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Artvin Province

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Artvin Province

Artvin ili
Location of Artvin Province in Turkey
Location of Artvin Province in Turkey
RegionBlack Sea
 • Electoral destrictArtvin
 • Tot7436 km2 (2,871 sq mi)
 • Tot168,068
 • Density23/km2 (59/sq mi)
Area code(s)0466
Vehicle registration08

Artvin Province (Turkis: Artvin ili) is a province in Turkey, on the Black Sea coast in the noreastren corner o the kintra, on the border wi Georgie.

The provincial caipital is the ceety o Artvin.

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Artvin is a bonnie aurie o steep glens carvit bi the Çoruh River seestem, surroondit bi heich muntains o Kaçkar, Karçal an Yalnızçam(up to 3900 m) an wid wi hintle naitional pairkland includin the Karagöl-Sahara, whilk contains the Şavşat an Borçka lakes. The weather in Artvin is vera wet an mild at the coast, an as a result is hivily forestit. This greenery rins frae the tap aw the wey doun tae the Black Sea coast. The rain turns tae snaw at heicher altitudes, an the peaks is vera cauld in winter[2].

The wids is hame tae broun bears an wouves. The Çoruh is nou bein dammit in 11 places for hydro-electric pouer, includin the 249 m Deriner Dam an ithers at Borçka an Muratlı.

In addition tae the vast majority ethnic Turks, the province is hame tae commonties o Laz fowk an Hemshin fowks. In particular, there a prominent commonty o Chveneburi Georgies mony o them descendants o Muslim faimilies frae Georgie wha migratit in the struggles atween the Ottoman Turks an Roushie durin the 19t century. Wi sic diverse fowks, Artvin haes a rich variety o fowk sang an dance (see Arifana an Kochari for examples o fowk cultur).[3]

Local industries include bee-keepin inspecially in Macahel region[4].

Artvin is traversed bi the northeasterly line o equal latitude an langitude.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The aurie haes a rich history but hisnae been studied extensively bi archaeologists in recent decades. Artifacts datin back tae the Bronze Age an even earlier hae been foun. The Hurri settled in the Artvin bit in 2000 BC an wis succeedit bi the Urartu civilisation, based in Lake Van. Later, the place wis pairt o the kinrick o Colchis but wis aye vulnerable tae invasion: first the Scythians came fae athort the Caucasus, then the Muslim armies led bi Habib, son of Caliph Uthman, wha controllt the aurie fae 853 AD til 1023 whan it wis conquered bi the Byzantines frae the Sac Emirate linkit til the Abbasids.

The Seljuk Turks of Alparslan conquered the aurie in 1064 AD; but efter his deith, it was briefly recaptured by the king o Georgia wi the help o the Byzantines, but bi 1081 wis in the Turkis hauns again whan Saltukoğlu Beylik managed tae tak it back with the aid of Melikşah. Wi the collapse of the Seljuks, the Artvin area came unner the control of the Ildeniz tribe of the Anatolian Turkish beyliks.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Fechtin for control atween various Turkish clans continued til the Safavids, takkin advantage o this infechtin, managed tae can conquer the aurie in 1502.

The Ottoman Empire unner Mehmet II defeatit the Empire of Trebizond tae bring the eastern Black Sea coast an the mountanous hinterland unner their control. Subsequent expeditions intae the mountains bi Selim I and Mehmed Han Yusufeli gied them control of a hantle o castles an, throu daein this, the hale district. Kara Ahmet Pasha, the vizer o Suleiman I formed the first Livane Sanjak wi the name Pert-Eğekte. In 13 July 1551, wi İskender Pasha's Ardanuç castle, the Ottoman control o Artvin wis secure. Ahmed III's vizer Hasan Pasha foundit the ceety o Batum in the ne acquired lands o Ajaria an it became the hub o the aurie.

This lastit 250 year til the aurie wis gien ower til the Roushians bi the Ottoman Empire follaein the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), an recovered an again gien ower at the conclusion o the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Artvin wis in war zone an continuously chyngin control atween Roushie an Turkey wi the Treaties o Brest-Litovsk, Moscow, an Kars. Aw this fechtin an uncertainty atween Roushie an Turkey in the late 19th century caused the fowk o Artvin to suffer terribly, wi a fair feck o the population flittin westwart awa frae the Roushian-controllt zones.

The Russians resiled frae Artvin follaein the Bolshevik Revolution o 1917; but whan the First World War endit wi the Ottomans on the losin side, British troops muived intae the aurie in 1918, follaed bi the new independent Georgians. The Treaty of Sèvres o 1920 grantit Georgia control ower eastern Lazistan includin Rize an Hopa. There wis muives tae incorporate Artvin intae Georgia but a referendum wis cawed for in 1920, the nascent Democratic Republic of Georgia cudnae reclaim its historical land includin Ardahan an Rize. Fearin occupation frae Turkey an ratification o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk bi the Russian SFSR forced the Georgians tae resile their claim on Artvin in 1921 bi the Treaty of Kars.

In 1924, the Liva Sanjak wis abolished an the Artvin Vilayet wis created. Artvin Vilayet wis combined wi Rize tae form Çoruh Vilayet wi the caipital at Rize. It wis separated intil Artvin Province wi the districts of Ardanuç, Arhavi, Artvin, Borçka, Hopa Murgul, Şavşat and Yusufeli at 4 January 1936.[13]

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • The ceety o Artvin haes an auncient castle an a nummer o Ottoman period hooses, mosques, an foontains.
  • Ivery Juin, there a "bull-warstlin" festival in the heich plateau o Kafkasör
  • The Parekhi monastery, a Georgie monastery

Popular places for walkin an ootdoor expeditions.

Destricts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Artvin province is dividit intae 8 destricts (caipital destrict in bauld):

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Turkish Statistical Institute, MS Excel document – Population of province/district centers and towns/villages and population growth rate by provinces
  2. "Artvin geography (tr)". Archived frae the original on 20 Juin 2015. Retrieved 14 Julie 2012.
  3. Artvin Archived 2011-11-05 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Artvin Macahel Archived 2012-05-11 at the Wayback Machine
  5. The Turks: Middle ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002
  6. Les Origines de l'Empire ottoman, Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Gary Leiser, 1992, page 82
  7. European and Islamic trade in the early Ottoman state: the merchants of Genoa and Turkey, Kate Fleet, 1999, page 49
  8. Turkey, Verity Campbell, 2007, page 35
  9. Turkey, James Bainbridge, 2009, page 33
  10. Eastern Turkey: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke, 2011, page 77
  11. The Turks: Early ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002
  12. The sons of Bayezid: empire building and representation in the Ottoman civil war of 1402-1413, Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 2007, page 2
  13. Artvin Archived 2011-11-05 at the Wayback Machine

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]