|Province o Turkey|
|• Total||7,436 km2 (2,871 sq mi)|
|• Density||22/km2 (57/sq mi)|
The provincial caipital is the ceety o Artvin.
Table o contents
Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]
Artvin is an attractive aurie o steep valleys carvit bi the Çoruh River seestem, surroondit bi heich muntains o Kaçkar, Karçal an Yalnızçam(up to 3900 m) and forest wi hintle naitional pairkland includin the Karagöl-Sahara, which contains the Şavşat an Borçka lakes. The weather in Artvin is vera wet an mild at the coast, an as a result is hivily forestit. This greenery runs frae the top aw the wey doun tae the Black Sea coast. The rain turns tae snaw at heicher altitudes, an the peaks are vera cauld in winter.
In addition tae the vast majority ethnic Turks, the province is hame tae commonties o Laz fowk an Hemshin fowks. In particular, there is a prominent commonty o Chveneburi Georgies mony o them descendants o Muslim faimilies frae Georgie who migratit durin the struggles atween the Ottoman Turks an Roushie durin the 19t century. Wi such diverse fowks, Artvin has a rich variety o fowk sang an dance (see Arifana an Kochari for examples o fowk cultur).
Artvin is traversed bi the northeasterly line o equal latitude an langitude.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
The area has a rich history but has not been studied extensively by archaeologists in recent decades. Artifacts dating back to the Bronze Age and even earlier have been found. The Hurri settled in the Artvin area in 2000 BC and were succeeded by the Urartu civilisation, based in Lake Van. Later, the area was part of the kingdom of Colchis but was always vulnerable to invasions, first the Scythians from across the Caucasus, then the Muslim armies led by Habib, son of Caliph Uthman who controlled the area from 853 AD to 1023 when it was conquered by the Byzantines from the Sac Emirate linked to the Abbasids.
The Seljuk Turks of Alparslan conquered the area in 1064 AD; but after his death, it was briefly recaptured by the king of Georgia with the help of the Byzantines, but by 1081 was in Turkish hands again when Saltukoğlu Beylik managed to take it back with the aid of Melikşah. With the collapse of the Seljuks, the Artvin area came under the control of the Ildeniz tribe of the Anatolian Turkish beyliks. Fighting for control between various Turkish clans continued until the Safavids taking advantage of this infighting, were able to conquer the area in 1502.
The Ottoman Empire under Mehmet II defeated the Empire of Trebizond to bring the eastern Black Sea coast and the mountanous hinterland under their control. Subsequent expeditions into the mountains by Selim I and Mehmed Han Yusufeli gave them control of a number of castles and thus the whole district. Kara Ahmet Pasha, the vizer of Suleiman I formed the first Livane Sanjak with the name Pert-Eğekte. In 13 July 1551, with İskender Pasha's Ardanuç castle, the Ottoman control of Artvin was secure. Ahmed III's vizer Hasan Pasha founded the city of Batum in the newly acquired lands of Ajaria and it became the hub of the area.
This lasted 250 years until the area was ceded to the Russians by the Ottoman Empire following the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), and recovered and again ceded at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Artvin was in war zone and continuously changing control between Russia and Turkey with the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk, Moscow, and Kars. All this fighting and uncertainty between Russia and Turkey in the late 19th century caused the people of Artvin to suffer terribly, with much of the population moving westwards away from the Russian-controlled zones.
The Russians withdrew from Artvin following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917; but when the First World War ended with the Ottomans on the losing side, British troops moved into the area in 1918, followed by the newly independent Georgians. The Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 granted Georgia control over eastern Lazistan including Rize and Hopa. There were moves to incorporate Artvin into Georgia but a referendum was called in 1920, the nascent Democratic Republic of Georgia was unable to reclaim it's historical land including Ardahan and Rize. Fearing occupation from Turkey and ratification of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the Russian SFSR forced the Georgians to withdrew their claim on Artvin in 1921 by the Treaty of Kars.
In 1924, the Liva Sanjak was abolished and the Artvin Vilayet was created. Artvin Vilayet was combined with Rize to form Çoruh Vilayet with the capital at Rize. It was separated into Artvin Province with the districts of Ardanuç, Arhavi, Artvin, Borçka, Hopa Murgul, Şavşat and Yusufeli at 4 January 1936.
Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]
- The ceety o Artvin haes an auncient castle an a number o Ottoman period hooses, mosques, an foontains.
- Ivery Juin, there is a "bull-warstlin" festival in the heich plateau o Kafkasör
- The Parekhi monastery, a Georgie monastery
Popular places for walkin an ootdoor expeditions.
- The Kaçkar Muntains are amang the maist-popular venues for trekkin holidays in Turkey.
- Macahel Valley on the Georgie border, is anither popular location for walkin holidays.
- Papart forest in Şavşat
- Genciyan Hill in Şavşat, owerleuks the border an the Binboğa lakes.
- The lakes o Şavşat an Borçka an the crater lake o Kuyruklu.
- The Çoruh River is excellent for raftin an championships hae been held here * There are a number o Georgie kirks in the valleys o Yusufeli.
- Bilbilan Yaylası - a typical Turkish heich meadae.
- Savangin pre-historical cave wi an inscription written unkent or unsolvit alphabet
Destricts[eedit | eedit soorce]
Artvin province is dividit intae 8 destricts (caipital destrict in bauld):
Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]
See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Turkish Statistical Institute, MS Excel document – Population of province/district centers and towns/villages and population growth rate by provinces
- Artvin geography (tr)
- Artvin Macahel
- The Turks: Middle ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002
- Les Origines de l'Empire ottoman, Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Gary Leiser, 1992, page 82
- European and Islamic trade in the early Ottoman state: the merchants of Genoa and Turkey, Kate Fleet, 1999, page 49
- Turkey, Verity Campbell, 2007, page 35
- Turkey, James Bainbridge, 2009, page 33
- Eastern Turkey: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke, 2011, page 77
- The Turks: Early ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002
- The sons of Bayezid: empire building and representation in the Ottoman civil war of 1402-1413, Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 2007, page 2
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Artvin Province.|
- (Turkis) the provincial govrenorate