[7]

Oot o very few remainin Japanese biggins in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ane nou functions as the local museum.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is served bi the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport. The ceety is also the hub for the island's narrow gauge railwey network, the Sakhalin Railwey, built unner the Japanese admeenistration in the early 20t century.

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Institutes o heicher eddication in the ceety include Sakhalin State Varsity an Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk institute o economics, law an informatics. Also there are some branches o ither heich schuils:

  • Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk institute (branch) o Roushie State trade-economics varsity
  • Branch o Far East State varsity o railways
  • Branch o Modren Academy o the humanities
  • Branch o The Paceefic State economics varsity
  • Branch o Roushie economics academy named efter G.V. Plekhanov
  • Branch o Far East law institute

Geografie an climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is locatit on the Susuya River. It is the lairgest ceety on the island, an the only ane wi mair than 100,000 indwallers. The straicht-line distance tae Moscow is 6,662 kilometers (4,140 mi).

Due tae restreections, foreigners within tae leave Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in order tae travel tae ony ither pairt o the Sakhalin Oblast an its internal an territorial watters are required tae seek permission frae the Federal Security Service (FSB) an the Border Guard. Scuba divin an recreatin on the seacoast is permitted only in places defined bi the Border Guard.[8]

The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb) wi mild simmers an cauld winters. Maritime influences can be seen in that precipitation is much heicher than in interior Roushie an that simmers are distinctly cuiler than in Khabarovsk or Irkutsk, while winters are much milder. Simmers are frequently foggy, reducin the amoont o sunshine.

Climate data for Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
6.2
(43.2)
12.5
(54.5)
22.9
(73.2)
27.8
(82.0)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
34.7
(94.5)
29.0
(84.2)
22.8
(73.0)
18.1
(64.6)
7.4
(45.3)
34.7
(94.5)
Average heich °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.9
(44.4)
13.4
(56.1)
17.7
(63.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.4
(72.3)
18.9
(66.0)
12.2
(54.0)
3.2
(37.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
8.3
(46.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.2
(10.0)
−11.6
(11.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
1.7
(35.1)
6.9
(44.4)
11.7
(53.1)
15.5
(59.9)
17.3
(63.1)
13.2
(55.8)
6.5
(43.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−8.6
(16.5)
2.8
(37.0)
Average laich °C (°F) −17
(1.4)
−17.3
(0.9)
−10.7
(12.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.5
(36.5)
7.5
(45.5)
12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
8.5
(47.3)
1.8
(35.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−13.1
(8.4)
−1.7
(28.9)
Record laich °C (°F) −31.6
(−24.9)
−34.8
(−30.6)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−17.3
(0.9)
−10
(14.0)
−2
(28.4)
1.5
(34.7)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
−9
(15.8)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−29
(−20.2)
−34.8
(−30.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 49
(1.93)
37
(1.46)
49
(1.93)
59
(2.32)
67
(2.64)
51
(2.01)
83
(3.27)
110
(4.33)
114
(4.49)
99
(3.9)
81
(3.19)
62
(2.44)
861
(33.9)
humidity 83 81 78 76 77 83 86 86 83 80 81 83 82
Avg. rainy days 0.3 0.4 2 9 17 17 20 19 19 18 9 2 132.7
Avg. snawy days 25 24 24 13 3 0.1 0 0 0 4 20 26 139.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133.9 142.3 186.0 194.4 200.9 208.3 171.1 156.2 187.2 163.7 115.2 100.8 1,960
Source no. 1: Pogoda.ru.net[9]
Source no. 2: [10]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maist residents are ethnic Roushies, but there also exists a sizable population o Koreans. O the 43,000 Sakhalin Koreans, hauf are estimatit tae live in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, comprisin roughly 12% o the ceety's population. Also smawer nummers o indeegenous minorities, such as Ainu, Nivkhs, an Oroks can be foond.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is twinned wi:

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Travel guide tae Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk frae Wikivoyage

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #25-ZO
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Law #524
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  6. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  7. Vostokmedia.ru - PolPred Iskhakov visits Sakhalin Oblast
  8. Freedom of movement for foreigners on Sakhalin restricted
  9. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  10. http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=32150&Units=metric Seasonal Weather Averages

Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №25-ЗО от 23 марта 2011 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №141-ЗО от 27 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Сахалинской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 9 апреля 2011 г.. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №55(3742), 29 марта 2011 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #25-ZO of March 23, 2011 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #141-ZO of December 27, 2011 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of April 9, 2011.).
  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №524 от 21 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №120-ЗО от 24 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Сахалинской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области" и Закон Сахалинской области "О внесении изменений в Закон Сахалинской области "О муниципальных выборах в Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №175–176(2111–2112), 31 июля 2004 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #524 of July 21, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #120-ZO of December 24, 2012 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast" and the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Municipal Elections in Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).