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City of Karlsruhe
View over Karlsruhe
View over Karlsruhe


Coat of arms
City of Karlsruhe is located in Germany
City of Karlsruhe
City of Karlsruhe
Coordinates: 49°00′33″N 8°24′14″E / 49.00920970°N 8.40395140°E / 49.00920970; 8.40395140Coordinates: 49°00′33″N 8°24′14″E / 49.00920970°N 8.40395140°E / 49.00920970; 8.40395140
Kintra Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
Destrict Urban destrict
Foondit 1715
Subdivisions 27 quarters
 • Laird Mayor Frank Mentrup (SPD)
 • Tot 173.46 km2 (66.97 sq mi)
Elevation 115 m (377 ft)
Population (2011-12-31)[1]
 • Tot 297,488
 • Density 1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 76131–76229
Diallin codes 0721
Vehicle registration KA
Website www.karlsruhe.de

Karlsruhe (German pronunciation: [ˈkaʁlsˌʁuːə]; umwhile Carlsruhe) is the seicont-lairgest ceety in the state o Baden-Württemberg, in soothwast Germany, near the Franco-German border. It haes a population o 296,033. Karlsruhe Palace wis biggit in 1715 an the ceety is nou the seat o twa o the heichest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court an the Federal Court o Juistice.[2][3]

It haes been speculatit that Karlsruhe wis a model for Washington, D.C. as baith ceeties hae a centre frae which the streets radiate ootwaird.[4]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The 49th parallel north in the Karlsruhe Stadtgarten

The city lies at an altitude atween 100 m (on the eastren shore o the river Rhine) and 322 m (near the communications tower In the suburb o Wettersbach). Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E / 49.000°N 8.400°E / 49.000; 8.400; the 49th parallel runs through the city centre. Its course is marked bi a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten ("city park").

MiRO oil refinery

The city wis planned wi the palace tower (Schloss) at the center and 32 streets radiating out frae it like the spokes o a wheel, or the ribs o a folding fan, so that ane nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city" (Fächerstadt). Almost aw o these streets survived until the day. Acause o this ceety layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers tae a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues aroond the centre.[5]

The city centre is the auldest pairt o town and lies sooth of the palace in the quadrant defined bi nine of the radial streets. The central pairt of the palace runs east-wast, wi twa wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest (i.e., parallel wi the streets marking the boundaries of the quadrant defining the city center).

The market square lies on the street running sooth frae the palace tae Ettlingen. The market square haes the town hall (Rathaus) tae the wast, the main Lutheran church (Evangelische Stadtkirche) tae the east, and the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being ane of only three lairge cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the Neoclassical style.

The aurie north of the palace is a park and forest. Originally the aurie tae the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (founded in 1825), Wildparkstadion, and residential auries have been biggit thare. The aurie wast of the palace is now mostly residential.

Panorama of Karlsruhe, looking sooth frae the palace tower. The Institute of Technology is on the left, the Market square in the centre, the Federal Constitutional Court on the right. Note wings of the palace aligning wi streets, aw radiating out frae the centre of town (i.e., the palace tower).
File:Karlsruher Schloss 180 degrees south panorama.jpg
180 degree panorama frae atop the palace tower, facing north.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) seemilar tae much of Germany. In comparison, Karlsruhe features hot summers and average tae mild winters. The city is ane of the warmest and sunniest in Germany. Precipitation is almost evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the mair than 130 years-auld wather station in Karlsruhe wis closed, which is replaced bi a wather station in Rheinstetten, sooth of Karlsruhe.[6]

Climate data for Karlsruhe/Rheinstetten, Germany for 1981–2010 (Source: DWD)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 17.5
Average heich °C (°F) 4.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.0
Average laich °C (°F) −0.7
Record laich °C (°F) −20
Precipitation mm (inches) 58.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.7 87.8 131.2 182.7 218.4 232.1 253.9 237.3 174.4 110.9 65.5 45.6 1,796.43
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

According tae legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as Charles’ repose, wis given tae the new city after a hunting trip when Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, woke frae a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city.

Charles William founded the city on Juin 17, 1715, after a dispute wi the citizens of his previous caipital, Durlach. The founding of the city is closely linked tae the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the caipital of Baden-Durlach and in 1771 of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 1822, the "Ständehaus" wis the first parliament building in a German State. In the aftermath of the democratic revolution of 1848, a republican government wis elected here.

