|— Ceety —|
|Dountoun Cairo; top richt: Ibn Tulun Mosque; Middle: Cairo Citadel; Bottom left: Nile Felucca; Bottom middle: Cairo Touer; Bottom richt: Muizz Street|
|Eik-name(s): The Ceety o a Thoosan Minarets, Caipital o the Arab Warld|
|- Govrenor||Abdel Qawi Khalifa|
|- Ceety||453 km2 (174.9 sq mi)|
|- Urban||6,640 km2 (2,563.7 sq mi)|
|- Metro||86,369 km2 (33,347.3 sq mi)|
|Hicht||23 m (75 ft)|
|- Ceety||11.6 million|
|- Densitie||17,190/km2 (44,521.9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
Cairo (pronounced /ˈkaɪroʊ/ ( listen); Arabic: القاهرة al-Qāhira, literally "The Vanquisher" or "The Conqueror") is the caipital o Egyp, the lairgest ceety in Africae an the Arab Warld, an ane o the maist densely populatit ceeties in the warld.
Nicknamed "The Ceety o a Thoosan Minarets" for its preponderance o Islamic airchitectur, Cairo haes lang been a center o the region's poleetical an cultural life. Even afore Cairo wis established in the 10t century, the land composin the present-day ceety wis the site o naitional caipitals whose remnants remain visible in pairts o Auld Cairo. Cairo is an aa associatit wi Auncient Egyp due tae its proximity tae the Great Sphinx an the pyramids in adjacent Giza.
Egyptians the day aften refer tae Cairo as Maṣr (Arabic:مصر), the Arabic pronunciation o the name for Egyp itsel, emphasizin the ceety's continued role in Egyptian influence. Cairo haes the auldest an lairgest film an muisic industries in the Arab Warld, as well as the warld's seicont-auldest institution o hichter learnin, al-Azhar University. Mony internaitional media, businesses, an organizations hae regional heidquarters in the ceety, an the Arab League haes haed its heidquarters in Cairo for maist o its existence.
Table o contents
Cairo is locatit in northern Egyp, kent as Lawer Egyp, 165 kilometers (100 mi) sooth o the Mediterranean Sea an 120 kilometers (75 mi) wast o the Gulf o Suez an Suez Canal. The ceety is alang the Nile River, immediately sooth o the point whaur the river leaves its desert-bund valley an branches intae the law-lyin Nile Delta region. Although the Cairo metropolis extends away frae the Nile in aw directions, the ceety o Cairo resides anerlie on the east bank o the river an twa islands athin it on a total aurie o 453 square kilometers (175 sq mi).
Till the mid-19t century, when the river wis tamed bi dams, levees, an ither controls, the Nile in the vicinity o Cairo wis heichlie susceptible tae chynges in course an surface level. Ower the years, the Nile gradually shiftit wastward, providin the site atween the eastren edge o the river an the Mokattam hielands on which the ceety nou staunds. The land on which Cairo wis established in 969 (present-day Islamic Cairo) wis locatit unnerwater juist ower three hunder years earlier, when Fustat wis first built.
Law periods o the Nile durin the 11t century continued tae add tae the landscape o Cairo; a new island, kent as Geziret al-Fil, first appeared in 1174, but eventually became connectit tae the mainland. The day, the site o Geziret al-Fil is occupied bi the Shubra destrict. The law periods creatit anither island at the turn o the 14t century that nou composes Zamalek an Gezira. Land reclamation efforts bi the Mamluks an Ottomans further contributit tae expansion on the east bank o the river.
