Karlsruhe

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Ceety o Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
View ower Karlsruhe
View ower Karlsruhe

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Ceety o Karlsruhe is locatit in Germany
Ceety o Karlsruhe
Ceety o Karlsruhe
Coordinates: 49°00′33″N 8°24′14″E / 49.00920970°N 8.40395140°E / 49.00920970; 8.40395140Coordinates: 49°00′33″N 8°24′14″E / 49.00920970°N 8.40395140°E / 49.00920970; 8.40395140
Kintra Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
Destrict Urban destrict
Foondit 1715
Subdivisions 27 quarters
Government
 • Laird Mayor Frank Mentrup (SPD)
Area
 • Tot 173.46 km2 (66.97 sq mi)
Elevation 115 m (377 ft)
Population (2011-12-31)[1]
 • Tot 297,488
 • Density 1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 76131–76229
Diallin codes 0721
Vehicle registration KA
Website www.karlsruhe.de

Karlsruhe (German pronunciation: [ˈkaʁlsˌʁuːə]; umwhile Carlsruhe) is the seicont-lairgest ceety in the state o Baden-Württemberg, in soothwast Germany, near the Franco-German border. It haes a population o 296,033. Karlsruhe Palace wis biggit in 1715 an the ceety is nou the seat o twa o the heichest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court an the Federal Court o Juistice.[2][3]

It haes been speculatit that Karlsruhe wis a model for Washington, D.C. as baith ceeties hae a centre frae which the streets radiate ootwaird.[4]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The 49th parallel north in the Karlsruhe Stadtgarten

The ceety lees at an altitude atween 100 m (on the eastren shore o the river Rhine) an 322 m (near the communications touer. In the suburb o Wettersbach). Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E / 49.000°N 8.400°E / 49.000; 8.400; the 49th parallel rins throuch the ceety centre. Its course is marked bi a stane an painted line in the Stadtgarten ("ceety park").

MiRO oil refinery

The ceety wis planned wi the palace tower (Schloss) at the center an 32 streets radiating out frae it like the spokes o a wheel, or the ribs o a folding fan, sae that ane nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan ceety" (Fächerstadt). Naur aw o thir streets survived til the day. Acause o this ceety layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers tae a measure o distance that assumes traivel is anerly possible alang radial streets an alang circular avenues aroon the centre.[5]

The ceety centre is the auldest pairt o toun an lees sooth o the palace in the quadrant defined bi nine o the radial streets. The central pairt o the palace rins east-wast, wi twa wings, ilk o thaim at a 45° angle, direckit southeast an southwest (i.e., parallel wi the streets markin the boundaries o the quadrant definin the ceety centre).

The mercat square lees on the street rinnin sooth frae the palace tae Ettlingen. The mercat square haes the town hall (Rathaus) tae the wast, the main Lutheran kirk (Evangelische Stadtkirche) tae the east, an the tomb o Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resultin in Karlsruhe bein ane o anerly three muckle cities in Germany whaur buildings are laid out in the Neoclassical style.

The aurie north o the palace is a park an forest. Originally the aurie tae the east o the palace consisted o gardens an wids, some o it remainin, but the Karlsruhe Institute o Technology (foundit in 1825), Wildparkstadion, an residential auries hae been biggit thare. The aurie wast o the palace is nou maistly residential.

Panorama o Karlsruhe, leukin sooth frae the palace touer. The Institute o Technology is on the left, the Market square in the centre, the Federal Constitutional Court on the right. Note wings o the palace alignin wi streets, aw radiatin out frae the centre o toun (i.e., the palace tower).
File:Karlsruher Schloss 180 degrees south panorama.jpg
180 degree panorama frae atop the palace tower, facin north.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) seemilar tae a fair bit o Germany. In comparison, Karlsruhe features het simmers an average tae mild winters. The ceety is ane o the warmest an sunniest in Germany. Precipitation is awmaist evenly spread atouer the year. In 2008, the mair nor 130 year-auld wather station in Karlsruhe wis closed, that is replaced bi a wather station in Rheinstetten, sooth o Karlsruhe.[6]