In 1860, the first-ever international professional convention, the Karlsruhe Congress, wis held in the city.[citation needit]

Much of the central aurie, including the palace, wis reduced tae rubble bi Allied bombing during World War II but wis rebuilt after the war. Located in the American zone of the post-war Allied occupation, Karlsruhe wis home tae an American military base, established in 1945. In 1995, the bases closed and their facilities were turned ower tae the city of Karlsruhe.[8][9]

Main sights[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Stadtgarten is a recreational aurie near the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and wis rebuilt in 1967 during the 'Federal Garden Show' (Bundesgartenschau). It is an aa the site of the Karlsruhe Zoo.

The Durlacher Turmberg haes a look-out tower (hence its name). It is a umwhile keep dating back tae the 13th century.

The city haes twa botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe which forms pairt of the Palace complex, and the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe which is maintained bi the varsity.

The Marktplatz haes a stone pyramid marking the grave of the city's founder. Built in 1825, it is the emblem of Karlsruhe. The city is nicknamed the fan city (Die Fächerstadt) acause of its design layout, wi straight streets radiating fan-like frae the Palace.

The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is an interesting piece of architecture; the adjacent Schlossgarten includes the Botanical Garden wi a palm, cactus and orchid hoose, and walking paths through the woods tae the north.

The so-cried Kleine Kirche (Little Church), biggit atween 1773 and 1776, is the auldest church of Karlsruhe's city centre.

The architect Friedrich Weinbrenner designed many of the city's maist important sights. Another sight is the Rondellplatz wi its 'Constitution Building Columns' (1826). It is dedicated tae Baden's first constitution in 1818, which wis ane of the maist liberal of its time. The Münze (mint), erected in 1826/27, wis an aa biggit bi Weinbrenner.

St. Stephan parish church

The St. Stephan parish church is ane of the masterpieces of neoclassical church architecture in Southern Germany. Weinbrenner, who biggit this church atween 1808 and 1814, orientated it tae the Pantheon, Rome.

Grand Ducal burial chapel

The neo-gothic Grand Ducal burial chapel, biggit atween 1889 and 1896, is a mausoleum rather than a church, and is locatit in the middle of the forest.

The main cemetery of Karlsruhe is the auldest park-like cemetery in Germany. The crematorium wis the first tae be biggit in the style of a church.

Karlsruhe is an aa home tae a Museum of Natural History, an opera hoose (the 'Baden State Theatre'), as well as a nummer of independent theatres and art galleries. The State Art Gallery, biggit in 1846 bi Heinrich Hübsch, displays paintings and sculptures frae sax centuries, particularly frae France, Germany and Holland. Karlsruhe's newly renovated art museum is ane of the maist important art museums in Baden-Württemberg. Further cultural attractions are scattered throughout Karlsruhe's various incorporated suburbs. The Scheffel Association or literary society (established in 1924), is the lairgest literary organisation in Germany.[citation needit] The day the Prinz-Max-Palais, biggit atween 1881 and 1884 in neoclassical style, houses the organisation and includes its museum.

Breweries and buildings in art nouveau style were predominant in the wastren city

Due tae population growth in the late 19th century, Karlsruhe developed several suburban auries (Vorstadt) in the Gründerzeit and especially art nouveau styles of architecture, wi many preserved examples.

Karlsruhe is an aa home tae the Majolika-Manufaktur,[10] the only art-ceramics pottery studio in Germany.[citation needit] Founded in 1901, it is locatit in the Schlossgarten. A 'blue streak' (Blauer Strahl) consisting of 1,645 ceramic tiles, connects the studio wi the Palace. It is the world's lairgest ceramic artwork.[citation needit]

Another tourist attraction is the Centre for Art and Media (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or ZKM), which is locatit in a converted ammunition factory.

Government[eedit | eedit soorce]

Justice[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe is the seat of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest Court of Appeals in civil and criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The courts came tae Karlsruhe after World War II, when the provinces of Baden and Württemberg were merged. Stuttgart, caipital of Württemberg, became the caipital of the new province (Württemberg-Baden in 1945 and Baden-Württemberg in 1952). In compensation for the state authorities relocated tae Stuttgart, Karlsruhe applied tae become the seat of the heich court.[11]

Public health[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are fower hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level of medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken and the Diakonissen krankenhaus, connected tae the Catholic and Protestant churches, respectively, offer central services, and the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according tae state hospital demand planning.[citation needit]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Germany's lairgest oil refinery is locatit in Karlsruhe, at the wastren edge of the city, directly on the river Rhine. The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation of the region's cities in order tae promote heich tech industries; the day, aboot 20% of the region's jobs are in research and development. EnBW, ane of Germany's biggest electric utility companies and a revenue of 19.2 billion € in 2012,[12] is headquartered in the city.