Acause o the Nile's movement, the newer pairts o the ceety – Garden Ceety, Dountoun Cairo, an Zamalek – are locatit closest tae the riverbank. The auries, which are hame tae maist o Cairo's embassies, are surroondit on the north, east, an sooth bi the aulder pairts o the ceety. Auld Cairo, locatit sooth o the centre, haulds the remnants o Fustat an the hert o Egyp's Coptic Christian community, Coptic Cairo. The Boulaq destrict, which lies in the northren pairt o the ceety, wis born oot o a major 16t-century port an is nou a major industrial centrer. The Citadel is locatit east o the ceety centre aroond Islamic Cairo, which dates back tae the Fatimid era an the foondation o Cairo. While wastren Cairo is dominatit bi wide boulevards, open spaces, an modren architecture o European influence, the eastren hauf, haein grown haphazardly ower the centuries, is dominatit bi sma lanes, croudit tenements, an Islamic architecture.
Northren an extreme eastren pairts o Cairo, which include satellite touns, are amang the maist recent additions tae the ceety, as they developed in the late-20t an early-21st centuries tae accommodate the ceety's rapid growth. The wastren bank o the Nile is commonly includit athin the urban aurie o Cairo, but it composes the ceety o Giza an the Giza Govrenorate. Giza haes an aa unnergane significant expansion ower recent years, an the day the ceety, although still a suburb o Cairo, haes a population o 2.7 million. The Cairo Govrenorate is juist north o the Helwan Govrenorate, which wis creatit in 2008 when some o Cairo's soothren destricts, includin Maadi an New Cairo, wur split aff an annexed intae the new govrenorate.
Cairo is an aa in ivery respect the centre o Egyp, as it haes been amaist syne its foondin in 969 AD. The majority o the naition's commerce is generatit there, or passes through the ceety. The great majority o publishin hooses an media ootlets an nearly aw film studios are there, as are hauf o the naition's hospital beds an universities. This haes fueled rapid construction in the ceety—ane biggin in five is less than 15 years auld.
This astonishin growth til recently surged well aheid o ceety services. Hames, roads, electricity, telephone an sewer services wur aw suddenly in short supply. Analysts tryin tae grasp the magnitude o the chynge coined terms like "hyper-urbanization".
Cairos Automobile assembler & manufacturer 
- Arab American Vehicles Company
- Egyptian Light Transport Manufacturing Company (Egyptian NSU pedant)
- Ghabbour Group (Fuso, Hyundai and Volvo)
- MCV Corporate Group (a part of the Daimler AG)
- Mod Car
- Seoudi Group (Modern Motors: Nissan, BMW (formerly); El-Mashreq: Alfa Romeo and Fiat)
- Speranza Chery (DME Daewoo Motors Egypt: Chery, Daewoo)
Main sichts 
Tahrir Square 
- Main airticle: Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square wis foondit durin the mid 19t century wi the establishment o modren doun-toun Cairo. It wis first named Ismailia Square, efter the 19t-century ruler Ismail Pasha, who commissioned the new dountoun destrict's 'Paris on the Nile' design. Efter the Egyptian Revolution o 1919 the square became widely known as Tahrir (Liberation) Square. Several notable biggins surroond the square includin, The American University in Cairo's dountoun campus, the Mogamma govrenmental admeenistrative biggin, the heidquarters o the Arab League, the Nile Ritz Carlton Hotel, the heidquarters o the Naitional Democratic Pairty, an the Egyptian Museum. Being at the hert o Cairo, the square witnessed several major protests ower the years. Housomeivver, the maist notable event in the square wis being the focal point o the Egyptian Revolution o 2011 against umwhile preses Hosni Mubarak.
The Egyptian Museum 
- Main airticle: Egyptian Museum
The Museum o Egyptian Antiquities, kent commonly as the Egyptian Museum, is hame tae the maist extensive collection o auncient Egyptian antiquities in the warld. It haes 136,000 items on display, wi mony mair hunders o thoosans in its basement storerooms.
Khan El-Khalili 
- Main airticle: Khan El-Khalili
Khan el-Khalili is an auncient bazaar, or mercatplace. It dates back tae 1382, when Emir Djaharks el-Khalili built a lairge caravanserai, or khan. A caravanserai is a hotel for traders, an uisually the focal point for ony surroondin aurie. The caravanserai remains the day.
