Hong Kong

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Coordinates: 22°16′01″N 114°11′17″E / 22.267°N 114.188°E / 22.267; 114.188

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Banner Emblem
(Banner) (Emblem)
Motto: nane
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Offeecial leid Cheenese, Inglis,
Govrenment 
 - Chief executive
Chief Juistice
Preses o the Legislative Cooncil
Special admeenistrative region
Donald Tsang
Geoffrey Ma
Jasper Tsang 
Aurie
 - Total
 - % watter

1,104 km²/426 sq mi
neglible
Population
 - 2010 estimate
 - 2010 census
 - Density
 
7,055,071
7,061,200
6480/km²
Foondin
 - Haundower tae Cheenae
1 Julie 1997
Siller Hong Kong dollar
Time zone HKT (UTC+8)
Naitional anthem March of the Volunteers
Internet TLD .hk
Cawin code +852

Hong Kong[1] (Cheenese: 香港) is ane o twa special admeenistrative regions (SARs) o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (PRC), the ither being Macau. Situatit on Cheenae's sooth coast an enclosed bi the Pearl River Delta an Sooth Cheenae Sea,[2] it is renouned for its expansive skyline an deep natural harbour. Wi a land mass o 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) an a population o seiven million fowk, Hong Kong is ane o the maist densely populatit auries in the warld.[3] Hong Kong's population is 95 percent ethnic Cheenese and 5 percent frae ither groups.[4] Hong Kong's Han Cheenese majority oreeginate mainly frae the ceeties o Guangzhou an Taishan in the neighbourin Guangdong province.[5]

Hong Kong became a colony o the Breetish Empire efter the First Opium War (1839–42). Oreeginally confined tae Hong Kong Island, the colony's bundaries wur extendit in stages tae the Kowloon Peninsula an the New Territories bi 1898. It wis occupee'd bi Japan durin the Paceefic War, efter which the Breetish resumed control till 1997, when Cheenae regained sovereignty.[6][7] The region espoosed minimum govrenment intervention unner the ethos o positive non-interventionism durin the colonial era.[8] The time period greatly influenced the current cultur o Hong Kong, aften described as "East meets Wast",[9] an the educational seestem, which uised tae loosely follae the seestem in Ingland[10] until reforms implemented in 2009.[11]

Unner the principle o "ane kintra, twa seestems", Hong Kong haes a different poleetical seestem frae mainland Cheenae.[12] Hong Kong's independent judiciary functions unner the common law framewirk.[13][14] The Basic Law o Hong Kong, its constitutional document, which stipulates that Hong Kong shall hae a "heich degree o autonomy" in aw matters except foreign relations an military defence, govrens its poleetical seestem.[15][16] Although it haes a burgeonin multi-pairty seestem, a sma-circle electorate controls hauf o its legislatur. An 800-fowk Election Committee selects the Chief Executive o Hong Kong, the heid o govrenment.[17][18]

As ane o the warld's leadin internaitional financial centres, Hong Kong haes a major caipitalist service economy characterised bi law taxation an free trade, an the currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the nint maist tradit currency in the warld.[19] The lack o space caused demand for denser constructions, which developed the ceety tae a centre for modren airchitectur an the warld's maist vertical ceety.[20][21] The dense space an' a' led tae a heichlie developed transportation netwirk wi public transport travellin rate exceedin 90 percent,[22] the heichest in the warld.[23]

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic renderin o the pronunciation o the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name "香港", meanin "fragrant harbour" in Inglis.[24] Afore 1842, the name referred tae a smaa inlet – nou Aberdeen Harbour or Little Hong Kong – atween the island o Ap Lei Chau an the sooth side o Hong Kong Island, which wis ane o the first points o contact atween Breetish sailors an local fishermen.[25]

The reference tae fragrance mey refer tae the harbour waters sweetened bi the fresh water estuarine influx o the Pearl River, or tae the incense frae factories linin the coast tae the north o Kowloon, which wis stored aroond Aberdeen Harbour for export afore the development o Victorie Harbour.[24] In 1842, the Treaty o Nanking wis signed, an the name Hong Kong wis first recordit on offeecial documents tae encompass the entirety o the island.[26]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fuitnotes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The name wis aften written as Hongkong til the govrenment adoptit the current form in 1926 (Hongkong Government Gazette, Notification 479, 3 September 1926). Nevertheless, some century-old organisations still use the name, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. While the names of most cities in the People's Republic of China are romanised into English using Pinyin, the official English name is Hong Kong rather than the pinyin Xianggang.
  2. "Geography and Climate, Hong Kong". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 10 January 2007. 
  3. Ash, Russell (2006). The Top 10 of Everything 2007. Hamlyn. p. 78. ISBN 0-600-61532-4. 
  4. "Population by Ethnicity, 2001 and 2006". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 
  5. Fan Shuh Ching (1974). "The Population of Hong Kong". World Population Year (Committee for International Coordination of National Research in Demography): 18–20. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  6. "Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong". Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Hong Kong Government. 19 December 1984. Retrieved 4 October 2010. "The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that to recover the Hong Kong area (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, hereinafter referred to as Hong Kong) is the common aspiration of the entire Chinese people, and that it has decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997." 
  7. "On This Day: 1997: Hong Kong handed over to Chinese control". BBC News. 1 July 1997. Retrieved 9 September 2008. 
  8. "The World's Most Competitive Financial Centers". CNBC. Retrieved 30 October 2009. 
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cnntravel
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named HKUChan
  11. "Programme Highlights". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
  12. So, Dudley L.; Lin, Nan; Poston (2001). The Chinese Triangle of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 13–29. ISBN 0-313-30869-1. 
  13. "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 4". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  14. Russell, Peter H.; O'Brien, David M. (2001). Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World. University of Virginia Press. p. 306. ISBN 9780813920160. 
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BasicLawC2
  16. Ghai, Yash P. (2000). Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-ethnic States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 92–97. ISBN 9780521786423. 
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BasicLawC4S1
  18. Rioni, S. G. (2002). Hong Kong in Focus: Political and Economic Issues. Nova Publishers. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9781590332375. 
  19. "Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity in April 2007". Triennial Central Bank Survey 2007 (Bank for International Settlements): 7. September 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named timeout
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named skyscraper
  22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named TD
  23. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pubtransport
  24. 24.0 24.1 Room, Adrian (2005). Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company. p. 168. ISBN 0786422483. 
  25. Bishop, Kevin; Roberts, Annabel (1997). China's Imperial Way. China Books and Periodicals. p. 218. ISBN 9622175112. 
  26. Fairbank, John King (1953). Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842–1854 (2nd ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 123–128. ISBN 9780804706483.