LGBT richts muivement
The LGBT richts muivement, forby cried the gay richts muivement, homosexual richts muivement or gay liberation muivement, is a ceevil richts muivement [en] that advocates equal richts fur gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, an transgender fowk (the LGBT commonité). It seeks tae get rid o sodomy laws baurin homosexual acts atween consentin adults an caws fur an end tae discrimination again LGBT fowk in employment, credit, housin, public accommodations, an ither areas o lyfe.
Afore the 20t yeirhunner[eedit | eedit soorce]
Religious admonitions again sexual relations atween same-sex fowk (particularly men) meant that sic behaviour wis lang tache't. Houiver, maist legal codes in Europe war silent on the subjeck. The judicial sýstems o monie maistlie Muslim kintras invokit Islamic law in a wide range o contexts, an same-sex intimacy war criminalised in thon kintras wi severe dronach, includin execution.
Beginnin in the 16th yeirhunner, law-makkers in Bretane began tae categorise homosexual behaviour as creeminal. In the 1530s, durand the raign o Henry VIII, Inglan passt the , whilk made sexual relations atween men a creeminal offense punishable bi deith.
The Enlichtenment[eedit | eedit soorce]
18t-yeirhunner author Thomas Cannon [en] mebbe screived the erest furthset defens o homosexuality in Ingels, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd (1749). Inglis social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrat the erest kent argument fur homosexual law reform in Inglan aroon 1785. His advocacy cam fae his utilitarian philosophie [en], in whilk the moralitie o an actioun is determined bi the net consequence o that actioun on human well-bein. He argued that homosexuality wis a victimless crime, an tharefor nae deservin o social approbation or creeminal charges. He saw popular negative attitudes again homosexuality as an irrational prejudice perpetuated bi releegion (see forby: Víolence again LGBT fowk [en]) Housomiver, he didnae furthset his views as he affeared reprisal; his powerfu essay wisnae furthset till 1978.
Atween Enlichtenment an Victorian eras[eedit | eedit soorce]
In 1822, August, Duke o Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (an maternal grandfaither o Queen Victoria) scrieved Ein Jahr in Arcadia: Kyllenion (A Yeir in Arcadia: Kyllenion), yin o the erest novelles anent same-sex luve.
Victorian era[eedit | eedit soorce]
In Bretane sodomie remainit a caipital offense punishable bi hangin till the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 [en]. Altho Section 61 o the Act remuived the deith penaltie fur homosexuality, male homosexual acts wur illegal an punishable bi imprisonment. Twa decades efterhin, in 1885, Pairlament passt an amendment [en] sponsorit bi Henry Du Pré Labouchere [en], whilk cræftit the offense o gross indecency [en] fur same-sex male sexual relations, enablin onie kynd o sexual behaviour atween men tae be prosecutit (lesbian sexual relations werena subjeck tae the law). Siclike, in the Alemanie Rik in the aerlie 1870s, whan the kintra wes integratin the ceevil codes o sindèrie disparat kinricks, the hinnermaist Aleman penal code includit Paragraph 175, whilk creeminalised same-sex male relations wi dronach includin prison an a dishort o ceevil richts. A saicret Brits societie cried the Order of Chaeronea campaignit fur the legalisation o homosexuality, an countit playwright Oscar Wilde amang its members in the hinnermaist decades o the 19t yeirhunner.
Afore the end o the 19th yeirhunner thar wisnae monie muivements fur gay richts. Atweel, in his 1890s poem Twa Luves, Laird Alfred Douglas, luver o Oscar Wilde, declarit homosexuality the love that dare not speak its name ('the luve that darena speik its name'). This wis popularised bi Wilde when he wis in coort on account o gross indecency, quharby he descrieved the love that dare not speak its name as "...sic a great affection o an elder fur a yunger man as there wes atween David an Jonathan, sic as Plato made the verra basis o his philosophie, an sic as you find in the sonnets o Michelangelo an Shakespeare. ... It is byous, it is fine, it is the noblest kynd o affection. There is nocht unnaitural anent it. It is intellectual, an it aft exists atween an aulder an a yunger man, whan the aulder man haes intellect, an the yunger man haes aw the joy, hope an glamer o lyfe afore him."