Climate data for Karlsruhe/Rheinstetten, Germany for 1981–2010 (Source: DWD)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
22.0
(71.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.2
(84.6)
33.3
(91.9)
37.2
(99.0)
38.5
(101.3)
40.2
(104.4)
32.8
(91.0)
29.5
(85.1)
21.8
(71.2)
19.2
(66.6)
40.2
(104.4)
Average heich °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
6.8
(44.2)
11.7
(53.1)
16.4
(61.5)
20.9
(69.6)
24.0
(75.2)
26.6
(79.9)
26.5
(79.7)
21.6
(70.9)
15.8
(60.4)
9.1
(48.4)
5.5
(41.9)
15.8
(60.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
6.9
(44.4)
10.7
(51.3)
15.2
(59.4)
18.3
(64.9)
20.6
(69.1)
20.1
(68.2)
15.6
(60.1)
10.9
(51.6)
5.8
(42.4)
2.9
(37.2)
11.0
(51.8)
Average laich °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
9.6
(49.3)
12.8
(55.0)
14.9
(58.8)
14.6
(58.3)
10.9
(51.6)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
6.7
(44.1)
Record laich °C (°F) −20
(−4.0)
−15
(5.0)
−14.6
(5.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.6
(38.5)
6.9
(44.4)
6.3
(43.3)
2.5
(36.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−20
(−4.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 58.0
(2.283)
55.8
(2.197)
59.0
(2.323)
52.7
(2.075)
77.6
(3.055)
76.4
(3.008)
75.3
(2.965)
58.7
(2.311)
57.9
(2.28)
73.5
(2.894)
63.3
(2.492)
75.2
(2.961)
783.4
(30.843)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.7 87.8 131.2 182.7 218.4 232.1 253.9 237.3 174.4 110.9 65.5 45.6 1,796.43
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

According tae legend, the name Karlsruhe, that translates as Charles’ repose, wis gien tae the new ceety efter a huntin trip whan Charles III William, Margrave o Baden-Durlach, woke frae a dream in that he dreamt o foundin his new ceety.

Charles William foundit the ceety on Juin 17, 1715, efter a dispute wi the citizens o his previous caipital, Durlach. The foundin o the ceety is close linkit tae the construction o the palace. Karlsruhe became the caipital o Baden-Durlach an in 1771 o the unitit Baden til 1945. Biggit in 1822, the "Ständehaus" wis the first parliament biggin in a German State. In the eftercome o the democratic revolution o 1848, a republican government wis elect here.

In 1860, the first-ever international professional convention, the Karlsruhe Congress, wis held in the ceety.[citation needit]

A fair bit o the central aurie, includin the palace, wis reduced tae rubble bi Allied bombing durin World War II but wis biggit again efter the war. Locate in the American zone o the post-war Allied occupation, Karlsruhe wis hame tae an American military base, established in 1945. In 1995, the bases closed an their facilities were turned ower tae the ceety o Karlsruhe.[8][9]

Main sights[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Stadtgarten is a recreational aurie naur the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) an wis biggit again in 1967 durin the 'Federal Garden Show' (Bundesgartenschau). It is the site o Karlsruhe Zoo an aa.

The Durlacher Turmberg haes a look-out tower (hence its name). It is a umwhile keep datin back tae the 13th century.

The ceety haes twa botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe that forms pairt o the Palace complex, an the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe which is maintained bi the varsity.

The Marktplatz haes a stane pyramid markin the grave o the ceety's founder. Biggit in 1825, it is the emblem o Karlsruhe. The ceety is eiknamed the fan ceety (Die Fächerstadt) acause o its design layout, wi straucht streets radiating fan-like frae the Palace.

The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is a interestin piece o architecture; the adjacent Schlossgarten includes the Botanical Garden wi a palm, cactus an orchid hoose, an walkin paths throuch the wid tae the north.

The sic-cried Kleine Kirche (Little Church), biggit atween 1773 an 1776, is the auldest kirk o Karlsruhe's ceety centre.

