Fowkrepublic o Cheenae

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Fowkrepublic o Cheenae
  • 中华人民共和国
  • Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Anthem: 
Aurie controlled bi the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae shawn in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shawn in licht green.
Aurie controlled bi the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae shawn in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shawn in licht green.
Caipital Beijing[lower-alpha 1]
39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917°N 116.383°E / 39.917; 116.383
Largest city Shanghai[1]
Offeecial leids Staundart Cheenese[2][lower-alpha 2]
Recognisit regional leids
Offeecial written leid Vernacular Cheenese
Offeecial script Semplifee'd Cheenese[2]
Ethnic groups
Demonym Cheenese
Government Single-pairty socialist republic
 -  Preses Xi Jinping[lower-alpha 4]
 -  Premier Li Keqiang
 -  Congress Chairman Zhang Dejiang
 -  Conference Chairman Yu Zhengsheng
Legislatur Naitional Fowk's Congress
Formation
 -  Unification o Cheenae unner the Qin Dynasty 221 BCE 
 -  Republic established 1 Januar 1912 
 -  Fowkrepublic proclaimed 1 October 1949 
Aurie
 -  Total 9,596,961 km2[lower-alpha 5] (3rd/4t)
3,705,407 sq mi 
 -  Watter (%) 0.28%[lower-alpha 6]
Population
 -  2012 estimate 1,350,695,000[8] (1st)
 -  2010 census 1,339,724,852[9] (1st)
 -  Densitie 2011 estimate:[10] 144/km2 (83rd)
373/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $14.9614 trillion[11] (2nt)
 -  Per capita $10,253[11] (91st)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $9.3253 trillion[11] (2nd)
 -  Per capita $6,853[11] (84t)
Gini (2012) 47.4[12]
heich
HDI (2012) Increase 0.699[13]
medium · 101st
Currency Renminbi (yuan)(¥)[lower-alpha 7] (CNY)
Time zone Cheenae Staundart Time (UTC+8)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • or yyyymd
  • (CE; CE-1949)
Drives on the richt[lower-alpha 8]
Cawin code +86
Internet TLD

The Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (FRC; Simplifee'd Cheenese: 中华人民共和国, Tradeetional Cheenese: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Aboot this soond listen , or Cheenae), is a sovereign state in East Asie. Wi a population o mair nor 1.3 billion fowk, the FRC is the maist populous kintra in the warld.

The Communist Pairty o Cheenae (CPC) haes led the FRC unner a ae-party seestem syne the kintra's foondin in 1949. Mauger this, naur hauf the FRC's economy haes been privatised in the bygane three decades unner "Socialism wi Cheenese chairacteristics." Durin the 1980s, thir economic reforms helpit lift millions o fowk oot o puirtith, bringin the poverty rate doun tae 12% frae the oreeginal ae-third o the population (China’s Institutional and Structural fault lines, that cites World Bank, 1992, p. 4 as the reference). Houaniver, acause o this mixin o mercat an planned economies, the FRC is faced wi a nummer o problems associate wi ilkane, includin unemployment an increasin rural/urban income gap. Mauger failins, greater prosperity haes led tae growin Cheenese global influence in economic, poleetical, meelitary, scieentific, technological, an cultural affairs.

In an ongaun dispute, the FRC claims suyerainty ower Taiwan an some naurby islands, that's been actually controllt bi the Republic o Cheenae syne 1949. The FRC threaps that the Republic o Cheena is an illegeetimate an supplantit entity an admeenistratively categorizes Taiwan as a province o the FRC. The term "mainlaund China" is whiles uised tae denote the area unner FRC owerins, but for normal excludin the twa Speicial Administrative Regions, Hong Kong an Macau.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Or (previously) "Peking".
  2. Portuguese (Macau anly), Inglis (Hong Kong anly).
  3. Ethnic minorities that are recognized offeecially.
  4. Xi Jinping haulds fower concurrent poseetions: General Secretar o the Communist Pairty o Cheenae, Preses o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, an Chairman o the Central Militar Commission for baith state an pairty.[4]
  5. The aurie gien is the offeecial Unitit Naitions figur for the mainland an excludes Hong Kong, Macau an Taiwan.[5] It an aa excludes the Trans-Karakoram Tract 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi), Aksai Chin 37,244 km2 (14,380 sq mi) an ither territories in dispute wi Indie. The tot aurie o Cheenae is leetit as 9,572,900 km2 (3,696,100 sq mi) bi the Encyclopædia Britannica.[6] For further information, see Territorial chynges o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae.
  6. This figure wis calculatit uisin data frae the CIA Warld Factbeuk.[7]
  7. The Hong Kong Dollar is used in Hong Kong and the Macanese pataca is used in Macau.
  8. Except Hong Kong an Macau.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Chan, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications". Eurasian Geography and Economics 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2011.  p. 395
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Chinese Government. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 21 June 2013. "For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters." 
  3. "Tabulation of the 2010 Census of the People's Republic of China". China Statistics Press. 
  4. "New man at helm: Xi Jinping elected to lead China". RT.com. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  5. "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density". UN Statistics. 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2010. 
  6. "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  7. "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  8. "Population (Total)". The World Bank. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  9. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  10. "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". World Bank. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 "2013年国民经济发展稳中向好". National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 20,Jan. 2014 data. Retrieved 20, January 2014. 
  12. "Income inequality: Delta blues". The Economist. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  13. "2013 Human Development Index and its components – Statistics" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 

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