Scots leid

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For ither uisses, see Scots leid (disambiguation).
No tae be ramfeeselt wi Scots Inglis or Scots Gaelic leid.
Scots
(Braid) Scots, Lallans
Spoken natively in Unitit Kinrick, Republic o Ireland
Region Scotland: Scots Lawlands, Northren Isles, Caithness, Arran an Campbeltown
Ulster (Ireland): Coonties Doun, Antrim, Londonderry an Donegal
Native speakers 110,000–125,000  (1999–2011)[1]
1.5 million L2 speakers.[2]
In the 2011 census, respondents indicatit that 1.54 million (30%) are able tae speak Scots.[3]
Leid faimlie
Early forms:
Dialects
Writin seestem Laitin
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in None
— Classeefied aes ae "tradeetional leid" bi the Scots Govrenment.
— Classeefied aes ae "regional or minoritie leid" unner the European Chairter fer Regional or Minoritie Leids, ratified bi the Unitit Kinrick in 2001.
— Classeefied aes ae "tradeetional leid" bi The Noarth/Sooth Buird o Leid.
Recognised minority leid in Unitit Kinrick (Scotland an Northren Ireland)
Regulatit by Scotland: Nane, altho the Dictionar o the Scots Leid carries muckle authoritie n the Scots Govrenment's Partnership for a Better Scotland coalition agreement (2003) promises "support"..
Ireland: Nane, altho the cross-border Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch, established aes aen ootcome o the Guid Friday Greeance, promotes uissage.
Leid codes
ISO 639-2 sco
ISO 639-3 sco
Linguasphere 52-ABA-aa (varieties:
52-ABA-aaa to -aav)
ScotsLanguageMap.png
Auries whaur the Scots leid wis spoken in the 20t centuair[4][5]

Scots (or "Lallans", a poetic spellins for lawlands) is ae Wast Germanic leid that's spaken in the Lawlands an Northren Isles o Scotland an in the stewartrie o Ulster in Ireland (whaur it's kent as "Ulster-Scots", "Scotch" or "Ullans"). In maist airts, it's spaken anent the Scots Gaelic an Inglis leids.

Up til the 15t yeirhunder Scottis (modren furm Scots) wis the name o "Gaelic", the Celtic leid o the aunshint Scots. Thaim that bruikit Scots cried the Gaelic Erse (meinin Irish). The Gaelic o Scotland is nou maistlie cried Scots Gaelic an is yit spaken bi sum in the wastren Scots Hielands an ilands. Fer the maist pairt, Scots cums fae the Northumbrian kyn o Anglo-Saxon (Auld Inglis), tho wi a litil influenss fae the Auld Norse bi waa o the Vikings, the Dutch n Laich Saxon throoch troke wi (an incummers fae) the laich kintras, an the Romance bi waa o kirk an legal Laitin, Anglo-Norman an syn Pairisian French cause o the Auld Alliance.

Anglian speakers were weil staiblisht in sooth-eist Scotland bi the 7t yeirhunder. In the 13t yeirhunder Norman launainers an thair reteiners, speakin Northumbrian Middil Inglis, were bade tae cum an sattil bi the Keeng. Scots kyth'd fer the first tym in wrutten form in the mids o the 14t yeirhunder an didna differ mukkil fae ither northren Inglis byleids. The Anglian leid o Scotland grew on its ain sinsyn. By the late 15t yeirhunder the sicht fowk haed o the differs wi the leid spoken faurder sooth cam til the fore an Scots-speakin Scots begoud tae crie thair leid "Scots". Scots haes lend-wirds fae the fak that the Scots fowk haed contak wi Gaelic speakers. Thair lend-wirds is fer ordinair anerlie fer geografeecal an cultural things, sik as clan an loch. Lyk onie leivin leid, Scot haes chynged ae bittie ower the years, tho it haes arguablie stey'd naurer til its Anglo-Saxon springheid than Inglis. Monie Scots wirds hae becum pairt o the Inglis ava: flit, greed, eerie, cuddle, clan, stob.