The architect Friedrich Weinbrenner designed mony o the ceety's maist important sights. Anither sight is the Rondellplatz wi its 'Constitution Building Columns' (1826). It is dedicate tae Baden's first constitution in 1818, that wis ane o the maist liberal o its time. The Münze (mint), erected in 1826/27, wis an aa biggit bi Weinbrenner.

St. Stephan parish kirk

The St. Stephan parish church is ane o the masterpieces o neoclassical kirk architecture in Southern Germany. Weinbrenner, wha biggit this church atween 1808 an 1814, orientated it tae the Pantheon, Rome.

Grand Ducal burial chapel

The neo-gothic Grand Ducal burial chapel, biggit atween 1889 an 1896, is a mausoleum rather than a church, an is locatit in the middle o the forest.

The main cemetery o Karlsruhe is the auldest park-like cemetery in Germany. The crematorium wis the first tae be biggit in the style o a church.

Karlsruhe is hame tae a Museum o Natural History an aa, an opera hoose (the 'Baden State Theatre'), in addition tae a nummer o independent theatres an art galleries. The State Art Gallery, biggit in 1846 bi Heinrich Hübsch, displays paintings an sculptures frae sax centuries, particularly frae France, Germany an Holland. Karlsruhe's newly renovated art museum is ane o the maist important art museums in Baden-Württemberg. Further cultural attractions are scattered atouer Karlsruhe's various incorporated suburbs. The Scheffel Association or literary society (established in 1924), is the mucklest literary organisation in Germany.[citation needit] Thir days the Prinz-Max-Palais, biggit atween 1881 an 1884 in neoclassical style, houses the organisation an includes its museum.

Breweries an biggins in art nouveau style were predominant in the wastren ceety

Due tae population growth in the late 19th century, Karlsruhe developed several suburban auries (Vorstadt) in the Gründerzeit an inspecially art nouveau styles o architecture, wi mony preserved examples.

Karlsruhe is home tae the Majolika-Manufaktur an aa,[10] the only art-ceramics pottery studio in Germany.[citation needit] Foundit in 1901, it is locatit in the Schlossgarten. A 'blue streak' (Blauer Strahl) consisting o 1,645 ceramic tiles, connecks the studio wi the Palace. It is the warld's mucklest ceramic artwork.[citation needit]

Anither tourist attraction is the Centre for Art an Media (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or ZKM), that is locatit in a converted ammunition factory.

Government[eedit | eedit soorce]

Justice[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe is the seat o the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) an the heichest Court o Appeals in civil an criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The courts came tae Karlsruhe after World War II, whan the provinces o Baden an Württemberg were merged. Stuttgart, caipital o Württemberg, became the caipital o the new province (Württemberg-Baden in 1945 an Baden-Württemberg in 1952). In compensation for the state authorities relocated tae Stuttgart, Karlsruhe applied tae become the seat o the heich court.[11]

Public health[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare fower hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level o medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken an the Diakonissen krankenhaus, conneckit tae the Catholic an Protestant churches, respectively, offer central services, an the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according tae state hospital demand planning.[citation needit]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Germany's mucklest oil refinery is locatit in Karlsruhe, at the wastren rand o the ceety, directly on the river Rhine. The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation o the region's cities for tae promote heich tech industries; the day, aboot 20% o the region's jobs are in research an development. EnBW, ane o Germany's muckle maist electric utility companies an a revenue o 19.2 billion € in 2012,[12] is headquartered in the ceety.

Internet activities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Due tae the University o Karlsruhe providin services til the late 1990, Karlsruhe became kent as the internet capital o Germany.[citation needit] The DENIC itsel, Germany's Network Information Centre, haes syne muived tae Frankfurt, whaur DE-CIX is locatit.

Two major internet service providers, WEB.DE an schlund+partner/1&1, nou baith owned bi United Internet AG, are locatit at Karlsruhe.

The Stadtwiki Karlsruhe is the mucklest ceety wiki in the warld.

The library o the Karlsruhe Institute o Technology developed the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog, the first internet site that alloued researchers worldwide (for free) tae search multiple library catalogues worldwide.

