Tunis

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Tunis
تونس
Ceety
Ceety o Tunis
View o Tunis
Central esplanade o the Avenue Habib Bourguiba.
Flag of Tunis
Flag
Coat of arms of Tunis
Coat of arms
Tunis is located in Tunisia
Tunis
Tunis
Coordinates: 36°48′N 10°11′E / 36.800°N 10.183°E / 36.800; 10.183
Kintra Banner o Tunisie Tunisie
Govrenorate Tunis
Government
 • Mayor Seifallah Lasram
Area
 • Ceety 212.63 km2 (82.10 sq mi)
Population (2008 census)[1]
 • Ceety 728,453
 • Density 3,400/km2 (8,900/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,412,500
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Website www.commune-tunis.gov.tn

Tunis (Arabic: تونس‎, Tūnis) is the caipital an lairgest ceety o Tunisie an an' a' the Tunis Govrenorate, wi a population o 1,200,000 in 2008 an ower 3,980,500 in the greater Tunis aurie.

Situatit on a lairge Mediterranean Sea gulf (the Gulf o Tunis), ahint the Lake o Tunis an the port o La Goulette (Halq al Wadi), the ceety extends alang the coastal plain an the hills that surroond it. At the centre o mair modren development (colonial era an efter) lies the auld medina. ayont this section lie the suburbs o Carthage, La Marsa, an Sidi Bou Said.

The medina is foond at the centre o the ceety: a dense agglomeration o alleys an covered passages, full o intense scents an colours, boisterous an active trade, a surfeit o guids on affer rangin frae leather tae plastic, tin tae the finest filigree, tourist souvenirs tae the wirks o tiny crafts shops.

Juist through the Sea Gate (an aa kent as the Bab el Bahr an the Porte de France) begins the modren ceety, or Ville Nouvelle, transversed bi the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba (aften referred tae bi popular press an travel guides as "the Tunisian Champs-Élysées"), whaur the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast tae smawer, aulder structures. As the caipital ceety o the kintra, Tunis is the centre o Tunisian commercial activity, as well as the focus o political an administrative life in the kintra. The expansion o the Tunisian economy in the last decades is reflectit in the boomin development o the ooter ceety where ane can see clearly the social challenges brought aboot bi rapid modrenisation in Tunisie.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tunis is the transcription o the Arabic name تونس which can be pronoonced as "Tūnus‎", "Tūnas", or "Tūnis". Aw three variations wur mentioned bi the Arab geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mu'jam al-Bûldan (Dictionary o Kintras).

Different explanations exist for the oreegin o the name Tunis. Some scholars relate it tae the Phoenician goddess Tanith ('Tanit or Tanut), as mony ancient ceeties wur named efter patron deities.[2][3] Some Arab scholars proposed that the name derives frae Arabic roots or identified it wi the oreeginal toun o Tarshish.[4] Ithers claim that it oreeginatit frae Tynes, which wis mentioned bi Diodoros an Polybius in the course o descriptions resemblin present-day Al-Kasba; ane o Tunis's suburbs.[4][5]

Anither possibility is that it wis derived frae the Berber verbal ruit ens which means "tae lie doun" or "tae pass the nicht".[6] Given the variations o the precise meanin ower time an space, the term Tunis can possibly mean "camp at nicht", "camp", or "stop". There are an aa some mentions in ancient Roman sources o such names o nearbi touns as Tuniza (currently El Kala), Thunusuda (currently Sidi Meskine), Thinissut (currently Bouregba Bir), and Thunisa (currently Ras Jebel). As aw o these Berber villages wur situatit on Roman roads, they undoubtitly served as a rest-stations or stops.[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: History o Tunis

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Umwhile Carthaginian port
Tunis bay

Tunis haes a warm-simmer Mediterranean climate (Koppen climate classification Csa),[8] characterized bi a hot an dry saison an a cool an rainy saison. The local climate is an aa affectit somewha bi the latitude o the ceety, the moderatin influence o the Mediterranean an the terrain o the hills.

