Chile

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Republic o Chile
República de Chile (Spainyie)
Banner Coat o airms
Motto: 
  • "Por la razón o la fuerza" (Spainyie)
  • "Bi richt or micht" [1]
Anthem: 
Caipital Santiagoa
33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667
Largest city caipital
Naitional leid Spainyie
Ethnic groups ([2])
Demonym Chilean
Government Unitar presidential constitutional republic
 -  Preses Sebastián Piñera (Ind)b
 -  Senate President Jorge Pizarro (DC)
 -  Preses o the Chamber o Deputies Edmundo Eluchans (UDI)
 -  Preses o the Supreme Court Rubén Ballesteros
Legislatur Naitional Congress
 -  Upper hoose Senate
 -  Lawer hoose Chamber o Deputies
Unthirldom frae Spain
 -  First Govrenment Junta 18 September 1810 
 -  Declared 12 Februar 1818 
 -  Recognisit 25 Apryle 1844 
 -  Current constitution 11 September 1980 
Aurie
 -  Total 756,096.3 km2 (38th)
291,930.4 sq mi 
 -  Watter (%) 1.07c
Population
 -  2012 estimate 17,402,630[3] (62nt)
 -  2002 census 15,116,435[4]
 -  Densitie 23/km2 (194t)
59/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $341.914 billion[5] (43rd)
 -  Per capita $19,475[5] (55t)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $285.703 billion[5] (38t)
 -  Per capita $16,273[5] (49t)
Gini (2011) positive decrease 51.6[6]
heich
HDI (2013) Increase 0.819[7]
very heich · 40th
Currency Peso (CLP)
Time zone CLT or EASTd (UTC−4 and −6)
 -  Summer (DST) CLST or EASST (UTC−3 an −5)
Drives on the richt
Cawin code +56
Internet TLD .cl
a. Legislatur is based in Valparaíso.
b. Follaein pairty rules, Piñera left National Renewal afore bein sworn in as Preses.
c. Includes Easter Island an Isla Sala y Gómez; does no include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) o territory claimit in Antarcticae.
d. The mainland uises UTC−4 (UTC−3 in simmer); Easter Island uises UTC−6 (UTC−5 in simmer).

Chile, offeecially the Republic o Chile (Spainyie: República de Chile), is a kintra in Sooth Americae occupyin a lang, narrae coastal strip atween the Andes muntains tae the east an the Pacific Ocean tae the wast. It borders Peru tae the north, Bolivie tae the northeast, Argentinae tae the east, an the Drake Passage in the far sooth. Wi Ecuador, it is ane o twa kintras in Sooth Americae which dae no border Brazil. The Paceefic coastline o Chile is 6,435 kilometres (4000 mi). Chilean territory includes the Paceefic islands o Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas an Easter Island. Chile an aa claims aboot 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) o Antarcticae, although aw claims are suspendit unner the Antarctic Treaty.

Atacama

The shape o Chile is a distinctive ribbon o land 4,300 kilometres (2,700 mi) lang an on average 175 kilometres (109 mi) wide. Its climate varies, rangin frae the warld's driest desert – the Atacama – in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, tae a rainy temperate climate in the sooth. The northren desert contains great mineral walth, principally copper. The relatively sma central aurie dominates in terms o population an agricultural resources, an is the cultural an poleetical center frae which Chile expandit in the late 19t century, when it incorporatit its northren an soothren regions. Soothren Chile is rich in forests an grazin lands an features a string o volcanoes an lakes. The soothren coast is a labyrinth o fjords, inlets, canals, twistin peninsulas, an islands.

Prior tae arrival o the Spainyie in the 16t century, northren Chile wis unner Inca rule while the indigenous Mapuche inhabitit central an soothren Chile. Chile declared its unthirldom frae Spain on 12 Februar 1818. In the War o the Paceefic (1879–83), Chile defeatit Peru an Bolivie an wan its current northren territory. It wis no till the 1880s that the Mapuche wur completely subjugatit. Although relatively free o the coups an arbitrary govrenments that blichtit Sooth Americae, Chile endured the 17-year lang military dictatorship (1973–1990) o Augusto Pinochet that left mair than 3,000 fowk deid or amissin.

The day, Chile is ane o Sooth Americae's maist stable an prosperous naitions an a recognized middle pouer. It leads Laitin American naitions in human development, competitiveness, income per caipita, globalization, economic freedom, an law perception o corruption. It an aa ranks heich regionally in freedom o the press an democratic development. Housomeivver, it haes a heich economic inequality, as measured bi the Gini index. In Mey 2010 Chile became the first Sooth American kintra tae join the OECD. Chile is a foondin member o baith the Unitit Naitions an the Union o Sooth American Naitions.

Demografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Chilean fowk

Chileans are mainly o Spainyie an Ither European fowks strynd,[8] [9] [10] wi sma but significant traces o 19t an 20t century European-oreegin immigrants.

Post-unthirldom immigrants hae niver comprised mair than twa percent o the total population, though their stryndants are nou hunders o thoosans, includin Chileans o German,[11] Breetish, French, Croatie, Italian or Palestinian[12] strynd.

Etymologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are various theories aboot the oreegin o the wird Chile. Accordin tae a theory bi 17t century Spainyie chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas o Peru cried the glen o the Aconcagua "Chili" bi corruption o the name o a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") cried Tili, who ruled the aurie at the time o the Incan conquest in the 15t century. Anither theory points tae the similarity o the glen o the Aconcagua wi that o the Casma glen in Peru, whaur thare wis a toun an glen namit Chili.

Ither theories say Chile mey derive its name frae the native Mapuche wird chilli, which mey mean "whaur the laund ends", "the deepest point o the Yird," or frae the Quechua chin, "cold", or the Aymara tchili, meanin "snaw". Anither oreegin attributit tae chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation o the warble o a bird locally kent as trile, afore common in the central glens. The Spainyie conquistadors heard aboot this name frae the Incas, an the few survivors o Diego de Almagro's first Spainyie expedition sooth frae Peru in 1535-36 cried thairsels the "men o Chilli." Ultimately, Almagro is creditit wi the universalization o the name Chile, efter namin the Mapocho glen as such.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "100 peso Coin". Central Bank of Chile. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UC
  3. "Official estimate" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  4. "Censo 2002. Síntesis de resultados." (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "World Economic Outlook Database". IMF. May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  6. "América Latina (18 Países): Indicadores De Concentración Del Ingreso, 1990-2010". Panorama Social de América Latina 2012, Capítulo II Desigualdad distributiva y percepciones (in Spanish). United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. November 2012. p. 36. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  7. "Human Development Report 2013". United Nations Development Programme. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  8. SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist.
  9. massive immigration of European Argentina Uruguay Chile Brazil
  10. Latinoamerica.
  11. German Embassy in Chile.
    Quote in German: Es wird geschätzt, dass zwischen 500 bis 600 Tausend Chilenen deutscher Herkunft sind.
  12. "Los palestinos miran con esperanza su futuro en Chile sin olvidar Gaza e Irak", El Economista, 2009-02-11, retrieved 2009-07-29 

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