In Scotland's census o 2011, ae speir on Scots wis speired.

Wrutten Scots[eedit | eedit soorce]

Monie writers nou evyts apostrofies whaur thay ar thocht tae shaw letters that's "missin" fae Inglis (the apologeteec apostrophe). Sikna letters niver were missin in Scots at aw. Fer example, in the twalt yearhunner, Barbour spelt the Scots cognate o taken as 'tane'. Haein been nae k in the wird fer mair than 700 year, shawin the want o't wi aen apostrofie seems kyn o pointless. The modren speelin is for ordinair 'taen'. Vouel nummers is fae Aitken n the foneteecs is in IPA. Maugre the establisht tradeetional speelin conventions described ablo, durin the twantiet centuair ae wheen o propones fer speelin reform wis pitten forrit. Commentin on this, John Corbett (2003: 260) writes that "devising a normative orthographie for Scots has been one of the greatest linguistic hobbies of the past century." N writin aneat the affcome o thon in Lallans 57, Caroline Macafee merkit that speelin reform "haes had the effeck o caain doun the kynd-o-a staudartisation that aareadie exeestit" n that "Speelin haes gotten tae be ae free-fer-aw, wi the tradeetional model bemeanit, n nae popular replacement" leadin til mair speelin variation, na less.

Consonants[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maist consonants is fer ordinair soondit sic n sae as in Inglis bit:

  • c: /k/ or /s/, as in Inglis.
  • ch: /x/,[6] gh an aw. Medial 'cht' micht be /ð/ in Northren dialects. loch, nicht, dochter, dreich, etc. Seemilar til the German "Nacht".
  • ch: waird ineetial or whaur it follaes 'r' /tʃ/. airch, mairch, etc.
  • ck: at the end o a silable[7] n whan intervocaleec[8] efter ae cuttie vouel e.g. bick, geck, muckle, ruck, etc.
  • gn: /n/. In Northren dialects /ɡn/ micht kythe.[9]
  • kn: /n/. In Northren dialects /kn/ or /tn/ micht kythe.[9] knap knee, knowe, etc.
  • ng: is aye /ŋ/.[10]
  • nch: fer ordinair /nʃ/.[11] brainch, dunch, etc.
  • r: /r/ or /ɹ/ is pronoonced in aw positions,[12] i.e. rhoteeclie.
  • s or se: /s/ or /z/.[13]
  • t: micht be ae glottal stap atween vouels or waird final.[9] In Ulster dentalised soondins micht kythe an aw, even fer 'd'.
  • th: /ð/ or /θ/ as is Inglis. In Mid Northren varieties n intervocallic /ð/ micht be soondit/d/.[14] Initial 'th' in thing, think and thank, etc. micht be /h/.[15]
  • wh: fer ordinair /ʍ/, aulder /xʍ/.[6] Northren byleids haes /f/ an aw.[15]
  • wr: /wr/ mair aften /r/ bit micht be /vr/ in Northern byleids.[15] wrack, wrang, write, wrocht, etc.
  • z: /jɪ/ or /ŋ/, micht kythe in some wairds aes ae substitute fer the aulder <ȝ> (yoch). Fer example: brulzie, gaberlunzie n the names Menzies, Finzean, Culzean, Mackenzie etc. (Aes aen affcome o the want o edducation in Scots, Mackenzie is nou generally soondit wi ae /z/ follaein the perceeved soondin o the wrutten form, aes mair controversial is whiles Menzies.)

Seelent letters[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • The waird final 'd' in nd n ld[16] bit aften soodit in derived forms. Whiles jist 'n' n 'l' or 'n'' n 'l'' e.g. auld n haund etc., aes in the Dens leid.
  • 't' in medial cht ('ch' = /x/) n st n afore final en[17] e.g. fochten, thristle n the 't' in aften etc. an aw., as in Inglis.
  • 't' in waird final ct n pt[17] bit aften soondit in derived forms e.g. respect n accept etc.

Vouels[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fer ae histereecal luikower see the Phonologeecal histerie o Scots.

