Chernivtsi

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Chernivtsi
Чернівці (Ukrainian)
Residence o Bukovinie an Dalmatie Metropolitans

Flag

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "Little Vienna"[1][2]
The Chernivtsi Ceety Municipality (center) on the map o Chernivtsi Oblast.
Chernivtsi is located in Ukraine
Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Location o Chernivtsi in Ukraine
Coordinates: 48°18′0″N 25°56′0″E / 48.30000°N 25.93333°E / 48.30000; 25.93333Coordinates: 48°18′0″N 25°56′0″E / 48.30000°N 25.93333°E / 48.30000; 25.93333
Kintra Banner o Ukraine Ukraine
Oblast Banner o Chernivtsi Oblast Chernivtsi Oblast
Municipality Chernivtsi Ceety Municipality
First mentioned 1408
Ceety richts 14t century
Subdiveesions
Government
 • Ceety Cooncil Secretar Vitaliy Mykhailishyn[3]
Area
 • City 153 km2 (59 sq mi)
Elevation 248 m (814 ft)
Population (2013)
 • City 259,419
 • Density 1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
 • Metro 723,100
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 58000
Area code(s) +380 372
Vehicle registration CE/26
Sister ceeties Salt Lake City, Konin, Suceava, Nazareth Illit, Saskatoon, Klagenfurt, Podolsk
Website

www.city.cv.ua

www.chernivtsy.eu

Chernivtsi (Ukrainian: Чернівці́, Ukrainian pronunciation: [t͡ʃerniu̯ˈt͡sʲi]; see an aw ither names) is a ceety in wastren Ukraine, situatit on the upper course o the River Prut. Chernivtsi is the admeenistrative centre o Chernivtsi Oblast (province) - the northren, Ukrainian pairt o the European historic region o Bukovina. At the time o the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population o the ceety wis 240,600.[4]

Thegither wi the ceety o Lviv, Chernivtsi is viewed at present tae be a cultural centre o wastren Ukraine. The ceety is considered ane o modren Ukraine's greatest cultural, educational an airchitectural centres an aw. Historically in that role, Chernivtsi wis even dubbit "Little Vienna,"[1][2] "Jerusalem upon the Prut". The ceety is a major point o railwey an heich-gate crossins in the region, an hooses a internaitional airport.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aside frae Ukrainian, Chernivtsi is kent bi mony different names an aw, which wur uised durin times o rule bi different kintras throuoot the ceety's history, or bi the respective population groups at the time: Romanie: Cernăuți; German: Czernowitz; Pols: Czerniowce; Hungarian: Csernovic, Roushie: Черновцы́‎, translit. Chernovtsy (till 1944: Чернови́цы, translit. Chernovitsy). In the times o Halych-Volyn Principality the ceety's name wis Chern.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aircheological evidence discovered in the aurie surroondin Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabitit it syne the Neolithic era. Later dounsets includit those o the Cucuteni-Trypillian cultur,[5] the Corded Ware culture; artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city.

A fortifee'd dounset locatit on the left (north-eastren) shore o Prut dates back tae the time o the Principality o Halych an is thocht tae hae been built bi Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl.[6] Legendar accoonts refer tae this fortress-ceety as Chern’, or Black ceety; it is said tae awe its name tae the black colour o the ceety waws, built frae daurk oak layered wi local black-colored soil.[7] This early stranghauld wis destroyed durin the Mongol invasion o Europe bi the Burundai in 1259. Housomeivver, the remainin rampairts o the fortress wur still uised for defence purposes; in the 17t century they wur augmentit wi several bastions, ane o which is still extant.

Map o the Unitit States o Greater Austrick, proponit in 1906, shows the ceety at the border o the auries inhabitit bi Romanies an Ukrainians.

Follaein the destruction o the fortress, later dounsets in the aurie centered on the richt (sooth-wastren) shore o the Prut River, at a mair strategically advantageous, elevatit location. In 1325, when Kinrick o Poland seisit control o Galicie, an came intae contact wi the early Vlach (Romanie) feudal formations, a fort wis mentioned unner the name Țețina; it wis defendin the ford an crossin point on the Prut River. It wis pairt o a group o three fortifications, the ither twa bein the fortress o Hotin on the Dniester tae the east, an a fort on the Kolachin River, a upriver tributar o Prut.