John Addington Symonds wus a bard an an aerlie advocate o male luve. In 1873, he wrat A Problem in Greek Ethics, a wark o what woud later be cried pairt o gay historie. Altho the Oxford English Dictionary credits the medical scriever C.G. Chaddock for introducin the wird homosexual inta Ingles in 1892, Symonds haed awready yaised the wird in A Problem in Greek Ethics. Symonds owerset classical poesy on homoerotic themes an aw, an scrieved poesy draeing on auncient Greek imagery and langage sic as Eudiades, which haes been cryed "the maist kenspeckle o his homoerotic poems". The decoded autobiographies o Yorksher heritor Anne Lister are an earlier ensaumple in Ingles.
Anither friend o Ives wis Ingles socialist bard Edward Carpenter. Carpenter thocht that homosexuality wis innate an naitural, an that it shoudna be seen as a sin or a criminal offence. His 1908 beuk on the subject, The Intermediate Sex, becam a foondational text of the LGBT movements of the 20t centurie. Scots anarchist John Henry Mackay wrat in defens of same-sex luve, androgyny an paederasty.
Gay men an lesbians war gien a vyce in 1897 wi the foondin o the Wissenschaftlich-Humanitäres Komitee (Scientific-Humanitarian Committee; WHK) in Berlin, Alemanie, on 15 Mey 1897 (fower days afore Wilde's release fae jyle) bi Magnus Hirschfeld in the Weimar Republic.
Inter-weir yeirs[eedit | eedit soorce]
Magnus Hirschfeld [en] based the WKH in his Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute fur Sexual Science [en]) syne the latter's openin in 1919. The Institute makkit the first pro-gay fillum in the warld, Anders als die Anderen ('Divers fae the Ithers' [en]), tae gie a haund tae thair foremaist activity, a petition tae call fur the owerturn o Paragraph 175 (submittit 1898, 1922, an 1925). The Committee furthset emancipation leeteratur, sponsorit rallies, an campaignit fur legal reform outthroch Alemanie an forby in the Netherlans an Austrick. Bi 1922 it haed developit some 25 local chaipters. Hirschfeld's Institute anticipatit bi decades ither scientific centres (sic as the Kinsey Institute the U.S.) that specialised in sexology an sex research. He forby helpit sponsor the World League of Sexual Reform, whilk wes establishit in 1928 at a conference in Copenhagen.
In the maugre o Paragraph 175 an the failure o the WHK tae win its repeal, homosexual men an women experienced a certain amount o freedom in Alemanie, parteecular durand the Weimar speel atween the end o the First Warld Weir an the Nazi seizure o pouer. In monie lairger Aleman cities, gay nicht-lyfe becam tholed, an the number o gay publications increased; atweel, accordin tae some historians, the number o gay bars an periodicals in Berlin in the 1920s exceedit that in New York Citie sax decades later. Housomeiver, Hitler's seizure o pouer in 1933 an the Nazi era endit this relatively leiberal period; Hitler orderit the re-enforcement o Paragraph 175, an on Mey 6, 1933, Aleman student athletes raidit an ransackt Hirschfeld's archives an burnit the institute's materials in a public square (see forby: Nazi book burnings). Anders als die Anderen still exists in pairt due to Hirchfeld's attempts at rescuin the fillum.
Ootwi Alemanie, ither organisations war forby creatit. Fur ensample, in 1914 the British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology wes foundit bi Edward Wricht an Havelock Ellis fur baith promotional an eddicational purposesan in the Unitit States in 1924 Henry Geber, an Aleman immigrant, foundit the Society fur Human Richts, whilk wes charterit bi the state o Illinois.
Maugre the formation o sic groups, politeical activitie bi gay fowk wes for ordinar na verra visible. Atweel, gay fowk war aft harasst bi the polis wheriver thay congregatit. Warld Weir II an its eftermath began tae chynge 'at. The weir brocht monie yung fowk tae cities an broucht visibility tae the gay commonité. In the Unitit States muckler visibility broucht stramash, parteecular fae the govrenment an polis; ceevil servants war aft fired, the militarie attemptit tae purge its ranks o gay soldiers (a policie enactit durand Warld Weir II), an polis vice squads aft raidit gay bars an arrestit thair clientele. Houever, there wes greater politeical activitie an aw, aimit in lairge meisur at decriminalisin sodomie.
1945-1970s[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Cultuur en Ontspannings Centrum (Cultur an Recreation Centre), or COC, wes foondit in 1946 in Amsterdam. In the Unitit States the foremaist major male organisation, foundit in 1950–51 bi Harry Hay in Los Angeles, wes the Mattachine Society, its name reputed derivit fae a mediæval Frainch societie o maskit players, the société mattachine, tae represent the public maskin o homosexuality (the closet). The Dochters o Biliti (namit efter the Sapphic love poems o Pierre Louÿs, chansons de bilitis), foundit in 1955 bi Phyllis Lyon an Del Martin in San Francisco, wes a heidmaist group fur women. Forby, the Unitit States saw the publication o a naitional gay periodical, ONE, whilk in 1958 won a Supreme Coort rulin that enablit it tae mail the magazine throu the postal service.