The vouel seestem o Scots (in IPA):[18]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8a 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1. Generally merges wi vouels 2, 4 or 8.

2. Merges wi vouels 1 an 8. in central dialects
  and vowel 2 in Northren dialects.
  Also /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ afore /k/ an /x/ dependin on dialect.
3. Vocalisation tae /o/ micht kythe afore /k/.
4. Antrin mergers wi vouel 5.

cuttie /əi/
lang /aɪ/
/i/ /e, i/1 /e/ /o/ /u/ /ø/2 /eː/ /əi/ /oe/ /əi/ /iː/ /ɑː, ɔː/ /ʌu/3 /ju/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /ɑ, a/ /ɔ/4 /ʌ/

In Scots, vouel length is fer ordinair condeetiont bi the Scots Vouel Lenth Rule. Wairds that differ jist ae bittie in soondin fae Scots Ingils is fer ordinair spelt aes in Ingils. Ither wairds micht be spelt the same bit differ in soondin, fer example: aunt, swap, want n wash wi /a/, bull, full v. n pull wi /ʌ/, bind, find n wind v., etc. wi /ɪ/.

  • The onstrest vouel /ə/ micht be shawn bi onie vouel letter.
  • a (vowel 17): fer ordinair /ɑ/, aften /ɑː/ in sooth wast n Ulster byleids,[19] bit /aː/ in Northren byleids. Maurk final a (vouel 12) in awa, twa an wha micht be /ɑː/, /ɔː/, /aː/ or /eː/ an aw depending on the byleid.[20]
  • au, aw (vouel 12) /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ in Soothren, Central n Ulster byleids bit /aː/ in Northren bileids, wi au fer ordinair in medial poseetions[21][22] n aw in final poseetions.[21] Sometimes a or a' representin L-vocalisation.[23][24] The digraph aa kythes an aw, speciallie in wrutten representations o the (/aː/) soondin in Northren n Insular byleids.[22] The cluster 'auld' micht be /ʌul/ in Ulster an aw, e.g. aw, cauld, braw, faw, snaw, etc.
  • ai (vouel 8) in ineetial n medial poseetions[25] n a(consonant)e [26] (vowel 4). The graphemes ae[25] (vouel 4) n ay (vouel 8) fer ordinair in final poseetions.[25][27] Aw generallie /e(ː)/. Aften /ɛ/ afore /r/. The merger o vouel 8 wi 4 haes resultit in the digraph ai occurrin in some wairds wi vouel 4 n a(consonant)e occurrin in some wairds wi vouel 8, e.g. saip, hale, ane, ance, bane, etc. n waird final brae n day etc. The digraph ae kythes fer vouel 7 an aw in dae, tae v. an shae.[27] In Northren byleids the vouel in the cluster 'ane' is aften /i/[28] n efter /w/ n daurk /l/ the soondin /əi/ micht kythe.[29] In Sooth Scots n monie Central n Ulster varieties ae, ane n ance micht be soondit /jeː/, /jɪn/ n /jɪns/ aften wrutten yae, yin n yince in byleid writin.
  • ea,[30] ei[31] (vouel 3), haes generallie merged wi /i(ː)/ (vouel 2) or /e(ː)/ (vouel 4 or 8) dependin on the by leid. /ɛ/ micht kythe afore /r/. In Northren varieties the soondin micht be /əi/ efter /w/ an /ʍ/ n in the faur north /əi/ micht kythe in aw environments.[32] deid, heid, meat, clear etc.
  • ee[33] (vouels 2 an 11), e(Consonant)e[34] (vouel 2). Whiles ei n i.e. wi ei fer ordinair afore ch (/x/), bit in ae few ither wairds an aw, n ie fer ordinair afore l an v. The soondin is fer ordinair /i(ː)/ bit in Northren varieties micht be /əi/ efter /w/ n /ʍ/.[32] Final vouel 11 (/iː/) micht be /əi/ in Southren byleids.[35] e.g. e, een, speir , steek, here, etc. The digraph ea kythes in ae few wairds lyk sea n tea an aw.
  • e[36] (vouel 16): /ɛ/. bed, het, yett, etc.