Internet activities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Due tae the University of Karlsruhe providing services until the late 1990, Karlsruhe became kent as the internet capital of Germany.[citation needit] The DENIC, Germany's Network Information Centre, haes syne moved tae Frankfurt, though, where DE-CIX is locatit.

Two major internet service providers, WEB.DE and schlund+partner/1&1, now baith owned bi United Internet AG, are locatit at Karlsruhe.

The Stadtwiki Karlsruhe is the biggest city wiki in the world.

The library of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog, the first internet site that allowed researchers worldwide (for free) tae search multiple library catalogues worldwide.

In the year 2000 the regional online "newspaper" ka‑news.de wis created. As a daily newspaper, it not only provides the news, but an aa informs readers aboot upcoming events in Karlsruhe and surrounding auries.

Rail yard, bypass road Südtangente

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the city's urban public transport network, comprising seven tram routes and a network of bus routes. This network is well developed and aw city auries can be reached round the clock bi tram and a night bus seestem. The Turmbergbahn funicular railway, tae the east of the city centre, is an aa operated bi the VBK.

The VBK is an aa a partner, wi the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft and Deutsche Bahn, in the operation of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail seestem that serves a lairger aurie aroond the city. This seestem makes it possible tae reach ither towns in the region, like Ettlingen, Wörth am Rhein, Pforzheim, Bad Wildbad, Bretten, Bruchsal, Heilbronn, Baden-Baden, and even Freudenstadt in the Black Forest right frae the city centre. The Stadtbahn is well kent in transport circles aroond the world for pioneering the concept of operating trams on train tracks, tae achieve a mair effective and attractive public transport seestem, tae the extent that this is eften kent as the Karlsruhe model tram-train seestem.

Karlsruhe is well-connected via road and rail, wi Autobahn and InterCityExpress connections going tae Frankfurt, Stuttgart/Munich and Freiburg/Basel. Syne Juin 2007 it haes been connected tae the TGV network, reducing travel time tae Paris tae only three hours (previously it had taken five hours).

Oil port

Two ports on the Rhine provide transport capacity on cargo ships, especially for petroleum products.

The nearest airport is pairt of the Baden Airpark (officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden) aboot 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Karlsruhe, wi regular connections tae airports in Germany and Europe in general. Frankfurt International Airport can be reached in aboot an hour and a half bi car (ane hour bi InterCityExpress); Stuttgart Airport can be reached in aboot ane hour (aboot an hour and a half bi train and S‑Bahn).

Two interesting facts in transportation history are that baith Karl Drais, the inventor of the bicycle, as well as Karl Benz, the inventor of the automobile were born in Karlsruhe. Benz wis born in Mühlburg, which later became a borough of Karlsruhe (in 1886). Benz an aa studied at the Karlsruhe varsity. It an aa is interesting that Benz’s wife Bertha took the world's first long distance-drive wi an automobile frae Mannheim tae Karlsruhe-Grötzingen and Pforzheim (see Bertha Benz Memorial Route). Their professional lives led baith men tae the neighboring city of Mannheim, where they first applied their maist famous inventions.

Memorial for Baden Life Grenadiers in several wars, 1803–1918
Karlsburg Castle in Durlach

Jewish community[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jewish cemetery of Grötzingen

Jews settled in Karlsruhe syne its foundation. They were attracted bi the numerous privileges granted bi its founder tae settlers, without discrimination as tae creed. offeecial documents attest the presence of several Jewish families at Karlsruhe in 1717. A year later the city council addressed tae the margrave a report in which a quaisten wis raised as tae the proportion of municipal charges tae be borne bi the newly arrived Jews, who in that year formed an organized congregation, wi Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen of Metz at its head. A document dated 1726 gives the names of twenty-fower Jews who had taken pairt in an election of municipal officers. As the city grew permission tae settle thare became less easily obtained bi Jews, and the community developed mair slowly. A 1752 Jewry ordinance stated Jews were forbidden tae leave the city on Sundays and Christian holidays, or tae go out of their houses during church services, but they were exempted frae service bi court summonses on Sabbaths. They could sell wine only in inns owned bi Jews and graze their cattle, not on the commons, but on the wayside only. Karlsruhe wis the seat of the central council of Baden Jewry. The first chief rabbi of the country Rabbi Asher Lowe wis frae (Durlach) Karlsruhe, Nethaneel Weil wis a rabbi in Karlsruhe frae 1750 until his death.

