Admeenistrative diveesions o Ukraine

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Ukraine is subdividit intae 24 oblasts (regions), ane autonomous republic, an twa "ceeties wi special status".

Owerview[eedit | eedit soorce]

The seestem o Ukrainian subdiveesions reflects the kintra's status as a unitary state (as statit in the kintra's constitution) wi unifeed legal an admeenistrative regime for each unit. Housomeivver, experts agree that the wide autonomy o Crimea, the cultural an historical differences atween regions, combined wi lack o clarity in separation o pouers atween the levels o govrenment diminish the formal unity o Ukraine significantly. The issue o admeenistrative reform are routinely brought up an several projects wur proposed, but failed tae get significant traction. Some o the proposed steps include the integration o a few sma oblasts, broadenin o oblast an ceety authority, clarifyin the authority an eliminatin the competition atween the locally electit an centrally appointit bodies.

For an unnerstaundin o the cultural an socioeconomic differences athin the kintra, a knowledge o the Ukrainian historical regions is crucial in studyin the admeenistrative structur.

General scope o admeenistrative diveesion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Map o the first level o admeenistrative diveesion o Ukraine.

The admeenistrative diveesion in Ukraine was directly inheritit frae the local republican admeenistration o the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian SSR, an haes no chyngit majorly syne the middle o 20t century. It is somewha complex as beside haein couple o levels o a territorial subdiveesion, it an aa haes its awn classification for various settlements.

Structur[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are three major subdiveesions: oblast (region), raion (destrict), an rada (municipality) ceety, toun, an rural.

Ceeties aaways hae their awn form o sel-admeenistration (municipality) dependin on their status an some mey consist o their awn ceety's destricts (raions). A basic an the lawest level o admeenistrative diveesion is a municipality (or rada - cooncil). Municipalities can be ceety, urban or rural, locally abbreviatit as miskradas, selyshchna rada or silradas, respectively.

Ceeties municipalities

For example, the municipalities o Kiev an o Sevastopol hae the special status o a naitional importance (significance) an each is officially classifeed as a ceety wi a special status, which admeenistratively is equivalent tae an oblast (region). Mayors o those ceeties, in general, as govrenors o oblasts are being appointit bi the Preses o Ukraine. Housomeivver, the status o the Mayor o Kiev ceety, in pairticular, is somewha mair complex, an for further information see Legal status an local govrenment o Kiev. The status o the Sevastopol ceety is an aa unique.

On the oblast level amaist each hae at least ane ceety o oblast subordination (importance) which is the admeenistrative center (caipital) o that oblast. Housomeivver, some ither big ceeties athin the oblast mey hae such status as well. The ceeties o oblast subordination hae the same importance o a whole raion an aften are the admeenistrative centers o such. Note that beside the regular raions there are several ceeties in Ukraine uisually o naitional (mentioned earlier) or oblast status that are subdividit intae several ceety raions o their awn. Those raions mey sometimes include ither ceeties, touns, an/or veelages. In 2010 there wur 23 such ceeties that hae ceety raions.

A lot o raions an aa hae ceety municipalities o its level o subordination (importance). Those are uisually the admeenistrative centers (caipitals). Notice that no aw raions (destricts) hae a ceety as their admeenistrative center, housomeivver aw the raion (destrict) centers are at least urban-like (urbanized). Aw admeenistrative centers hae their awn form o sel-admeenistration. The municipalities o a raion subordination mey admeenister several ither adjacent tae them local councils (municipalities), uisually rural. If raion haes several ceeties o raion (destrict) level, they mey share an admeenistrative pouer for the raion.

Ither municipalities

As it wis mentioned abuin, beside ceety municipalities there are urban-like municipalities. The lawest form o sel-admeenistration are rural municipalities an veelages. A rural municipality mey consist o a single veelage, uisually big, or combination o ither rural veelages or localities. Note that some veelages an aa hae some additional vera sma settlements. Those settlements thegither wi the hame veelage combine a local (rural) municipality (silrada). For simplicity sake, silrada (rural municipality) is uisually referred tae as a veelage an is the lawest level o admeenistrative diveesion. The status tae ony settlement is grantit through the Verkhovna Rada.

