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SynonymsHIV disease, HIV infection[1][2][3]
Red Ribbon.svg
The reid reebin is a seembol for solidarity wi HIV-positive fowk an thae leevin wi AIDS.[4]
SpecialtyInfectious disease
SymptomsEarly: flu lik illness[5]
Later: Lairge lymph nodes, fiver, wecht loss[5]
ComplicationsOpportunistic infections, tumors[5]
DurationLang term[5]
CausesHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)[5]
Risk factorsExposur tae bluid, breast milk, sex[5]
Diagnostic methodBluid tests[5]
PreventionSauf sex, needle exchynge, male circumcision[5]
TreatmentAntiretroviral therapy[5]
PrognosisNear normal life expectancy wi treatment[6][7]
Frequency1.8 million new cases (2016)[8]
36.7 million living with HIV (2016)[8]
Daiths1.0 million (2016)[8]
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Human immunodeficiency virus infection an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum o condeetions caused bi infection wi the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[9][10][11] Follaein ineetial infection, a person mey nae notice ony symptoms or mey experience a brief period o influenza-lik illness.[5] Teepically, this is follaed bi a prolonged period wi na symptoms.[6] As the infection progresses, it interferes mair wi the immune seestem, increasin the risk o common infections lik tuberculosis, as well as ither opportunistic infections, an tumors that rarely affect fowk that hae wirkin immune seestems.[5] Thir late symptoms o infection are referred tae as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).[6] This stage is eften an aa associatit wi wecht loss.[6]

HIV is spread primarily bi unpertectit sex (includin anal an oral sex), contaminatit bluid transfusions, hypodermic needles, an frae mither tae bairn in pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeedin.[12] Some bodily fluids, sic as saliva an tears, dae nae transmit HIV.[13] Methods o prevention include sauf sex, needle exchynge programmes, treatin thae that are infectit, an male circumcision.[5] Disease in a baby can eften be preventit bi giein baith the mither an bairn antiretroviral medication.[5] Thare is na cure or vaccine; houiver, antiretroviral treatment can slaw the coorse o the disease an mey lead tae a near-normal life expectancy.[6][7] Treatment is recommendit as suin as the diagnosis is made.[14] Withoot treatment, the average survival time efter infection is 11 years.[15]

In 2016 aboot 36.7 million fowk war leevin wi HIV an it resultit in 1 million daiths.[16] Thare war 300,000 fewer new HIV cases in 2016 nor in 2015.[17] Maist o thae infectit live in sub-Saharan Africae.[5] Atween its diskivery an 2014 AIDS haes caused an estimatit 39 million daiths warldwide.[18] HIV/AIDS is conseedert a pandemic—a disease ootbrak that is present ower a lairge aurie an is actively spreidin.[19] HIV is believed tae hae oreeginatit in wast-central Africae in the late 19t or early 20t century.[20] AIDS wis first recognised bi the Unitit States Centres for Disease Control an Prevention (CDC) in 1981 an its cause—HIV infection—wis identifee'd in the early pairt o the decade.[21]

HIV/AIDS haes haed a great impact on society, baith as an illness an as a soorce o discrimination.[22] The disease an aa haes lairge economic impacts.[22] Thare are mony misconceptions aboot HIV/AIDS sic as the belief that it can be transmittit bi casual non-sexual contact.[23] The disease haes acome subject tae mony controversies involvin releegion includin the Catholic Kirk's poseetion nae tae support condom uise as prevention.[24] It haes attractit internaitional medical an poleetical attention as weel as lairge-scale fundin syne it wis identifee'd in the 1980s.[25]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "What Are HIV and AIDS? |". (in Inglis). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. Mandell, Bennett, and Dolan (2010). Chapter 121.
  3. "HIV Classification: CDC and WHO Staging Systems | AIDS Education and Training Centers National Coordinating Resource Center (AETC NCRC)". (in Inglis). AIDS Education and Training Center Program. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  4. "Wear your red ribbon this World AIDS Day | UNAIDS". UNAIDS Secretariat. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "HIV/AIDS Fact sheet N°360". WHO. November 2015. Archived frae the original on Februar 17, 2016. Retrieved Februar 11, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  6. a b c d e "About HIV/AIDS". CDC. December 6, 2015. Archived frae the original on Februar 24, 2016. Retrieved Februar 11, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  7. a b UNAIDS (Mey 18, 2012). "The quest for an HIV vaccine". Archived frae the original on Mey 24, 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  8. a b c "Global summary of the AIDS epidemic 2016" (PDF). UNAIDS. UNAIDS. Juin 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  9. Sepkowitz KA (Juin 2001). "AIDS—the first 20 years". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (23): 1764–72. doi:10.1056/NEJM200106073442306. PMID 11396444.
  10. editors, Alexander Krämer, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Klaus Krickeberg, (2010). Modern infectious disease epidemiology concepts, methods, mathematical models, and public health (Online-Ausg. ed.). New York: Springer. p. 88. ISBN 9780387938356. Archived frae the original on September 24, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors leet (link)
  11. Wilhelm Kirch (2008). Encyclopedia of public health. New York: Springer. pp. 676–677. ISBN 9781402056130. Archived frae the original on September 11, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  12. Markowitz, edited by William N. Rom ; associate editor, Steven B. (2007). Environmental and occupational medicine (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 745. ISBN 978-0-7817-6299-1. Archived frae the original on September 11, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: extra text: authors leet (link)
  13. "HIV and Its Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Archived frae the original on 4 Februar 2005. Retrieved 23 Mey 2006.
  14. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PDF). WHO. 2015. p. 13. ISBN 9789241509565. Archived frae the original (PDF) on October 14, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  15. UNAIDS, WHO (December 2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 27 Mey 2008. Retrieved 12 Mairch 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  16. "Fact sheet – Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic | UNAIDS". Archived frae the original on Julie 13, 2017. Retrieved Julie 21, 2017. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  17. "Global HIV and AIDS statistics". AVERT (in Inglis). 16 Julie 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  18. "Basic Statistics". CDC. November 3, 2015. Archived frae the original on Februar 13, 2016. Retrieved Februar 11, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  19. Kallings LO (2008). "The first postmodern pandemic: 25 years of HIV/AIDS". Journal of Internal Medicine. 263 (3): 218–43. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01910.x. PMID 18205765.(subscription required)
  20. Sharp, PM; Hahn, BH (September 2011). "Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic". Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 1 (1): a006841. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006841. PMC 3234451. PMID 22229120.
  21. Gallo RC (2006). "A reflection on HIV/AIDS research after 25 years". Retrovirology. 3 (1): 72. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-3-72. PMC 1629027. PMID 17054781.
  22. a b "The impact of AIDS on people and societies" (PDF). 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS. 2006. ISBN 92-9173-479-9. Retrieved 14 Juin 2006.
  23. "Myth Busters". Archived frae the original on Februar 22, 2016. Retrieved Februar 14, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  24. McCullom, Rob (Februar 26, 2013). "An African Pope Won't Change the Vatican's Views on Condoms and AIDS previousnext An African Pope Won't Change the Vatican's Views on Condoms and AIDS". The Atlantic. Archived frae the original on Mairch 8, 2016. Retrieved Februar 14, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  25. Harden, Victoria Angela (2012). AIDS at 30: A History. Potomac Books Inc. p. 324. ISBN 1-59797-294-0.