Karlsruhe Synagogue, biggit bi Friedrich Weinbrenner in 1798, existed until 1871

In 1783, bi a decree issued bi Margrave Charles Frederick of Baden, the Jews ceased tae be serfs, and consequently could settle wherever they pleased. The same decree freed them frae the "Todfall" tax, paid tae the clergy for each Jewish burial. In commemoration of these changes special prayers were prepared bi the acting rabbi Jedidiah Tiah Weill, who, succeeding his faither in 1770, held the office until 1805. In 1808 the government issued regulations concerning the administration of the spiritual affairs of the Jewish community, bi which the chief rabbi of Karlsruhe became the spiritual head of the Jews of the country. Complete emancipation wis given in 1862, Jews were elected tae city council and Baden parliament, and frae 1890 were appointed judges. Jews were persecuted in riots occurring in 1819 and anti-Jewish demonstrations were held in 1843, 1848, and the 1880s. The well-kent German-Israeli airtist Leo Kahn studied in Karlsruhe afore leaving for France and Israel in the 1920s and 1930s.

Public hanukkah on the Schlossplatz

The day, thare are aboot 900 members in the Jewish community, many of whom are recent immigrants frae Russia, and an orthodox rabbi.[13]

Karlsruhe haes memorialized its Jewish community and notable pre-war synagogues wi a memorial park.[14]

Karlsruhe and the Holocaust[eedit | eedit soorce]

The new synagogue

In 1933, 3,358 Jews lived in Karlsruhe. The community owned buildings and property, such as twa synagogues, ane on Karl-Friedrich-Straße and ane on Kronenstraße, twa elderly citizens' homes, a Jewish school, a hospital, welfare institutions, and several Jewish cemeteries. During the first years of the Nazi regime, the community continued tae function, particularly tae prepare Jews for emigration. On October 28, 1938, aw male Polish Jews living in Karlsruhe were deported tae Poland. Synagogues were destroyed on Kristallnacht, 9–10 November 1938. Most of the men were arrested and sent tae Dachau concentration camp, but were released after they had furnished proof that they intended tae emigrate. In October 1940, 895 Jews were expelled during Operation Wagner-Bürckel and interned bi the French Vichy authorities in Gurs in soothren France. Most of these were then deported frae thare tae Auschwitz (via the Drancy deportation camp, on the outskirts of Paris) atween August and November 1942. Most of the 429 remaining Jews and ither so‑cried "non-Aryans" were deported tae the east atween 1941 and 1944. In 1945 thare were only 18 Jews in Karlsruhe. More than 1,000 of them had been killed atween 1933 and 1945.[15] The Baden Central Jewish Council wis reorganized in 1948. A new synagogue wis biggit in 1969.

Some 113 holocaust victims are commemorated bi brass plaques on Karlsruhe's sidewalks, the so-cried Stolpersteine.[16]

Historical population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Year Inhabitants
1719 2,000[17]
1750 2,500[17]
1815 >15,000[17]
1901 100,000[17]
1933 155,000[17]
1973 264,249[18]
2003 282,595
2007 288,917
2012 296,033

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe is a renowned research and study centre, wi ane of Germany's finest institutions of higher education.

Technology, engineering, and business[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Karlsruhe University (Universität Karlsruhe-TH) is the auldest technical varsity in Germany as well as the home of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Research Center Karlsruhe), at which engineering and scientific research is performed in the auries of heal, earth, and environmental sciences. The Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Karlsruhe-HS) is the lairgest varsity of technology in the state of Baden-Württemberg, offering baith professional and academic education in engineering sciences and business. On October 1, 2009, the University of Karlsruhe joined the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe tae form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology(KIT).

The arts[eedit | eedit soorce]

The State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe is ane of the smallest universities in Germany wi average 300 students, but it is kent as ane of the maist significant Academies of Fine Arts. The Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design (HfG) wis founded tae the same time as its sister institution, the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie). The HfG teaching and research focuses on new media and media art. The Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe is a music conservatory which offers degrees in composition, music performance, education, and radio journalism. Syne 1989 it haes locatit in the Gottesaue Palace (see picture).

International education[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Karlshochschule International University (formerly kent as Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule) wis founded in 2004. As a foundation owned state approved Management School Karlshochschule offers undergraduate education in baith German and English focusing on international and intercultural management as well as service- and culture-related industries. Furthermore an international consecutive Master of Arts (postgraduate) in leadership studies is offered in English.