Ither admeenistrations

There are an aa some umwhile military installation-settlements (viiskove mistechko). Syne the faw o the Soviet Union, the secrecy o such settlements wis "unveiled", housomeivver, those touns being subordinatit directly tae the Meenistry o Defense an dae no hae their awn ceevil admeenistration. Such military installations are like ghost touns that are no even identifeed on a map. Ane o them is on the border o the Kiev an Zhytomyr Oblasts cried Makarov-1.[1] An aa there is a special territory which is unner the jurisdiction o the Meenistry o Emergencies. It is the territory which suffered the maist frae the Chernobyl Catastrophe, kent as the Zone o alienation. Some restrictit territories belang tae the Meenistry o Ecology (umwhile Natur Environment) an are considered natur sanctuaries (preserves).

Currently there are three enclaves. The ceety o Slavutych is admeenistratively subordinatit directly tae the Kiev Oblast, while being completely surroondit bi Belaroushie an Chernihiv region. Anither enclave is a settlement Bile which is locatit on the Snake island an is fully surroondit bi the Black Sea. Bile is pairt o the Vylkove ceety o the Odessa Oblast. An aa a toun o Kotsyubynske (Irpin municipality) which is pairt o the Kiev region is completely surroondit bi the ceety o Kiev.

Ither nomenclaturs for local settlements that are nou abandoned include khutir, wirkers' settlement etc.

The follaein table is based on the 2001 Ukrainian Census.

Degree o diveesion Territorial Number Ceeties/ither settlements Number Total settlements
1 Crimea 1 - - -
region/oblast 24 special status ceety 2 459
2 destrict/raion 490 region level ceety 178
- - ceety destrict 118
3 - - destrict level ceety 279
municipality, toun/urban-type 783 ither toun/urban-type settlement 102 885
4 municipality, rural 10278 veelage 27190 28456
5 - - rural settlement/selyshche 1266

Types o settlements[eedit | eedit soorce]

Settlements bi Status
Status [1] Status
(in Ukrainian)
Total Number
(as o 2006)
misto / ceety місто 457
  municipality місто зі спеціальним статусом 2
  misto оblastnoho znachennia місто областного значення 176
  misto raionnoho znachennia місто районного значення 279
selyshche miskoho typu / toun селище міського типу 886
selo / veelage сільський населений пункт 28,552
  selysche селище 1,364
  selo село 27,188

There are twa types o settlements: rural an urban.

Rural

Rural populatit auries (сільський населений пункт) can be either a veelage (село, selo) or a rural settlement (селище).

Urban

Urban populatit auries (міський населений пункт) can be either a ceety (містo) or an urbanized settlement (селище міського типу). Urbanized settlements for a brevity sake aften are classifeed as touns in the Scots leid.

The chynges tae a settlement status can be done anerlie bi the Verkhovna Rada. Please, note that the size o a settlement does no ultimately define its status although is a major factor. For example, the ceety o Prypiat in Ukraine still retains its status, while haein a population o zero (0) residents due tae its infrastructur: biggins, roads, utility netwirks, etc.

Ceety vs. toun in Ukraine

The typical Ukrainian misto ought tae be considered a ceety, no a toun (compare tae Ceety status in the Unitit Kinrick). Housomeivver, the ceety's subordination tae either oblast or raion an aa should be taken intae accoont, especially in the poleetical sense. Some o urbanized settlements mey be ceeties o raion subordination, although it coud seem confusin, a type o settlement shoud be considered first as its status is given for admeenistrative purposes.