  • eu[37][38] (vouel 7 afore /k/ an /x/ see ui): /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ dependin on dialect. Whiles u(consonant)e.[39] Whiles u phonetically an oo efter Staundart Ingils kythes an aw, e.g. beuk, eneuch, keuk, leuk, teuk etc.
  • ew (vouel 14): /ju/. In Northren bileids a ruit final 'ew' micht be /jʌu/. few, new, etc.
  • i[40] (Vouel 15): /ɪ/, but aften varies atween /ɪ/ an /ʌ/ specially efter 'w' an 'wh'.[41] /æ/ kythes in Ulster an aw afore voiceless consonants. big, fit, wid, etc.
  • i(consonant)e, y(consonant)e,[42] ey (vouels 1, 8a an 10): /əi/ or /aɪ/. 'ay' is fer ordinair /e/ bit /əi/ in ay n aye. In Dundee it is ae kenspeckle /ɛ/.
  • o[43] (vouel 18): /ɔ/ bit aften mergin wi vouel 5 (/o/) aften speelt phoneteeclie oa in byleid speelins lyk boax (box), coarn (corn), Goad (God)joab (job) n oan (on) etc.[44]
  • oa[45] (vouel 5): /o/.
  • oi, oy (vouel 9)
  • ow,[46] owe (ruit final), seendle ou (vouel 13): /ʌu/. Afore 'k' vocalisation til /o/ micht kythe speciallie in wastren n Ulster byleids. bowk, bowe, howe, knowe, cowp, yowe, etc.
  • ou the ordinair leeterar speelin[47] o vouel 6. Whiles u(consonant)e in some wairds: /u/ the foregane aften representit bi oo, ae 19t centuair lend fae Staundairt Ingils.[48] Ruit final /ʌu/ micht kythe in Soothren byleids. cou, broun, hoose, moose etc.
  • u[49] (vouel 19): /ʌ/. but, cut, etc.
  • ui, the ordinair leeterar speelin[50] o vouel 7 (binna afore /k/ an /x/ see eu), the speelin u(consonant)e whiles kythed, speciallie afore nasals,[50] n oo fae the speelin o Staundairt Ingils cognates: /ø/ in conservative byleids. In pairts o Fife, Dundee n north Aintrim /e/. In Northren byleids fer ordinair /i/ bit /wi/ efter /ɡ/ n /k/ aften speelt ee in byleid writin, n /u/ an aw afore /r/ in some airts e.g. fuird. Mid Doun n Donegal byleids haes /i/. In central n north Doun byleids merger wi vouel 15 (/ɪ/) occurs whan cuttie n vouel 8 (/eː/) whan lang, aften wrutten ai in byleid writin, e.g. buird, buit, cuit, fluir, guid, schuil, etc. In central byleids uise v. an uiss n. (use) is [jeːz] an [jɪs].

Some graimmar featurs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The definit airtikil[eedit | eedit soorce]

The is bruikit afore the names o saisons, days o the week, monie nouns, illnesses, tredds, occupations, sciences n acadeemic subjeks. It's aften bruikit in stead o the indefinit airtikil an in stead o a possesseev pronoun an aw: the hairst, the Wadensday, awa til the kirk, the nou, the day, the haingles, the Laitin, The deuk ett the bit breid, the wife etc.

Nouns[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nouns fer ordinair eiks –(e)s fer the plural bit some irraigulair plurals kith: ee/een, cauf/caur, horse/horse, cou/kye, shae/shuin. Nouns o meisur an quantitie byds the same in the plural fower fit, twa mile, five pund, three hunnerwecht. Raigular plurals incluid laifs, leafs, shelfs n wifes, etc.

Dimeenuteeves[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dimeenuteeves wi –ie, burnie (wee burn), feardie/feartie, gamie, kiltie, postie, wifie, rhodie, an wi ock, bittock, playock, sourock n Northren –ag, bairnag (wee bairn), Cheordag, -ockie, hooseockie, wifeockie, baith is influenced bi the Scots Gaelic dimeenuteeve -ag.