European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe hosts ane of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology's Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs) focusing on sustainable energy. Other co‑centres are based in Grenoble, France (CC Alps Valleys); Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and Leuven, Belgium (CC Benelux); Barcelona, Spain (CC Iberia); Kraków, Poland (CC PolandPlus); and Stockholm, Swaden (CC Swaden).[19]

Culture[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for Art and Media) wis opened. Within a short time it biggit up a worldwide reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory and practice, the ZKM is locatit in a umwhile weapons factory. Among the institutes related tae the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung (State University of Design), whose preses is philosopher Peter Sloterdijk and the Museum for Contemporary Art.

Nancy fountain

International relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin towns / Sister cities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Karlsruhe is twinned wi:[20]

Partnerships[eedit | eedit soorce]

The city is an aa in a partnership relationship wi:

Gottesau Palace (now music college).

Events[eedit | eedit soorce]

Every year in Julie thare is a lairge open air festival lasting three days cried Das Fest ("The Festival").[23]

The Baden State Theatre haes sponsored the Händel festival syne 1978.

The city hosted the 23rd and 31st European Juggling Conventions (EJC) in 2000 and 2008.

In Julie the African Summer Festival is held in the city's Nordstadt. Markets, drumming workshops, exhibitions, a varied children's programme, and musical performances take place during the three days festival.[24]

In the past Karlsruhe haes been the host of LinuxTag (the biggest Linux event in Europe) and until 2006 hosted the annual Linux Audio Conference.[25]

Visitors and locals watched the total solar eclipse at noon on August 11, 1999. The city wis not only locatit within the eclipse path but wis ane of the few within Germany not plagued bi bad wather.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fitbaa (Soccer) Karlsruher SC (KSC), 2. Bundesliga (seicont diveesion)

Basketball BG Karlsruhe, Basketball-Pro-Liga A (seicont diveesion)

Tennis TC Rueppurr (TCR), [Tennis-Bundesliga] (weemen's first diveesion)

Basebaw an Softbaw Karlsruhe Cougars, Regional League South-East (men's basebaw), 1st Bundesliga South (weemen's softbaw I) an State League South (weemen's softbaw II)

American Fitbaa Badener Greifs, currently competin in the Regional League Central but umwhile a member of the GFL's 1st Bundesliga, lost tae the Berlin Adler in the 1987 German Bowl (see an aw: German Football League)

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 9 October 2012. 
  2. History of the German Reichsgericht http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsgericht
  3. Karlsruhe considers itself the Residence of the Law http://ka.stadtwiki.net/Residenz_des_Rechts
  4. V. C. Ihle, Karlsruhe und die USA (and the United States), p. 15.
  5. Rashid Bin Muhammad. "Karlsruhe-Metric Voronoi Diagram". Personal.kent.edu. Retrieved 2011-04-07. 
  6. "Die Wetterstationen in Karlsruhe". Wetter.im-licht-der-natur.de. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  7. "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". 
  8. "U.S. Military Installations". Stadtwiki Karlsruhe. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  9. Elkins, Walter. "U.S. Army Installations - Karlsruhe". U.S. Army in Germany. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  10. Staatliche Majolika Manufaktur Karlsruhe GmbH. "Majolika-Manufaktur". Majolika-karlsruhe.com. Retrieved 2011-04-07. 
  11. Stadt Karlsruhe Stadtarchiv (ed.): Karlsruhe. Die Stadtgeschichte. Badenia, Karlsruhe 1998, ISBN 3-7617-0353-8, p. 591–594
  12. "Financial Report 2012" (PDF). EnBW. p. 3. 
  13. "Jewish Community Karlsruhe - Karlsruhe, Germany". 
  14. http://www.alemannia-judaica.de/images/Images%2021/ka%20syn.jpg
  15. "Karlsruhe condolence book". Karlsruhe.de. 2006-12-20. Retrieved 2011-04-07. 
  16. Stadtwiki Karlsruhe
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 Dr. Bräunche, Ernst Otto; Dr. Koch, Manfred (2003-11-17). "Kurze Karlsruher Stadt­ge­schichte". Stadtarchiv & Historische Museen (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  18. "Eingliederung ehemals selbständiger Gemeinden". Amt für Stadtentwicklung (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-06-07. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  19. http://eit.europa.eu/fileadmin/Content/Downloads/PDF/news_items/Summary_InnoEnergy.pdf
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 "Städte­partnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-12-16. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  21. "European networks and city partnerships". Nottingham City Council. 11 March. Retrieved 2013-07-20.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  22. "Partneri- ja kummikaupungit (Partnership and twinning cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved 2013-07-27. 
  23. "das FEST" (in German). Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  24. "Karlsruhe Afrikamarkt & Festival 2011". Africansummerfestival.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07. 
  25. http://lac.zkm.de/

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]