In the year 2000 the regional online "newspaper" ka‑news.de wis created. As a daily newspaper, it disnae jist provides the news, but an aa informs readers aboot upcoming events in Karlsruhe an surrounding auries.

Rail yard, bypass road Südtangente

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the ceety's urban public transport network, comprising seven tram routes an a network o bus routes. This network is weel developed an aw ceety auries can be reaked roun the clock bi tram an a nicht bus seestem. The Turmbergbahn funicular railway, tae the east o the ceety centre, is operated bi the VBK an aa.

The VBK is a partner, wi the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft an Deutsche Bahn, in the operation o the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail seestem that serves a lairger aurie aroond the ceety. This seestem maks it possible tae reak ither towns in the region, like Ettlingen, Wörth am Rhein, Pforzheim, Bad Wildbad, Bretten, Bruchsal, Heilbronn, Baden-Baden, an even Freudenstadt in the Black Forest right frae the ceety centre. The Stadtbahn is well kent in transport circles aroond the world for pioneering the concept o operating trams on train tracks, tae achieve a mair effective an attractive public transport seestem, tae the extent that this is aften kent as the Karlsruhe model tram-train seestem.

Karlsruhe is weel-connected via road an rail, wi Autobahn an InterCityExpress connections gaun tae Frankfurt, Stuttgart/Munich an Freiburg/Basel. Syne Juin 2007 it haes been connected tae the TGV network, reducin travel time tae Paris tae only three hours (previously it had takken five hours).

Oil port

Twa ports on the Rhine provide transport capacity on cargo ships, especially for petroleum products.

The nearest airport is pairt o the Baden Airpark (officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden) aboot 45 km (28 mi) southwest o Karlsruhe, wi regular connections tae airports in Germany an Europe in general. Frankfurt International Airport can be reakit in aboot an hour an a hauf bi car (ane hour bi InterCityExpress); Stuttgart Airport can be reakit in aboot ane hour (aboot an hour an a hauf bi train an S‑Bahn).

Twa interesting facts in transportation history are that baith Karl Drais, the inventor o the bicycle, in addition tae Karl Benz, the inventor o the automobile were born in Karlsruhe. Benz wis born in Mühlburg, that later became a borough o Karlsruhe (in 1886). Benz studied at the Karlsruhe varsity an aw. It is interestin that Benz’s wife Bertha teuk the warld's first lang distance-drive wi a car frae Mannheim tae Karlsruhe-Grötzingen an Pforzheim (see Bertha Benz Memorial Route). Their professional lives led baith men tae the neibourin ceety o Mannheim, whaur they first applied their maist famous inventions.

Memorial for Baden Life Grenadiers in several wars, 1803–1918
Karlsburg Castle in Durlach

Jewish community[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jewish cemetery o Grötzingen

Jews settled in Karlsruhe syne its foundation. They were attracted bi the numerous privileges granted bi its founder tae settlers, athout discrimination as tae creed. offeecial documents attest the presence o several Jewish families at Karlsruhe in 1717. A year later, the ceety council addressed tae the margrave a report whaur a quaisten wis raised as tae the proportion o municipal charges tae be borne bi the newly arrived Jews, wha formed an organized congregation in that year, wi Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen o Metz at its heid. A document dated 1726 gies the names o twenty-fower Jews wha haed takken pairt in an election o municipal officers. As the ceety grew permission tae settle thare became less easy obtained bi Jews, an the community developed mair slowly. A 1752 Jewry ordinance stated Jews were forbidden tae lae the ceety on Sundays an Christian halidays, or tae gang out o their houses durin kirk services, but they were exempted frae service bi court summonses on Sabbaths. They could sell wine anerly in inns awned bi Jews an graze their nowt, no on the commons, but anerly on the wayside. Karlsruhe wis the seat o the central council o Baden Jewry. The first chief rabbi o the kitnra Rabbi Asher Lowe wis frae (Durlach) Karlsruhe, Nethaneel Weil wis a rabbi in Karlsruhe frae 1750 til his deith.