Auld Cairo 
- Main airticle: Auld Cairo
The pairt o Cairo that contains Coptic Cairo an Fostat, which contains the Coptic Museum, Babylon Fortress, Hangin Kirk, the Greek Kirk o St. George, mony ither Coptic kirks, the Ben Ezra Synagogue an Amr ibn al-'As Mosque.
Cairo Touer 
- Main airticle: Cairo Touer
The Cairo Touer is a free-staundin concrete TV touer in Cairo. It staunds in the Zamalek destrict on Gezira Island in the Nile River, in the ceety centre. At 187 meters, it is 43 metres heicher than the Great Pyramid o Giza, which staunds some 15 km tae the soothwast.
Qahira Fatimid Mosque 
- Al-Azhar Mosque
- Main airticle: Al-Azhar Mosque
Al-Azhar Mosque. Marble paved interior courtyard addit durin the Fatimid period
Islamic sites in the auld ceety 
- Imam Husayn Mosque
- Mosque-Mausoleum Zaynab
- Sayyidah Ruqayya Mashhad
- Sayyeda Nafisa Mosque
- Mohammed Ali Basha Mosque
Internaitional relations 
Twin touns — Sister ceeties 
North Americae 
- Beijing, Cheenae (1990)
- Seoul, Sooth Korea (1997)
- Tokyo, Japan (1990)
- Xi'an, Cheenae (1997)
- Amman, Jordan (1988)
- Ankara, Turkey (2004)
- Barcelona, Spain (1992)
- Frankfurt, Germany (1979)
- Istanbul, Turkey (1988)
- Minsk, Belaroushie (1998)
- Paris, Fraunce (1985)
- Stuttgart, Germany (1979)
- , http://www.prlog.org/10332580-cairo-alqahira-is-egypts-capital-and-the-largest-city-in-the-middle-east-and-africa.html
- World's Densest Cities. Forbes (21 December 2006). Retrieved on 27 October 2010. .
- Behrens-Abouseif 1992, p. 8
- Golia 2004, p. 152
- Cairo to Suez. WolframAlpha. Wolfram Research. Retrieved on 10 September 2009. .
- Cairo Maps. Cairo Governorate. Retrieved on 10 September 2009. .[deid airtin]
- Brinkhoff, Thomas. Egypt: Governorates & Cities. City Population. Retrieved on 12 September 2009. .
- Collins 2002, p. 125
- Collins 2002, p. 126
- Leila, Reem. "Redrawing the Map", al-Ahram Weekly, 24–30 April 2008. Retrieved on 12 September 2009..
- Arab American Vehicles Co. Aav.com.eg. Retrieved on 14 Juin 2010. .
- Welcome to MCV Web Site. Mcv-eg.com. Retrieved on 14 Juin 2010. .
- TradeHolding.com B2B Network. Panda, Buy from Mod Car. Egypt - Ash Sharqiyah - Middle East Business B2B Directory - Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain Companies, Middle East Businesses, Products & Trade Leads, Arab Business. Gulfbusiness.tradeholding.com. Retrieved on 14 Juin 2010. .
- Seoudi Group 1001 opportunities for investment in Egypt and Arab World. Seoudi.com. Retrieved on 14 Juin 2010. .
- اسبرانزا ايجيبت. Speranza Egypt. Retrieved on 14 Juin 2010. .
- Welcome to Daewoo Motor Website. Aboulfotouh.com. Retrieved on 14 Juin 2010. .
- Sister city agreements. Cairo Governorate. Retrieved on 23 September 2010. .
- New York City Global Partners. The City of New York (2010). Retrieved on 27 Januar 2010. .
Freemit airtins 
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This ceity-relatit airticle's a stub. Ye can gie Wikipædia a haund bi eikin til it.