Climate data for Tunis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 25.2
(77.4)
29.8
(85.6)
35.2
(95.4)
33.0
(91.4)
39.0
(102.2)
45.2
(113.4)
46.7
(116.1)
46.8
(116.2)
44.4
(111.9)
36.9
(98.4)
31.6
(88.9)
25.9
(78.6)
35.2
(95.4)
Average heich °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
16.5
(61.7)
18.1
(64.6)
20.7
(69.3)
24.9
(76.8)
29.0
(84.2)
32.6
(90.7)
32.7
(90.9)
29.7
(85.5)
25.2
(77.4)
20.5
(68.9)
16.7
(62.1)
23.52
(74.34)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
12.0
(53.6)
13.2
(55.8)
15.6
(60.1)
19.3
(66.7)
23.2
(73.8)
26.3
(79.3)
26.8
(80.2)
24.4
(75.9)
20.4
(68.7)
15.9
(60.6)
12.5
(54.5)
18.43
(65.17)
Average laich °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
8.4
(47.1)
9.3
(48.7)
10.4
(50.7)
13.7
(56.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.0
(68.0)
20.8
(69.4)
19.0
(66.2)
15.5
(59.9)
11.3
(52.3)
9.2
(48.6)
13.26
(55.87)
Record laich °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−1
(30.2)
0.4
(32.7)
2.6
(36.7)
5.9
(42.6)
9.6
(49.3)
12.9
(55.2)
13.4
(56.1)
12.1
(53.8)
5.5
(41.9)
2.4
(36.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 59.3
(2.335)
57.0
(2.244)
47.2
(1.858)
38.0
(1.496)
22.6
(0.89)
10.4
(0.409)
3.1
(0.122)
7.1
(0.28)
32.5
(1.28)
65.5
(2.579)
56.0
(2.205)
66.8
(2.63)
465.5
(18.327)
Avg. precipitation days 9 8 8 6 4 2 1 1 4 7 7 8 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.7 165.3 198.4 225.0 282.1 309.0 356.5 328.6 258.0 217.0 174.0 148.8 2,808.4
Source no. 1: Warld Meteorological Organization,[9] Hong Kong Observatory for data of avg. precipitation days and sunshine hours[10]
Source no. 2: NOAA (extremes)[11]

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Capital[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kasbah Square comprisin the finance meenistry an the prime meenistry o Tunisie

Tunis haes been the caipital o Tunisie syne 1159. Unner Airticles 43 an 24 o the Constitution o 1959,[12] Tunis an its suburbs host the naitional institutions: the Presidential Palace, which is kent as Carthage Palace, residence o the Preses o the Tunisian Republic, the Chamber o Deputies an the Chamber o Councillors an parliament, the Constitutional Cooncil an the main judicial institutions, the Bardo Naitional Museum an various ither govrenment depairtments an public bodies.

Municipality[eedit | eedit soorce]

Institutions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceety Hall

The Ceety Cooncil is composed o 60 members includin 20 assistants electit bi the cooncil efter takin office.

The Ceety Cooncil meets fower times a year but mey meet bi special request o the mayor. The cooncil's regulatory responsibilities include the municipal budget, biggin development, an actions tae be unnertaken unner the Naitional Development Plan.[13] It an aa provides advice on aw projects tae be implementit bi the state, the govrenorate or a public body.

Unlike ither mayors in Tunisie, the mayor o Tunis is appointit bi decree o the Preses o the Republic frae amang the members o the Ceety Cooncil. Abbes Mohsen is the current Mayor o Tunis, an haes been in office syne 2000 when he succeedit Mohamed Ali Bouleymane. He wis re-electit an confirmed in his post efter the municipal elections o 2005.[14]

In addition tae the municipal institutions, each o the fifteen destricts haes a municipal cooncil meetin each month in the presence o electit offeecials an representatives o the admeenistrations, tae address the issues o the day.

Budget[eedit | eedit soorce]

The 2008 budget adoptit bi the Ceety Cooncil is structured as follaes: 61.61 million dinars for the operation an 32,516 million dinars for investment.[15] It reflects the improved financial situation o the municipality, the year 2007 wis a year registerin a surplus in resources that alloued the settlement o debts o the municipality an the strengthenin o its credibility wi respect its suppliers an public an private pairtners.