In Bretane a commission chairit bi Sir John Wolfenden issuit a gruindbreakin report in 1957, whilk recommendit that private homosexual liaisons atween consentin adults be removit fae the domain o creeminal law.
Gay liberation era (1960s-1970s)[eedit | eedit soorce]
he recommendation wes implementit in Ingland an Wales bi Pairlament in the Sexual Offences Act 1967, effectively decriminalisin homosexual relations fur men age 21 or aulder. Legislation in Scotlan (in 1980) an Norlin Airlan (in 1982 follaein a legal case a yeir aforehaund) equalised the age o consent for gay and straight fowk. Forder legislation louered the age o sexual consent foremaist tae 18 (in 1994) an then tae 16 (in 2000), the latter o whilk equalisit the age o consent fur same-sex an opposite-sex fowk.
The gay richts muivement wes beginnin tae win victories fur legal reform, parteecular in Wastren Europe, but mebbe the single definin event o gay activism occurrit in the Unitit States. In the aerlie mornin hours o Juin 28, 1969, the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York Citie's Greenwich Veelage, wes raidit bi the polis. Nearlins 400 fowk jyned a riot that lastit 45 minutes an resumit on succeedin nights. The riots o Stonewall Inn cam tae be commemoratit yeirlie in Juin wi gay pride athort the warld.
Bretane's foremaist LGBT richts organisation wes the Scottish Minorities Group (later Outright Scotland), formit in Glesca in 1969 bi Ian Dunn. The SMG campaignit fur law reform fur gay men, forby providin sauf auries fur LGBT fowk tae congregate. Dunn later co-foondit the Paedophile Information Exchange (a pro-paedophile group argiein again age o consent laws) as a special interest group inower the SMG.
Elsewhaur in Bretane, the first meetin o the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) wis in 1971. The same yeir, Gay News magazine (co-foondit bi Dunn) was first furthset, and ran till 1983 wi a circulation o 18,000 at its heicht. Owerseas post tae the magazine wis afttimes intercepted bi HM Customs an Excise.
In 1974, Dunn alangst wi the lawyer Derek Ogg convenit the International Gay Rights Congress in Embro, whilk wes the foremaist post-weir internaitional conference o gay richts muivments. The Congress led tae the foondin o the International Gay Association (IGA) in 1978 in Coventry, Inglan. Heidquarterit in Brussels the nou, it plays a signeeficant role in coordinatin internaitional efforts tae promuiv human richts an fecht discreemination again LGBT fowk.
The foremaist openly gay govrenment officials in the Unitit States war Jerry Degrieck an Nancy Wechsler, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Thay baith war electit in 1972 an cam out while servin on the citie cooncil; Wechsler wes replacit on the council bi Kathy Kozachenko, wha ran openly as a lesbian, in 1974—thus becomin the foremaist openly gay bodie tae win office efter comin oot. In 1977 American gay richts activist Harvey Milk wes electit tae the govrening bodie o San Francisco, the Buird o Supervisors. Milk wes killt bi assassination the follaein yeir.
1980s[eedit | eedit soorce]
The HIV/AIDS pandemic o the 1980s, at the time seen as a 'gay disease' (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency, gay cancer an the gay plague wir aerlie names for the disease), wis yin o the maun important issues o gay richts the time; this includit promuivin disease prevention an fundin fur research. In the 80s, gay politeical organisations proliferated, parteecular in the Unitit States an Europe, an spread tae ither pairts o the Yird, tho thair relative size, strenth, success, and beirance bi authorities wis muckle varied. Groups sic as the Human Rights Campaign an ACT UP in the Unitit States, an monie siclike organisations in athort the warld, began agitatin fur legal an social reforms.
In 1981, the fictional buik Jenny Lives with Eric and Martin (Jenny bides wi Eric an Martin) wis furthset bi Dens scriever Susanne Bösche; at the time, her buik was condemned bi the Brits press as homosexual propaganda an led tae the passin o Section 28 o the Local Government Act 1988, prohibitin the 'promotion of homosexuality' as pairt o a 'pretended family relationship'. Follaein the passage o this act, the UK's maist kenspeckle LGBT richts organisation Stonewall wis foondit bi Sir Ian McKellen an 13 co-foonders.