Karlsruhe Synagogue, biggit bi Friedrich Weinbrenner in 1798, existed until 1871

In 1783, bi a decree issued bi Margrave Charles Frederick o Baden, the Jews ceased tae be serfs, an consequently could settle in whitever place they pleased. The same decree freed thaim frae the "Todfall" tax, paid tae the clergy for ilk Jewish burial. In commemoration o thir chynges special prayers were prepared bi the actin rabbi Jedidiah Tiah Weill, wha, succeeding his faither in 1770, held the office til 1805. In 1808 the government issued regulations concerning the administration o the spiritual affairs o the Jewish community; bi that, the chief rabbi o Karlsruhe became the spiritual heid o the Jews o the country. Complete emancipation wis gien in 1862, Jews were elected tae ceety council an Baden parliament, an frae 1890 were appointed judges. Jews were persecuted in riots occurring in 1819 an anti-Jewish demonstrations were held in 1843, 1848, an the 1880s. The weel-kent German-Israeli airtist Leo Kahn studied in Karlsruhe afore leaing for France an Israel in the 1920s an 1930s.

Public hanukkah on the Schlossplatz

The day, thare are aboot 900 members in the Jewish community; mony o thaim are recent immigrants frae Russia, an an orthodox rabbi.[13]

Karlsruhe haes memorialized its Jewish community an notable pre-war synagogues wi a memorial park.[14]

Karlsruhe an the Holocaust[eedit | eedit soorce]

The new synagogue

In 1933, 3,358 Jews stayed in Karlsruhe. The community awned buildings an property, like twa synagogues, ane on Karl-Friedrich-Straße an ane on Kronenstraße, twa elderly citizens' hames, a Jewish scuil, a hospital, welfare institutions, an several Jewish cemeteries. Durin the first years o the Nazi regime, the community continued tae function, particularly tae prepare Jews for emigration. On October 28, 1938, aw male Polish Jews living in Karlsruhe were deported tae Poland. Synagogues were destroyed on Kristallnacht, 9–10 November 1938. Maist o the men were arrested an sent tae Dachau concentration camp, but were released efter they had furnished proof that they intended tae emigrate. In October 1940, 895 Jews were expelled during Operation Wagner-Bürckel an interned bi the French Vichy authorities in Gurs in soothren France. Maist o thaim were then deported frae thare tae Auschwitz (via the Drancy deportation camp, on the outskirts o Paris) atween August an November 1942. Maist o the 429 remainin Jews an ither so‑cried "non-Aryans" were deported tae the east atween 1941 an 1944. In 1945 thare were anerly 18 Jews in Karlsruhe. Mair nor 1,000 o thaim had been killt atween 1933 an 1945.[15] The Baden Central Jewish Council wis reorganized in 1948. A new synagogue wis biggit in 1969.

Some 113 holocaust victims are commemorated bi brass plaques on Karlsruhe's sidewalks, the so-cried Stolpersteine.[16]

Historical population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Year Inhabitants
1719 2,000[17]
1750 2,500[17]
1815 >15,000[17]
1901 100,000[17]
1933 155,000[17]
1973 264,249[18]
2003 282,595
2007 288,917
2012 296,033

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe is a renowned research an study centre, wi ane o Germany's finest institutions o heicher education.

Technology, engineering, an business[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Karlsruhe University (Universität Karlsruhe-TH) is the auldest technical varsity in Germany in addition tae the home o the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Research Center Karlsruhe), at which engineering an scientific research is performed in the auries o heal, earth, an environmental sciences. The Karlsruhe University o Applied Sciences (Hochschule Karlsruhe-HS) is the lairgest varsity o technology in the state o Baden-Württemberg, offering baith professional an academic education in engineering sciences an business. On October 1, 2009, the University o Karlsruhe joined the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe tae form the Karlsruhe Institute o Technology(KIT).

