Afrikaans leid

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Afrikaans is a Wast Germanic leid, mainly spoken in Sooth Africae and Namibie. It is a dochter leid o Dutch, originatin in its 17t century dialects, collectively referred tae as Cape Dutch.[n 1] Although Afrikaans borrowed frae leids such as Malay, Portuguese, the Bantu leids or the Khoisan leids, an estimatit 90 tae 95 percent o Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately o Dutch origin.[n 2]

Wi aboot 6 million native speakers in Sooth Africae, or 13.3 percent o the population, it is the third maist spoken mither tongue in the kintra.[1][2] It haes the widest geographical an racial distribution o aw offeecial leids, an is widely spoken an unnerstood as a seicont or third leid.[n 3] It is the majority leid o the wastren half o Sooth Africae—the provinces o the Northren Cape an Westren Cape—an the primary leid o the coloured an white communities.[n 4] In neighbourin Namibie, Afrikaans is spoken in 11 percent o hooseholds, mainly concentratit in the caipital Windhoek an the soothren regions o Hardap an Karas.[n 5] Widely spoken as a seicont leid, it is a lingua franca o Namibie.[n 6]

While the number o total speakers o Afrikaans is unkent, estimates range atween 15 an 23 million.[n 7]

Grammar[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the grammar o Afrikaans, thare's nae sindry atween the infinitive an praisent forms o verbs, wi the exception o the verbs 'to be' and 'to have':

infinitive form present indicative form Dutch Scots German
wees is zijn (imperative: wees) be sein
het hebben hae haben

An aw, verbs dinna conjugate differently depending on the subject. For ensaumple,

Afrikaans Dutch Scots German
ek is ik ben A am ich bin
jy/u is jij/u bent you/ye are (sing.) du bist (informal sing.)
hy/sy/dit is hij/zij/het is he/she/it is er/sie/es ist
ons is wij zijn we are wir sind
julle is jullie zijn youse/yese are (plur.) ihr seid (informal pl.)
hulle is zij zijn thay are Sie (formal sing. & pl.)/sie sind

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Afrikaans is a dochhter leid o Dutch; see Booij 1995, p. 2, Jansen, Schreuder & Neijt 2007, p. 5, Mennen, Levelt & Gerrits 2006, p. 1, Booij 2003, p. 4, Hiskens, Auer & Kerswill 2005, p. 19, Heeringa & de Wet 2007, p. 1, 3, 5.
    Afrikaans wis historically cawed Cape Dutch; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Conradie 2005, p. 208, Sebba 1997, p. 160, Langer & Davies 2005, p. 144, Deumert 2002, p. 3, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 130.
    Afrikaans is rootit in seiventeenth century dialects o Dutch; see Holm 1989, p. 338, Geerts & Clyne 1992, p. 71, Mesthrie 1995, p. 214, Niesler, Louw & Roux 2005, p. 459.
    Afrikaans is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised leid, or a deviant variety o Dutch; see Sebba 2007, p. 116.
  2. Afrikaans borrowed frae ither languages such as Portuguese, Malay, Bantu and Khoisan languages; see Sebba 1997, p. 160, Niesler, Louw & Roux 2005, p. 459.
    90 to 95 percent of Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin; see Mesthrie 1995, p. 214, Mesthrie 2002, p. 205, Kamwangamalu 2004, p. 203, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 131, Brachin & Vincent 1985, p. 132
  3. It haes the widest geographical an racial distribution o aw offeecial leids; see Webb 2003, p. 7, 8, Berdichevsky 2004, p. 131. It haes bi far the lairgest geographical distribution; see Alant 2004, p. 45.
    It is widely spoken an unnerstood as a seicont or third leid; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Kamwangamalu 2004, p. 207, Myers-Scotton 2006, p. 389, Simpson 2008, p. 324, Palmer 2001, p. 141, Webb 2002, p. 74, Herriman & Burnaby 1996, p. 18, Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 7, Brook Napier 2007, p. 69, 71.
    An estimatit 40 percent hae at least a basic level o communication; see Webb 2003, p. 7 McLean & McCormick 1996, p. 333.
  4. Accordin tae the 2001 census, 79.5% o the so-cawed coloured community uised Afrikaans as hame leid, 59.1% o the white population, 1.7% o the Indian population an 0.7% o the black population.
    For the geographical distribution o Afrikaans; see an aa Afrikaans speakin population in Sooth Africae.
  5. Afrikaans is spoken in 11 percent o Namibian hooseholds; see Namibian Population Census 2001. In the Hardap Region it is spoken in 44 percent o hooseholds, in the Karas Region bi 40 percent o households, in the Khomas Region bi 24 percent o hooseholds; see Census Indicators, 2001 an click through tae "Regional indicators".
  6. Some 85 percent o Namibians can understand Afrikaans; see Bromber & Smieja 2004, p. 73.
    There ar 152,000 native speakers o Afrikaans in Namibie; see Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16.
    Afrikaans is a lingua franca o Namibie; see Deumert 2004, p. 1, Adegbija 1994, p. 26, Batibo 2005, p. 79, Donaldson 1993, p. xiii, Deumert & Vandenbussche 2003, p. 16, Baker & Prys Jones 1997, p. 364, Domínguez & López 1995, p. 399, Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 8, CIA 2010.
  7. What follows ar estimations. Afrikaans haes 16.3 million speakers; see de Swaan 2001, p. 216. Afrikaans haes a total o 16 million speakers; see Machan 2009, p. 174. Aboot 9 million fowk speak Afrikaans as a seicond or third leid; see Alant 2004, p. 45, Proost 2006, p. 402. Afrikaans haes ower 5 million native speakers an 15 million seicont leid speakers; see Réguer 2004, p. 20. Afrikaans haes aboot 6 million native an 16 million seicont leid speakers; see Domínguez & López 1995, p. 340. In Sooth Africa, ower 23 million fowk speak Afrikaans, o which a third ar first-language speakers; see Page & Sonnenburg 2003, p. 7. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, wi different degrees o fluency, bi an estimated 15 million; see Stell 2008-11, p. 1.