Rabat

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Rabat
الرباط ⵕⴱⴰⵟ
ar-Ribāṭ Rbat
Rabat is located in Morocco
Rabat
Rabat
Coordinates: 34°02′N 6°50′W / 34.033°N 6.833°W / 34.033; -6.833
Kintra  Morocco
Region Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer
First settled 3rd century BC
Foondit bi Almohads 1146
Government
 • Mayor Fathallah Oualalou[1]
Area
 • City 117 km2 (45.17 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 75 m (246 ft)
Population (2004)[3]
 • City 620,996
 • Density 5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,670,192
Website http://www.rabat.ma/

Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ, literally "Fortified Place"), population 650 000 hab. (2010 estimate), is the caipital an third lairgest ceety o the Kinrick o Morocco. It is an aa the caipital o the Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer region.

The ceety is locatit on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth o the river Bou Regreg. On the facin shore o the river lies Salé, Rabat's bedroom community. Thegither the twa ceeties wi Temara accoont for a population o 1.8 million. Siltin problems hae diminished the ceety's role as a port; houever, Rabat an Salé still maintain relatively important textile, food processin an construction industries; some ar frae sweatshop labor bi major multinaitional corporations (see Salé).

In addition, tourism an the presence o aw foreign embassies in Morocco serve tae make Rabat the seicont maist important ceety in the kintra efter the lairger an economically mair significant Casablanca. It is accessible bi train through the ONCF system an bi plane through the nearbi Rabat-Salé Airport.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

BC tae 17th century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rabat's history began wi a settlement, kent as Chellah on the banks o the Oued Bou Regreg[4] in the third century BC. In 40 AD, Romans teuk ower Chellah an convertit it tae the Roman settlement o Sala Colonia. Rome held the colony till 250 AD when they abandoned it tae local rulers. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min turned Rabat's ribat intae a full scale fortress tae uise as a launchin point for attacks on Spain. In 1170, due tae its military importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning "stranghold o victory," frae which it derives its current name.

Yaqub al-Mansur (kent as Moulay Yacoub in Morocco), anither Almohad Caliph, moved the caipital o his empire tae Rabat.[5] He built Rabat's ceety walls, the Kasbah o the Udayas an began construction on what wad hae been the warld's lairgest mosque. Housomeivver, Yaqub dee'd an construction stopped. The ruins o the unfinished mosque, alang wi the Hassan Tower, still staund the day.

Yaqub's daith initiated a period o decline. The Almohad empire lost control o its possessions in Spain an muckle o its African territory, eventually leadin tae its total collapse. In the 13t century, muckle o Rabat's economic pouer shiftit tae Fez. In 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reporit that Rabat haed declined so muckle that anerlie 100 inhabitit hooses remained. An influx o Moriscos, who haed been expelled from Spain, in the early 17t century helped boost Rabat's growth.

Corsair republics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rabat an neighboring Salé unitit tae form the Republic o Bou Regreg in 1627. The republic wis run bi Barbary pirates who uised the twa ceeties as base ports for launchin attacks on shipping. The pirates did not hae tae contend wi ony central authority till the Alaouite Dynasty unitit Morocco in 1666. The latter attemptit tae establish control ower the pirates, but failed. European an Muslims authorities continued tae attempt tae control the pirates ower mony years, but the Republic o Bou Regreg did no collapse till 1818. Even efter the republic's collapse, pirates continued tae uise the port o Rabat, which led tae the shellin o the ceety bi Austrick in 1829 efter an Austrian ship haed been lost tae a pirate attack.

20th century[eedit | eedit soorce]

French invasion[eedit | eedit soorce]

The French invadit Morocco in 1912 an establisht a protectorate. The French admeenistrator o Morocco, General Hubert Lyautey,[6] decidit tae relocate the kintra's caipital frae Fez tae Rabat. Amang ither factors, rebellious citizens haed made Fez an unstable place. Sultan Moulay Youssef follaed the decision o the French an moved his residence tae Rabat. In 1913, Gen. Lyautey hired Henri Prost who designed the Ville Nouvelle (Rabat's modren quarter) as an admeenistrative sector. When Morocco achieved unthirldom in 1956, Mohammed V, the then Keeng o Morocco, chose tae hae the caipital remain at Rabat.

Post Warld War II[eedit | eedit soorce]

Follaein Warld War II, the Unitit States established a military presence in Rabat at the former French air base. By the early 1950s, Rabat Salé Air Base wis a U.S. Air Force installation hostin the 17t Air Force an the 5t Air Diveesion, which owersaw forward basin for Strategic Air Command (SAC) B-47 Stratojet aircraft in the kintra. Wi the destabilization o French govrenment in Morocco, an Moroccan unthirldom in 1956, the govrenment o Mohammed V wantit the U.S. Air Force tae pull oot o the SAC bases in Morocco, insistin on such action efter American intervention in Lebanon in 1958. The Unitit States agreed tae leave as o December 1959, an wis fully oot o Morocco bi 1963. SAC felt the Moroccan bases wur muckle less critical wi the lang range capability o the B-52 Stratofortresses that wur replacin the B-47s an wi the completion o the USAF installations in Spain in 1959.[7]

Wi the USAF withdrawal frae Rabat-Salé in the 1960s, the facility became a primary facility for the Ryal Moroccan Air Force kent as Air Base Nº 1, a status it continues tae hauld.

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns - Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rabat is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Rabat Mayor Wala'alou Receives the Keys to the Capital by Abd al-Latif al-La'abi" (in Arabic). © 2010 Al-Ittihad al-Ishtaraki. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  2. "Hong Kong Observatory". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  3. Morocco 2004 census
  4. C. Michael Hogan, Chellah, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham
  5. History of Morocco, Henri Terrasse, 1952
  6. Morocco: The Islamist Awakening and Other Challenges 2005, Marvine Howe
  7. John Pike. "Sidi Slimane Air Base, Morocco - United States Nuclear Forces". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  8. "::Bethlehem Municipality::". www.bethlehem-city.org. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  9. "Cooperation Internationale" (in French). © 2003 City of Tunis Portal. Retrieved 2009-01-31. [deid airtin]
  10. Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. 
  11. http://www.an-mar.org/index.php?Itemid=61&id=20&option=com_content&task=view

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]