Atween 1359 an 1775, the ceety an its surroondins wur pairt o the Principality o Moldavie; the ceety bein the admeenistrative centre o the homonymous ţinut (coonty).[8] The name Cernăuţi/Chernivtsi is first attestit in a document bi Alexander the Guid on 8 October 1408.[9] In Ottoman sources, the ceety wis mentioned as "Çernovi".

In 1775, the northwastren pairt o the territory o Moldavie wis annexed bi the Habsburg Empire; this region became kent as Bukovina. The ceety became the region's caipital, which in 1849 wis raised in status an became known as the Duchy o Bukovina, a crounland o the Austrian Empire. The ceety receivit Magdeburg richts.[10] The ceety began tae flourish in 1778 when Knicht Karl von Enzenberg wis appointit the chief o the Militar Admeenistration. He invitit mony merchants, craftsmen an entrepreneurs tae help develop trade an ither businesses. Saunt Peter's Fairs (1–15 Julie) haed gien a new vibrant impulse tae the mercat development frae 1786. In the late 19t century the German leid—due tae the Habsburgian an the vera important Jewish influence—became the lingua franca an mair an mair newspapers wur editit in German, a remarkable leeterar production in German began in this period an aw, featurin maist prominently Karl Emil Franzos.[11]

Durin the 19t an early 20t century, Chernivtsi became a centre o baith Romanie an Ukrainian naitional muivements. In 1908, it wis the steid o the first Yiddish leid conference, the Czernowitz Conference, coordinatit bi Nathan Birnbaum. When Austrick-Hungary dissolvit in 1918, the ceety an its surroondin aurie became pairt o the Kinrick o Romanie.[12] In 1930, the ceety reached a population o 112,400: 26.8% Jews, 23.2% Romanies, 20.8% Germans, 18.6% Ukrainians, the remainder Poles an ithers. It wis ane o the five varsity centres o interwar Romanie.

In 1940, the Red Airmy occupee'd the aurie; the aurie aroond the ceety became kent as Chernivtsi Oblast, an wis allottit tae the Ukrainian SSR bi the Soviet Union.[12] The ceety's lairge Romanie intelligentsia foond refuge in Romanie; while the Bukovina Germans wur repatriatit accordin tae a Soviet-Nazi greement. This promptit Romanie tae switch frae an allee o Fraunce an Breetain tae ane o Nazi Germany; in Julie 1941, the Romanie Airmy reteuk the ceety as pairt o the Axis attack on the Soviet Union durin Warld War II. In August 1941, Romanie militar dictator Ion Antonescu ordered the creation o a ghetto in the lawland pairt o the ceety, whaur 50,000 Bukovina Jews wur crammit, twa-thirds o whom wad be deportit tae Transnistrie in October 1941 an pairtly in early 1942, whaur the majority perished. Romanian mayor o the ceety Traian Popovici managit tae persuade Antonescu tae raise the nummer o Jews exemptit frae deportation frae 200 tae 20,000.

In 1944, when Axis forces wur driven oot bi the Red Airmy, the ceety wis reincorporatit intae the Ukrainian SSR. Ower the follaein years, maist o the Jews left for Israel; the ceety wis a important node in the Berihah netwirk. Bukovina Poles wur repatriatit bi the Soviets efter Warld War II an aw. The ceety became a predominantly Ukrainian ane.

Syne 1991, Chernitvtsi haes been a pairt o unthirlt Ukraine. In Mey 1999, Romanie opened a consulate general in the ceety. Contemporar Chernivtsi is a important regional centre, which is situatit on the picturesque banks o the Prut River an occupees a aurie o aboot 150 square kilometres (58 sq mi).

Geografie an climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chernivtsi is locatit in the historic region o Bukovina, which is currently shared atween Romanie (sooth) an Ukraine (north). The ceety lees 248 metres abuin sea level, an is surroondit bi forests an fields. The River Prut runs throu the ceety's landscape.