Modal verbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The modal verbs mey, ocht tae, and sall isna aften bruikit in Scots n this is histereec, bit is whiles still foond in anglifie'd leeterair Scots. Can, shid, n will/wul is the prefer'd Scots maks. Scots employs doobel modal maks He'll no can cum the day, A micht cud cum the morn, A uised tae cud dae it, but no nou.

Praisent tense o verbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The praisent tense o verbs ends in –s in aw persons n nummers cept whan a singil personal pronoun is nex til the verb, Thay say he's ower wee, Thaim that says he's ower wee, Thir lassies says he's ower wee etc. Thay'r cummin an aw bit Five o thaim's cummin, The lassies? Thay'v went bit Ma brakes haes went. Thaim that cums first is ser'd first. The trees growes green in the simmer.

Wis micht can tak the steid o were, but na widdershins: Ye were/wis thaur.

Past tense o verbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The raigulair past form o the verb is –(i)t or –(e)d, gaun bi the aforegaun consonant or vouel hurtit, skelpit, Mendit, kent/kenned, cleant/cleaned, skreived, telt/tauld, dee'd. Some verbs haes kenspeakle maks greet/grat/grutten, fesh/fuish/fuishen, lauch/leuch/lauchen, gae/gaed/gane, gie/gied/gien, pit/pat/pitten, git/gat/gotten.

Waird order[eedit | eedit soorce]

Scots aften haes the waird order He turnt oot the licht n na He turnt the licht oot n Gie me it n na Gie it til me.

Antrin verbs is aften uised progressive He wis thinkin he wad tell her, He wis wantin tae tell her.

Verbs o motion micht be drappit afore aen adverb or adverb phrases o motion Ah'm awa til ma bed, That's me awa hame, Ah'll intil the hoose n see him.

Partecipils gaes til the end o the clause mair aften than in Inglis whaur chynge o state is impleid (pairteeculair in Ulster): He's awfu auld gettin, Ah hae ma siller chynged.

Ordinal nummers[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ordinal nummers ends wi –t seicont, fowert, fift, saxt etc. first, Thrid/third.

Adverbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

Adverbs fer ordinair taks the same mak aes the verb ruit or adjecteeve specialie efter verbs. Haein ae real guid day. She's gey fauchelt.
Adverbs is shaped wi –s, -lies, lins, gate(s) an wey(s) – whyls, mebbes, brawlies, geylies, aiblins, airselins, hauflins, hidlins, maistlins, awgates, ilkagate, oniegate, ilkawey, onywey(s), endweys, whit wey.

Subordinate clauses[eedit | eedit soorce]

Verbless subordinate clauses is brocht in wi n pittin ower surpreese or skunner She haed tae walk the hale length o the road n her sieven month pregnant, He telt me tae rin n me wi ma sair leg.

Negation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Negation is pitten ower bi bruikin the adverb na, in the North Eist nae, as in Ah'm na cummin, or bi bruikin the suffix –na (soondin lippens oan byleid), aes in Ah dinna ken, Thay canna cum n We coudna hae telt him. The uiss wi na is fer ordinair taen foreby –na wi contractabil auxiliair verbs lyk –ll fer will, or in ay nae speirins wi onie auxiliair He'll na cum n Did he na cum?

Relative pronoun[eedit | eedit soorce]

The reelateeve pronoon is that ('at is anither mak borraed fae the Norse bit it can cum aboot bi contraction) fer aw persons n nummers, bit micht be drappit Thaur's na monie fowk (that) byds in that glen. The anglifie'd maks wha, wham, whase, n the auld-farrant whilk is j ist leeterair pensfuness; whilk is alanerlie bruikit eftir ae statement He said he'd tint it, whilk wis na whit we wantit tae hear. The possesseeve cums aboot bi eikin 's or bi bruikin aen appropriate pronoon The wifie that's hoose gat burnt, the wumman that her dochter gat mairit; the men that thair boat wis tint.