Revenues are generatit bi the proceeds o taxes on biggins an vacant lots, fees for the rental of municipal property, income frae the operation o the public, advertisin, an that the fact that the municipality haes caipital shares in some companies. On the expenditure side, proveesion is made for the consolidation o hygiene an cleanliness, the state o the environment an urban design, infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation an renovation o facilities, an strengthenin the logistics an means o wirk an transport.[15]

Administrative deevisions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Map o the arrondissements o Tunis

The ceety o Tunis, whose size haes increased significantly durin the seicont hauf o the 20t century, nou extends ower several govrenorates in the Tunis Govrenorate wi the surroondin auries extendin ower pairts o the govrenorates o Ben Arous, Ariana an Manouba.

The municipality o Tunis is dividit intae 15 municipal destricts:[16] These include El Bab Bhar, Bab Souika, Cité El Khadra, Jelloud Jebel El Kabaria, El Menzah, El Ouardia, Ettahrir, Ezzouhour, Hraïria, Medina, El Omrane, El Omrane Heicher Séjoumi, Sidi El-Bashir an Sidi Hassine.

Demography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tunis
Muslims in Tunis attend the mosque in 1899.
A souk shopkeeper
Year Municipality Metropolitan aurie
1891 114,121
1901 146,276
1911 162,479
1921 171,676 192,994
1926 185,996 210,240
1931 202,405 235,230
1936 219,578 258,113
1946 364,593 449,820
1956 410,000 561,117
1966 468,997 679,603
1975 550,404 873,515
Sources : Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d'une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, 1998
Auld man in Tunis

In the years follaein unthirldom, the population o the metropolitan aurie continues tae grow: the increase o 21.1% frae 1956 tae 1966 an bi 28.5% frae 1966 tae 1975 (55.6% atween 1956 an 1975).[17] This steady growth is accompanied bi chynges which affect the nature o the settlement o the caipital. Decolonization led tae the exodus o some minorities whose numbers are dwindlin ivery year. The gaps creatit bi their departure are abundantly filled bi Tunisians who are emigratin tae Tunis frae ither pairts o the kintra.

At the beginnin o the 21st century, the metropolitan aurie o Tunis exceeds 2,000,000 inhabitants. Efter unthirldom, the Tunisian govrenment implementit a plan tae cope wi population growth o the ceety an kintra, a seestem o family plannin, tae attempt tae lawer the rate o population growth. Housomeivver, atween 1994 an 2004, the population o the govrenorate o Tunis grew mair than 1.03% per annum. It represents, in the 2004 census, 9.9% o the total population o Tunisie.[18] As in the rest o Tunisie, literacy in the region o Tunis haes evolved rapidly durin the seicont hauf o the 20t century an reaches a level slichtly heicher than the naitional average. Housomeivver education is anerlie exceedit bi the neighbouring govrenorate o Ariana which haes mony institutions o education.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

At the beginnin o the 20t century a number o sports institutions wur establisht in Tunis, particularly in school an college settings. In 1905 the Muslim Association o Tunisie brought thegither students frae Lycée Alaoui an Sadiki College tae organize geemnastics. A regional geemnastics competition wis held in Tunis in 1912 wi the participation o thoosans o French geemnasts. Fitbaa made its appearance in the caipital on 15 September 1904, follaed bi the formal creation o the kintra’s first league, the Racing Club Tunis, on 11 Mey 1905. It teuk some time tae run properly but suin organized meetings atween the teams in schools. The first teuk place on 9 Juin 1907, atween teams frae Lycée Alaoui an Lycée Carnot (1–1).