Leet o regions[eedit | eedit soorce]

List of Ukraine's oblasts
Region Aurie (sq mi) Population (2010) Density Centre ceety Raions/Destricts Important ceeties
Banner o Crimea Crimea 10,038.0 1,965,031 195.76 Simferopol 14 11
Banner o Cherkasy Oblast Cherkasy Oblast 8,069.5 1,291,135 160.00 Cherkasy 20 6
Banner o Chernihiv Oblast Chernihiv Oblast 12,303.1 1,104,241 89.75 Chernihiv 22 3
Banner o Chernivtsi Oblast Chernivtsi Oblast 3,126.3 903,782 289.09 Chernivtsi 11 2
Banner o Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Dnipropetrovsk Oblast 12,322.1 3,344,073 271.39 Dnipropetrovsk 22 13
Banner o Donetsk Oblast Donetsk Oblast 10,238.3 4,448,031 434.45 Donetsk 18 28
Banner o Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast 5,366.8 1,380,770 257.28 Ivano-Frankivsk 14 5
Banner o Kharkiv Oblast Kharkiv Oblast 12,129.4 2,755,177 227.15 Kharkiv 27 7
Banner o Kherson Oblast Kherson Oblast 10,988.9 1,091,151 99.30 Kherson 18 3
Banner o Khmelnytskyi Oblast Khmelnytskyi Oblast 7,971.1 1,331,534 167.05 Khmelnytskyi 20 6
Banner o Kiev Oblast Kiev Oblast 10,861.4 1,719,602 158.32 Kiev 25 13
Banner o Kirovohrad Oblast Kirovohrad Oblast 9,493.5 1,014,809 106.90 Kirovohrad 21 4
Banner o Luhansk Oblast Luhansk Oblast 10,302.7 2,300,412 223.28 Luhansk 18 4
Banner o Lviv Oblast Lviv Oblast 8,429.8 2,545,634 301.98 Lviv 20 9
Banner o Mykolaiv Oblast Mykolaiv Oblast 9,497.3 1,186,452 124.93 Mykolaiv 19 5
Banner o Odessa Oblast Odessa Oblast 12,861.1 2,387,636 185.65 Odessa 26 7
Banner o Poltava Oblast Poltava Oblast 11,099.7 1,493,668 134.57 Poltava 25 5
Banner o Rivne Oblast Rivne Oblast 7,740.2 1,152,576 148.91 Rivne 16 4
Banner o Sumy Oblast Sumy Oblast 9,202.4 1,166,765 126.79 Sumy 18 7
Banner o Ternopil Oblast Ternopil Oblast 5,337.1 1,086,694 203.61 Ternopil 17 1
Banner o Vinnytsia Oblast Vinnytsia Oblast 10,236.7 1,646,250 160.82 Vinnytsia 27 6
Banner o Volyn Oblast Volyn Oblast 7,777.6 1,038,223 133.49 Lutsk 16 4
Banner o Zakarpattia Oblast Zakarpattia Oblast 4,933.2 1,246,323 252.64 Uzhhorod 13 5
Banner o Zaporizhia Oblast Zaporizhia Oblast 10,494.3 1,805,431 172.04 Zaporizhia 20 5
Banner o Zhytomyr Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast 11,518.2 1,283,201 111.41 Zhytomyr 23 5
Banner o Kiev Kiev (Kyiv) 323.9 2,782,016 8589.12 Kiev 10 1
Banner o Sevastopol Sevastopol 416.6 380,301 912.87 Sevastopol 4 2