In the Unitit States, gay activists won support fae the Democrats in 1980, whan the pairty eikit tae its platform nondiscrimination clause a plank includin sexual orientation. Thir support, alangst campaigns bi gay activists urgin gay men an women tae come oot o the closet, encouragit gay men an women tae enter the politeical arena as candidates. In 1983 Gerry Studds, a sittin representative fae Massachusetts, becam the foremaist member o the Unitit States congress tae announce his homosexuality. Barney Frank, forby a member o the U.S. Hoose o Representatives fae Massachusetts, forby cam oot while servin in Congress in the 1980s; Frank wes a pouerfu member o that body an inower the Democratic Pairty intil the 21st yeirhunner. National Coming Out Day began oan 11 October 1988 an is nou celebrated athort the warld.
The issues that gay richts groups emphasised varyt syne the 1970s bi tyme an place, wi sindèrie naitional organisations promuivin policies specifically fur thair kintra's milieu. Fur ensample, quharas in some kintras, parteecular in Scandinavie, antisodomy statutes never existit or war struck doun aerlie, in ither kintras the situation wes mair complex. In the Unitit States, wi its strong federal traddition, the battle fur the repeal o sodomie laws initially wes feucht at the state level. In 1986 the Supreme Coort uphaudit Georgie's antisodomie law (Bowers v. Hardwick); 17 yeir efterhin the Supreme Coort reversit itssel (Lawrence v. Texas), overturnin the antisodomy law in Texas an in 12 ither states.
1990s-the nou[eedit | eedit soorce]
Tammy Baldwin, fae Wisconsin, becam the foremaist openly gay politeican tae be electit tae baith the Hoose o Representatives (1998) an the Senate (2012). In 2009 Annise Parker wes electit mayor o houston, america’s fourth largest citie, makin it the mucklest U.S. citie tae elect an openlie gay politeician as mayor.
Ootwith the Unitit States, openlie gay politeicans forby haed successes. In canada in 1998 Glen Murray acame the Mayor o Winnipeg, Manitoba—the foremaist openlie gay politeican tae leid a lairge citie. Lairge cities in europe forby waur fertile groonds fur success fur openlie gay politeicans—fur ensample, Bertrain Delanoë in Pairis an Klaus Wowereit in Berlin, baith electit mayur in 2001. At the local an naitional levels, the nummer o openlie gay politeicans gey increasit durin the 1990s an 2000s, an in 2009 Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir becam Prime Minister o Iceland—the warld's foremaist openly gay heid o govrenment. She wes followit bi Elio Di Rupo, wha becam Prime Minister o Belgium in 2011.
In Africa, Asie an Laitin Americae, openlie gay politeicians haed nae muckle success in winnin office; elections tae national legislatures wirdy o tent include Patria Jiménez Flores in Mexico (1997), Mike Waters in Sooth Africae (1999), an Clodovil Hernandez in Brazil (2006).
Ither issues o primar importance fur the gay richts muivement include lobbyin govrenment fur nondiscriminatory policies in employment, housing, an ither aspecks o ceevil societie; endin the baurin on military service fur gay an lesbian fowk; expandin hate crimes legislation tae include protection fur LGBT fowk; an securin mairage richts fur same-sex couples.
In Januar 2000, Bretane owerturnt its ban on gay men servin in the militarie an airmed forces. Same-sex mairiage is legal in all airts o the UK; it has been recognised and performed in Ingland an Wales syne Mairch 2014, in Scotland syne December 2014, and in Norlin Airlan syne January 2020. Same-sex mairiage was later legal in 9 of the 14 Breetish Owerseas Territories an aw the Croun dependencies.
In 2015, Preses o the Unitit States Barack Obama signed legislation that repealit the U.S. military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell (Scots: Dinnae Speir, Dinnae Tell; DADT), policie furthset bi umquhile U.S. Preses Bill Clinton in 1993. DADT alloued gay an lesbian individuals tae serve in the military gin thay didna disclose thair sexual orientation or engage in homosexual sex activity; the repeal effectively endit the baurin o homosexuals fae the military. In 2013 the Supreme Coort recognised the richt o same-sex couples tae marry (Obergefell v. Hodges), an in 2020 the coort determinit that firin an employee fur bein gay, lesbian, or transgender wes a violation o Title VII o the Civil Rights Act (1964), whilk prohibitit discrimination on the basis o sex (Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia).
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