But fitbaa is no the anerlie discipline tae emerge. Atween 1928 an 1955 the ceety competit for nine editions o the Grand Prix o Tunis, whaur notable drivers such as Marcel Lehoux, Achille Varzi, Tazio Nuvolari an Rudolf Caracciola teuk pairt. The Grand Prix o Tunis haes re-emerged syne 2000.[19] The ceety haes an aa held the Mediterranean Gemmes twice, in 1967 an 2001, an the internaitional tennis tournament, the Tunis Open, which is includit in the ATP Challenger Series. The 2005 Warld Championship final for men in team handbaw wis played in Tunis, on 6 Februar. In total the govrenorate o Tunis registered 24,095 licences for various clubs in the municipal aurie in 2007.[20]

Club Stadium Foondation Championships
o Fitbaa
Championships
o volleybaw
Championships
o handbaw
Championships
o basketbaw
Club Africain Stade El Menzah 1920 12 7 8 1
Espérance Sportive de Tunis Stade El Menzah 1919 20 15 24 3
Stade Tunisien Stade Chedli Zouiten 1948 4 0 0 0
7 November Radès Stadium

The Esperance Sportive de Tunis (EST), Club Africain (CA), an Stade Tunisien are the major sports clubs in the ceety. A seembolic class difference is present atween the EST's an the CA's supporters, despite their playin at the same stadium. The EST is supportit bi the wealthy bourgeois an middle classes, while the CA, a poorer club, is supportit bi the masses an wirkin class generally.[21] The first true sports facilities wur managed unner the French protectorate, as illustratit bi the development o the Ksar Said racecourse an construction o the Stade Chedli Zouiten in the neighborhuid o Belvedere, which haed lang been the main stadium in the caipital afore being supplantit bi the Olympic stadium, Stade El Menzah, whaur EST an CA play their fitbaa the day. The Olympic stadium an veelage urie wis built tae accommodate the Mediterranean Games in 1967. A 60,000-seat stadium wis an aa built in Radès for the Mediterranean Gemmes in 2001 at an estimatit cost o 170 million dinars, with nearly half of the loans financed by Sooth Korean businessmen. The Olympic village wis financed bi an investment estimatit at 50 million dinars.[22] In 2008, the govrenment annoonced the stairt o construction o a lairge sports complex that will include several sports academies, a 20,000-seat stadium, an a swimmin centre. Kent as Tunis Sports Ceety, it will expand aroond the lake o Tunis, on the road tae La Marsa.[23]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tunis is twinned wi:[24]

 

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ins
  2. Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 385. ISBN 0786422483. 
  3. Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 281. ISBN 0559296681. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. Brill. p. 838. ISBN 9004082654. 
  5. Livy, John Yardley, Dexter Hoyos (2006). Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty. Oxford University Press. p. 705. ISBN 0192831593. 
  6. Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). Articles on the Middle East, 1947-1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan. p. 132. 
  7. Paul Sebag, Tunis. Histoire d’une ville, éd. L’Harmattan, 1998, p. 54
  8. http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif
  9. "Weather Information for Tunis-Carthage". WMO. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  10. "Climatological Information for Tunis, Tunisia". Hong Kong Observatory. 
  11. "TUNIS-CARTHAGE Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  12. (French) Constitution de la République tunisienne (Jurisite Tunisie)
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CONM
  14. (French) Maire de Tunis (Municipalité de Tunis)
  15. 15.0 15.1 (French) Budget de la municipalité de Tunis pour l’année 2008 (Municipalité de Tunis)
  16. (French) Plan d’ensemble (Municipalité de Tunis).
  17. Paul Sebag, op. cit., p. 608
  18. (French) Population, répartition proportionnelle et taux d’accroissement par gouvernorat (Institut national de la statistique)
  19. (French) « Grand Prix historique de Tunis : un rendez-vous magique », Turbo, M6, 23 novembre 2007
  20. (French) Statistiques du sport en Tunisie (Ministère de la jeunesse, des sports et de l’éducation physique)
  21. Franck Moroy, Football et politique. Le derby tunisois Espérance sportive de Tunis - Club Africain, éd. Institut d’études politiques, Aix-en-Provence, 1997
  22. (French) Abdelaziz Barrouhi, Combien ça coûte ? , Jeune Afrique
  23. Modélisation de la future Tunis Sports City (Mosaïque FM)
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003-2009 City of Tunis Portal. Retrieved 2009-07-31. [deid airtin]