Namin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Names o Ukraine's admeenistrative units
Ukrainian Romanized¹ Scots widespread Scots recommended (formal uise) Scots recommended (informal uise)
автономна республіка avtonomna respublika (autonomous) republic autonomous republic autonomy
область oblast' region², province oblast province
район raion destrict, region³, aurie, coonty raion destrict
містo misto ceety, municipality misto ceety, municipality5
містo зі спеціальним статусом misto zi spetsial'nym statusom special-status municipality, special-charter municipality4 municipality municipality, ceety
містo областного значення misto оblastnoho znachennia ceety o oblast subordinance misto оblastnoho znachennia ceety o oblast subordinance
містo районного значення misto raionnoho znachennia ceety o raion subordinance misto raionnoho znachennia ceety o raion subordinance
селище міського типу selysche mis'koho typu toun, urban-type settlement selysche mis'koho typu toun, urban-type settlement
сільський населений пункт sil'skyi naselenyi punkt veelage, rural-type settlement selo veelage, rural-type settlement
селище selysche veelage selysche veelage
село selo veelage selo veelage

Notes

  1. Romanized uisin Ukrainian Naitional staundart. Details at Romanization o Ukrainian.
  2. Province is mair precise acause region mey an aa refer tae supranaitional geographic entity.
  3. Region is ambiguous syne it uisually refers tae lairger naitional-level units; aurie is inaccurate.
  • 4. An aa mey be referred as republican status.
  • 5. Ceety refers exclusively tae the ceety admeenistration (uisually smawer ceeties), while some ceeties include ither urban an rural admeenistrations such collective admeenistrations form ceety cooncils - municipalities.

Oblast[eedit | eedit soorce]

Uncommon in Inglis leid term oblast in Ukraine is interchyngeably uised wi mair common region which is a general term uised for oblasts an the Republic o Crimea. Maist o Ukraine's oblast (regions) are named efter their admeenistrative centers (aw ceeties). Each region generally consists o aboot ane tae twa million o fowk an haes aboot 20 destricts (raions).

Nomenclatur grammatical aspect

The name o each oblast is a relative adjective, formed bi addin a feminine suffix tae the name o respective center ceety. E.g. Poltava is a center o Poltavs'ka oblast' (Poltava Oblast). Maist o them are an aa sometimes referred tae in a feminine noun form, follaein the convention o traditional regional place names, endin wi the suffix "-shchyna". E.g. Poltava Oblast is an aa cried Poltavshchyna.

Exceptions tae this rule include:

  • Twa oblasts, Volyn an Zakarpattia, which retain the names o their respective historical regions, Volyn' (Volhynia) an Zakarpattia (Transcarpathie), whose respective caipitals are Lutsk an Uzhhorod.
  • Twa ceeties: Kiev which is an independently admeenistrated ceety frae the surroondin Kiev Oblast an Sevastopol which is, while locatit on the Crimean peninsula, admeenistratively no pairt o Crimea. Kiev is, housomeivver, an aa the admeenistrative center o Kiev Oblast (admeenistrative bodies o the oblast are situatit inside the ceety).

An oblast center in Ukraine is uisually the lairgest an maist developed ceety in given region.

Oblasts sometimes referred tae as provinces, housomeivver historically provinces wur pairt o admeenistrative diveesion o the Roushie Empire, territories o which the day aften are different. For example, the umwhile Volhynie province encompasses the Rivne Oblast, the Volyn Oblast, an an aw includes some territories in the Ternopil Oblast. See an aw Leet o etymologies o kintra subdiveesion names: "Ukraine".

Autonomous Republic o Crimea[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Autonomous Republic o Crimea (Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti‎), umwhile Crimea Oblast o the Ukrainian SSR, is geographically the main pairt o Crimean peninsulae in the sooth o Ukraine. Its caipital is Simferopol.

Raions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Raions o Ukraine

Raions are sma territorial units o subdiveesion o Ukraine. There are 490 raions in 24 oblasts an Crimea autonomous republic o Ukraine. An average aurie o Ukrainian raion is 1,200 km2 (463 sq mi), an average population o raions is 52,000 fowk.

Metro Auries[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ukraine haes five major agglomeratit metropolitan auries (conurbations).

Ither minor metro auries are:

These conurbation areas are not officially recognized and remain to be administered according to official oblast-raion system of subdivision.

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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