Climate data for Chernivtsi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
21.3
(70.3)
24.6
(76.3)
30.7
(87.3)
33.5
(92.3)
35.6
(96.1)
37.4
(99.3)
37.7
(99.9)
36.3
(97.3)
31.0
(87.8)
23.8
(74.8)
17.9
(64.2)
37.7
(99.9)
Average heich °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
1.7
(35.1)
7.2
(45.0)
14.5
(58.1)
20.4
(68.7)
23.1
(73.6)
25.1
(77.2)
24.6
(76.3)
19.6
(67.3)
13.8
(56.8)
6.1
(43.0)
0.9
(33.6)
13.1
(55.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.7
(36.9)
9.2
(48.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.8
(67.6)
19.1
(66.4)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
8.6
(47.5)
Average laich °C (°F) −5.7
(21.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
4.6
(40.3)
9.8
(49.6)
13.3
(55.9)
15.1
(59.2)
14.4
(57.9)
9.9
(49.8)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
4.7
(40.5)
Record laich °C (°F) −30.7
(−23.3)
−29
(−20.2)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−13.6
(7.5)
−2
(28.4)
3.0
(37.4)
7.4
(45.3)
3.4
(38.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−17.5
(0.5)
−28
(−18.4)
−30.7
(−23.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
30
(1.18)
32
(1.26)
47
(1.85)
75
(2.95)
88
(3.46)
97
(3.82)
75
(2.95)
50
(1.97)
36
(1.42)
32
(1.26)
33
(1.3)
621
(24.45)
humidity 83 81 75 69 69 71 71 73 75 79 84 85 76
Avg. rainy days 7 7 11 16 17 18 15 13 13 13 12 9 151
Avg. snawy days 14 15 10 3 0.03 0 0 0 0 1 7 13 63
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65 75 123 162 219 233 247 246 188 141 68 53 1,820
Source no. 1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source no. 2: NOAA(sun only)[14]

Govrenment an subdiveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chernivtsi is the admeenistrative centre o the Chernivtsi Oblast (province) an the ceety itsel haes awn govrenment athin the oblast unner direct subordination tae oblast.

The territory o Chernivtsi is dividit intae three admeenistrative ceety raions (destricts):

No. Name in Ukrainian Population
1 Pershotravnevy Raion Першотравневий район 69,370
2 Sadhora Raion Садгірський район 28,227
3 Shevchenko Raion[15] Шевченківський район 139,094

The mayor o Chernivtsi is Mykola Fedoruk, who haes held the position syne 1994.[7]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns—Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chernivtsi is twinned wi:

Kintra Ceety/Toun Coonty / Destrict / Region / State
Austrick Austrick AUT Klagenfurt COA.svg Klagenfurt Flag of Carinthia (state).svg Carinthie
Canadae Canadae Saskatoon Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan
Israel Israel Nazareth Illit COA.png Nazareth Illit North Destrict
Poland Poland POL Konin COA.svg Konin POL powiat koniński COA.svg Konin Coonty
Romanie Romanie ROU Suceava COA.png Suceava Actual Suceava county CoA.png Suceava Coonty, Bucovina
Romanie Romanie Actual Iasi CoA.png Iași Actual Iasi county CoA.svg Iași Coonty, Moldavie
Roushie Roushie Flag of Podolsk (Moscow oblast).png Podolsk[16] Flag of Moscow Oblast.png Moscow Oblast
Unitit States Unitit States Salt Lake City Flag of Utah.svg Utah

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Bukovyna Week in Austria". Den. Zhytariuk, Natalia. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Bukovina. The beech tree land". Ukraine Cognita. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  3. Чернівецька міська рада (Chernivtsi City Council)
  4. About number and composition population of CHERNIVTSI REGION by data All-Ukrainian Population Census '2001 at the Wayback Machine (archived Dizember 26, 2005)
  5. "Trypillya — a culture that was contemporaneous with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia". Welcome to Ukraine. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  6. "City of Chernivtsi – History". The Komkon Site. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "History". Chernivtsi City Official Site. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  8. Template:Ro Cetatea Ţeţina – Cernăuţi, Astra, 3 (13), 1998
  9. Template:RoCernăuţi-600 de ani de atestare documentară internă, Astra, 4 (54), 2008, p.3
  10. "Chernivtsi". Ukrainian heraldy. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  11. Ion Lihaciu, Czernowitz 1848-1948. Das kulturelle Leben einer Provinzmetropole, Parthenon Verlag, Kaiserslautern und Mehlingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-942994-00-2
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Bukovina". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  13. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  14. "CERNOVCY Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  15. The raion wis umwhile namit Lenin Raion. The raion wis renamit in accordance wi the Rivne Oblast Cooncil's decision. [1]
  16. "Podolsk sister cities". Translate.google.com. Retrieved 2010-04-29. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]