The thrid adjecteeve/adverb yon/yonder, thon/thonder points oot sommit that's faur fae the speaker n the leestener, D'ye see yon/thon hoose ower yonder/thonder? The plurals o this n that is thae n thir. Northren byleids taks this n that fer the plural ava.

Hamelt leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Scots haes monie hamelt leids, or byleids. Thir include;

See foreby[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 7% o the population (100,000–115,000) report uising Scots at home in the 2011 census; 10,000 speakers in Ireland are reportit bi Ethnologue
  2. Scots leid at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. Scotland's Census 2011 - Scots language skills
  4. Grant, William (1931) Scottish National Dictionary
  5. Gregg R.J. (1972) The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster in Wakelin M.F., Patterns in the Folk Speech of The British Isles, London
  6. 6.0 6.1 Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.499
  7. SND: C
  8. SND: K
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.501
  10. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.510
  11. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.500
  12. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.510-511
  13. SND: S
  14. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.506
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.507
  16. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.502-503
  17. 17.0 17.1 Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.509
  18. Aitken A.J. ‘How to Pronounce Older Scots’ in ‘Bards and Makars’. Glasgow University Press 1977
  19. SND:A 1
  20. SND:A 2 (1)
  21. 21.0 21.1 SND:A 4
  22. 22.0 22.1 SND:U 2 (1)
  23. SND:A 2 (2)
  24. SND W 6
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 SND:A 5
  26. SND:A 3
  27. 27.0 27.1 SND:E 3
  28. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p.44
  29. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.461
  30. SND:E 3 (2)
  31. SND:E 3 (4)
  32. 32.0 32.1 Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.455
  33. SND:E 3 (3)
  34. SND:E 1 (2)
  35. Johnston, Paul (1997) Regional Variation in Jones, Charles (ed.) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. p.456
  36. SND:E 1 (3)
  37. SND:E 3 (5)
  38. SND:U 2 (2)
  39. SND:U 2 (4)
  40. SND:I
  41. SND:U 4 (2)(ii)
  42. SND:I 3
  43. SND:O
  44. SND:O 3 (1)
  45. SND:O 3
  46. SND:O 3 (4)(ii)
  47. SND: U 3 (4)(i)
  48. SND:O 5 (1)
  49. SND:U 4 (2)
  50. 50.0 50.1 SND:U 2 (4)(i)
  • Aitken, A.J. (1977) How to Pronounce Older Scots in Bards and Makars. Glasgow, Glasgow University Press.
  • Aitken, A. J. (1987) The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language. Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press. ISBN 0-08-034530-1
  • Caldwell, S.J.G. (1974) The Pronoun in Early Scots. Helsinki, Société Néophilique.
  • Corbett, John; McClure, Derrick; Stuart-Smith, Jane (Editors)(2003) The Edinburgh Companion to Scots. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1596-2
  • Eagle, Andy (2005) Wir Ain Leid. Scots-Online. Available in full at http://www.scots-online.org/airticles/WirAinLeid.pdf
  • Jones, Charles (1997) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Press. ISBN 0-7486-0754-4
  • Jones, Charles (1995) A Language Suppressed: The pronunciation of the Scots language in the 18th century. Edinburgh, John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-427-3
  • Kingsmore, Rona K. (1995) Ulster Scots Speech: A Sociolinguistic Study. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0711-7
  • McClure, J. Derrick (1997) Why Scots Matters. Edinburgh, Saltire Society. ISBN 0-85411-071-2
  • McKay, Girvan (2007) The Scots Tongue (La skota lingvo), Polyglot Publications, Tullamore, Ireland.
  • Niven, Liz; Jackson, Robin (Eds.) (1998) The Scots Language: its place in education. Watergaw Publications. ISBN 0-9529978-5-1
  • Robertson, T.A.; Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Use of the Shetland Dialect. Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd.
  • Ross, David; Smith, Gavin D. (Editors)(1999) Scots-English, English-Scots Practical Dictionary. New York, Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0779-4
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