Uzhhorod

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Uzhhorod
Ужгород
Uzhgorod
A panoramic view o Uzhhorod an the Greek Catholic Cathedral in the centre o the image

Coat of arms
Map o Zakarpattia Oblast wi Uzhhorod.
Uzhhorod is located in Ukraine
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Location o Uzhhorod
Coordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°E / 48.62389; 22.29500
Kintra
Oblast
Raion
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine
Flag of Zakarpattia Oblast.gif Zakarpattia Oblast
Uzhhorod Municipality
Foondit 9t century
Government
 • Mayor Viktor Pohorielov
Area
 • Total 31.56 km2 (12.19 sq mi)
Elevation 169 m (554 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 116,400
 • Density 3,662/km2 (9,480/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 88000
Area code(s) +380 312
Sister ceeties Békéscsaba
Website umr.uzhgorod.ua

Uzhhorod or Uzhgorod (Ukrainian: Ужгород pronounced [ˈuʒɦoˌrɔd]) is a ceety locatit in wastren Ukraine, at the border wi Slovakie an near the border wi Hungary. It is the admeenistrative centre o the Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the admeenistrative center o the surroondin Uzhhorod Raion (destrict) athin the oblast. The ceety itsel is designatit as its awn separate raion athin the oblast.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety gets its name frae the Uzh River, which divides the ceety intae twa-halves (the auld an new sections). Uzh (Уж) means ringed snake (Natrix natrix), an horod (город) is Rusyn for ceety, comin frae Auld Slavonic grad (градъ). Housomeivver, this name is a recent construct, an haes been uised anerly syne the beginnin o the 20t century. Afore then, the ceety wis kent as Ungvar, spelled Ongvar, Hungvar, an Unguyvar an aw, a name derivit frae the Onogurs, a Hunno-Bulgar fowk who crossed the Volga in the 5t century AD.

It is kent bi several alternative names an aw: Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; Pols: Użhorod; Romanie: Ujhorod.


History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early history[eedit | eedit soorce]

The best kent o the first ceety foonders are early Slavs. ane o their tribes – White Croats – settled the aurie o the modren Uzhhorod in the seicont hauf o the first millennium AD. Durin the 9t century a fortifee'd castle chyngit intae a fortifee'd early feudal toun-dounset, which became the centre of a new Slavonic principality, at the heid o which wis a legendar prince Laborets, who wis vassal o Great Moravie.

In 895 AD Hungarian tribes, heidit bi their leader Árpád, stormit the Hungvar fortress. The forces wur no equal an Laborets wis defeatit an beheidit on the banks o the river that still carries his name.

Efter the arrival of the Hungarians, the smaw toun began tae extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Mongols o Batu Khan burnt the dounset. In the early 14t century Uzhhorod showed strang resistance tae the new Hungarian rulers o the Anjou dynasty. Frae 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths (Italian coonts) awned the toun. Durin that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle. Thegither wi the castle the ceety began tae grow. By 1430, Uzhhorod acquired some privileges frae the keeng an wis offeecially cried "The Privilegit Ceety o Ungvar" an became caipital o Ung Coonty.

Durin the 16–17t centuries thare wur mony handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the ceety wis engagit in the releegious fecht atween primarily Protestant Transylvanie an Catholic Austrick. In 1646 the Uzhhorod Union wis proclaimit an the Greek-Catholic kirk wis established in Subcarpathie, in a ceremony held in the Uzhhorod castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Uzhhorod wis the residence o Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader o the naitional-leeberation war o Hungarians against Vienna.

The beginnin o the 19t century wis characterisit bi economic chynges, includin the first factories in the ceety. The greatest influence on Uzhhorod amang the poleetical events o the 19t century wis made bi the Hungarian Revolution o 1848-1849, durin which the native Hungarian nobility socht baith get free o the Austrian Empire an tae assert their richt tae dominate aw ither fowks o Hungary. 27 Mairch 1848 wis offeecially celebratit in the ceety as the owerthrow o the monarchy in Hungary.

In 1872 the first railwey line opened, linkin the ceety tae the important railway junction o Chop.

Twintiet century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the 1910 census, the ceety haed 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) wur Hungarians, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns an 1.6% Czechs.[1] In the same time, the municipal aurie o the ceety haed a population componit o 10,541 (39.05%) Hungarians, 9,908 (36.71%) Slovaks, an 5,520 (20.45%) Rusyns.[2]

Warld War I slowed doun the tempo o ceety development. On 10 September 1919 Subcarpathie wis offeecially allocatit tae the Republic o Czechoslovakie. Uzhhorod became the admeenistrative centre o the territory. Durin these years Uzhhorod developit intae a airchitecturally modren ceety. Efter the Munich Treaty, Uzhhorod became pairt o the Slovak hauf o the new Czecho-Slovak state.