The arts[eedit | eedit soorce]

The State Academy o Fine Arts Karlsruhe is ane o the weeest universities in Germany wi average 300 students, but it is kent as ane o the maist significant Academies o Fine Arts. The Karlsruhe University o Arts an Design (HfG) wis founded tae the same time as its sister institution, the Center for Art an Media Karlsruhe (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie). The HfG teaching an research focuses on new media an media art. The Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe is a muisic conservatory that offers degrees in composition, music performance, education, an radio journalism. Syne 1989 it haes locatit in the Gottesaue Palace (see picture).

International education[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Karlshochschule International University (formerly kent as Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule) wis foundit in 2004. As a foundation owned state approved Management School Karlshochschule offers undergraduate education in baith German an English focusin on international an intercultural management in addition tae service- an culture-related industries. Mair outouer an international consecutive Master o Arts (postgraduate) in leadership studies is offered in Inglish.

European Institute o Innovation an Technology (EIT)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe hosts ane o the European Institute o Innovation an Technology's Knawledge an Innovation Communities (KICs) focussin on sustainable energy. Ither co‑centres are based in Grenoble, France (CC Alps Valleys); Eindhoven, the Netherlands, an Leuven, Belgium (CC Benelux); Barcelona, Spain (CC Iberia); Kraków, Poland (CC PolandPlus); an Stockholm, Swaden (CC Swaden).[19]

Culture[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for Art an Media) wis opened. Athin a short time, it biggit up a warldwide reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory an practice, the ZKM is locatit in a umwhile wappens factory. Amang the institutes related tae the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung (State University o Design), whase preses is philosopher Peter Sloterdijk an the Museum for Contemporary Art.

Nancy fountain

International relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin towns / Sister cities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe is twinned wi:[20]

Partnerships[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is an aa in a partnership relationship wi:

Gottesau Palace (now music college).

Events[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ilka year in Julie, thare a muckle open air festival lastin three days cried Das Fest ("The Festival").[23]

The Baden State Theatre haes sponsored the Händel festival syne 1978.

The ceety hosted the 23rd an 31st European Juggling Conventions (EJC) in 2000 an 2008.

In Julie, the African Summer Festival is held in the ceety's Nordstadt. Markets, drumming workshops, exhibitions, a varied children's programme, an musical performances tak place durin the three days festival.[24]

In the past, Karlsruhe haes been the host o LinuxTag (the mucklest Linux event in Europe) an til 2006 hosted the annual Linux Audio Conference.[25]

Visitors an locals watched the total solar eclipse at noon on August 11, 1999. The ceety wisnae jist locatit athin the eclipse path but wis ane o the few athin Germany no plagued bi bad wather.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fitbaa (Soccer) Karlsruher SC (KSC), 2. Bundesliga (seicont diveesion)

Basketball BG Karlsruhe, Basketball-Pro-Liga A (seicont diveesion)

Tennis TC Rueppurr (TCR), [Tennis-Bundesliga] (weemen's first diveesion)

Basebaw an Softbaw Karlsruhe Cougars, Regional League South-East (men's basebaw), 1st Bundesliga South (weemen's softbaw I) an State League South (weemen's softbaw II)

American Fitbaa Badener Greifs, currently competin in the Regional League Central but umwhile a member o the GFL's 1st Bundesliga, lost tae the Berlin Adler in the 1987 German Bowl (see: German Football League)

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 9 October 2012. 
  2. History o the German Reichsgericht http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsgericht
  3. Karlsruhe considers itsel the Residence o the Law http://ka.stadtwiki.net/Residenz_des_Rechts
  4. V. C. Ihle, Karlsruhe und die USA (an the United States), p. 15.
  5. Rashid Bin Muhammad. "Karlsruhe-Metric Voronoi Diagram". Personal.kent.edu. Retrieved 2011-04-07. 
  6. "Die Wetterstationen in Karlsruhe". Wetter.im-licht-der-natur.de. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  7. "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". 
  8. "U.S. Military Installations". Stadtwiki Karlsruhe. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  9. Elkins, Walter. "U.S. Army Installations - Karlsruhe". U.S. Army in Germany. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
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  25. http://lac.zkm.de/

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