Uzhhorod's umwhile synagogue, nou the Philharmonic Orchestra.
Bercsényi Palace in Uzhhorod Castle.

Efter the Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod wis retransferred tae Hungary.[1]

On 27 October 1944 the ceety wis captured bi the troops o the 4t Ukrainian Front o the Red Airmy. [2]

This period brocht significant chynges. At the ootskirts o Uzhhorod new enterprises wur constructit an the auld enterprises wur renewed.[3] On 29 Juin 1945 Subcarpathie Ukraine wis annexed bi the Soviet Union an became a wastmaist pairt o the Ukrainian SSR. That year the Uzhhorod State Varsity (nou Uzhhorod Naitional Varsity) wis opened an aw. Syne Januar 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska Oblast.[4]

Syne 1991 Uzhhorod haes become ane o 23 regional caipitals athin Ukraine. O these, Uzhhorod is the smawest an wastmaist.

In 2002, efter some controversy, a bust o Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovakie's first preses, wis unveiled in a main square o the ceety. A similar bust wis unveiled in 1928 on the 10t anniversar o Czechoslovak unthirldom, but wis remuivit bi the Hungarians when they teuk ower the region in 1939.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Uzhhorod haes a humid continental climate (Köppen climate clessification: Dfb), near on the borderline o the oceanic climate (Cfb) with ceul tae cauld winters an wairm simmers. The cauldest month is Januar wi a average temperatur o −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) while the wairmest month is Julie wi a average temperatur o 20.9 °C (69.6 °F).[3] The cauldest temperatur iver recordit is −28.2 °C (−18.8 °F) an the wairmest temperatur wis 38.6 °C (101.5 °F). Average annual precipitation is 748 millimetres (29.4 in), which is evenly distributit throuoot the year tho the simmer months hae heicher precipitation.[3] On average, Uzhhorod receives 1950 oors o sunshine per year[4]

Climate data for Uzhhorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63.0)
25.4
(77.7)
28.6
(83.5)
31.4
(88.5)
34.1
(93.4)
38.6
(101.5)
36.5
(97.7)
34.4
(93.9)
26.1
(79.0)
21.1
(70.0)
15.6
(60.1)
38.6
(101.5)
Average heich °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
3.7
(38.7)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
21.2
(70.2)
15.4
(59.7)
8.2
(46.8)
2.7
(36.9)
14.9
(58.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.0
(41.0)
11.0
(51.8)
16.1
(61.0)
18.8
(65.8)
20.9
(69.6)
20.3
(68.5)
15.5
(59.9)
10.3
(50.5)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.1
(50.2)
Average laich °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.6
(33.1)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
13.1
(55.6)
15.0
(59.0)
14.5
(58.1)
10.3
(50.5)
5.7
(42.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−3
(26.6)
5.4
(41.7)
Record laich °C (°F) −28.2
(−18.8)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−28.2
(−18.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 53
(2.09)
50
(1.97)
43
(1.69)
49
(1.93)
74
(2.91)
76
(2.99)
80
(3.15)
74
(2.91)
72
(2.83)
56
(2.2)
57
(2.24)
68
(2.68)
752
(29.61)
humidity 82 76 67 62 65 68 67 69 73 76 80 83 72
Avg. rainy days 11 10 13 15 16 16 15 13 13 13 14 13 162
Avg. snawy days 14 12 5 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.3 5 12 49
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 87.6 142.6 189.0 244.9 249.0 272.8 254.2 192.0 151.9 63.0 46.5 1,952.4
Source no. 1: Pogoda.ru.net[3]
Source no. 2: Hong Kong Observatory[4]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the Ukrainian 2001 census, the population o Uzhhorod includit:[5]

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Uzhhorod is servit bi Uzhhorod railwey station an haes railwey connection wi Chop (further tae Hungary an Slovakie) an Lviv (further tae Kiev).

Uzhhorod is servit bi Uzhhorod Internaitional Airport wi direct flichts tae Kyiv.

Local public transportation is representit bi buses.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns – Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Uzhhorod is currently twinned wi:

Firthen Greek-Catholic kirk in the Museum o Fowk Airchitectur.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó
  2. "Ung County". Genealogy Online. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Pogoda.ru.net". Weather and Climate for Uzhhorod (in Russian). Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Climatological Information for Uzhhorod, Ukraine". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  5. "Zakarpattia Region". Ukrainian 2001 census. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  6. "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  7. "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  8. "Krosno Official Website – Partner Cities". Flag of Poland.svg(in Polish) [[copyright|]] 1998 – 2001 Urząd Miasta Krosna. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  9. "Jarosław Official Website – Partner Cities". Flag of Poland.svg(in Polish) [[copyright|]] 2008 Urząd Miasta Jarosław. Ul. Rynek 1, 37–500 Jarosław. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  10. "Protocol de colaborare Ujgorod-Satu Mare" (in Romanian). www.satu-mare.ro. Retrieved 27 June 2009. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]