Shetlandic

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Shetlandic,[1] uisually referred tae as (auld or braid) Shetland[2] bi native speakers, is spaken in the Shetland Islands north o mainland Scotland an is, like Orcadian, a dialect o Insular Scots. It is derived frae the Scots dialects brought tae Shetland frae the end o the fifteent century bi Lawland Scots, mainly frae Fife an Lothian,[3] wi a degree o Scandinavian influence frae the Norn leid, which wis spaken on the islands till the late 18t century.[4]

Consequently Shetlandic contains mony wirds o Norn leid oreegin. Maist o which, if they are no place-names, refer tae the seasons, the weather, plants, animals, places, fuid, materials, tuils, colours (especially o sheep or horses), muids an whims or 'unbalanced states o mind'.[5]

Like Mid Northren Scots (Doric) in North East Scotland, Shetlandic retains a hie degree o autonomy due tae geography an isolation frae soothren dialects. Acause o a lairge amoont o unique vocabulary, an a degree o Shetland patriotism, it is sometimes treatit as a separate leid bi its speakers.

Phonology[eedit | eedit soorce]

"Shetland dialect speakers generally have a rather slow delivery, pitched low and with a somewhat level intonation".[6]

Consonants[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bi an lairge, consonants are pronoonced muckle as in ither Modern Scots varieties. Exceptions are: The dental fricatives /ð/ an /θ/ mey be realised as alveolar plosives /d/ and /t/ respectively,[7] for example [tɪŋ] an [ˈmɪdər] rather than [θɪŋ], or debuccalized [hɪŋ] an [hɪn], (thing) an [ˈmɪðər] mither (mother) as in Central Scots. The qu in quick, queen an queer mey be realised /xʍ/ rather than /kw/, initial /ʧ/ ch mey be realised /ʃ/ an the initial cluster wr mey be realised /wr/ or /wɘr/.[7]

Vowels[eedit | eedit soorce]

The underlying vowel phonemes o Shetland Scots based on McColl Millar (2007) an Johnston P. (1997). The actual allophones mey differ frae place tae place.

For an historical owerview, see the Phonological history o Scots.

Aitken 1l 1s 8a 10 2 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
/ae/ /əi/ /i/ /iː/1 /e/2 /e/ /ɔ/ /u/ /y, ø/3 /eː/4 /oe/ /ɑː/ /ʌu/ /ju/ /ɪ/5 /ɛ/6 /a~æ/7 /ɔ/ /ʌ/
  1. Vowel 11 occurs stem final.
  2. Vowel 3 is aften retracted or diphthongised or mey sometimes be realised /i/.[8]
  3. Vowel 7 mey be realised /u/ afore /r/ an /ju/ afore /k/ an /x/.[9]
  4. Vowel 8 is generally merged wi vowel 4,[10] often realised /ɛ/ or /æ:/ before /r/.[11] The realisation in the cluster ane mey be /i/ as in Mid Northren Scots.[12]
  5. Vowel 15 mey be realised /ɛ̈~ë/[13] or diphthongist tae /əi/ afore /x/.[14]
  6. Vowel 16 mey be realised /e/[15] or /æ/.[13]
  7. Vowel 17 aften merges wi vowel 12 afore /nd/ an /l r/.[11]

Vowel length is bi an lairge determined bi the Scots Vowel Length Rule, although there are a few exceptions.[16]

--71.222.96.253 17:34, 2 Februar 2013 (UTC)==Orthographie==

Tae some extent a bewilderin variety o spellings hae been uised tae represent the varied pronunciation o the Shetlandic varieties.[17] Latterly the use of the apologetic apostrophe to represent 'missing' English letters has been avoided.[18] On the whole the literary conventions of Modern Scots are applied, if not consistently, the main differences being:

  • The /d/ and /t/ realisation of what is usually /ð/ and /θ/ in other Scots dialects are often written d and t rather than th.
  • The /xʍ/ realisation of the qu in quick, queen and queer is often written wh.
  • The /ʃ/ realisation of initial ch, usually /ʧ/ in other Scots dialects, is often written sh.
  • The letters j and k rather than y and c, influenced by Norse spelling, the former often used to represent the semivowel /j/, especially for the palatalised consonants in words such as, Yuil (Yule) written Jøl, guid (good) written gjöd or gjüd, caibin (cabin) written kjaebin, kist (chest) written kjist etc.[19]
  • Literary Scots au and aw (vowel 12 and sometimes vowel 17) are often represented by aa in written Shetlandic.[19]
  • Literary Scots ui and eu (vowel 7) are often represented by ü, ö, or ø influenced by Norse spelling.[20]

Grammar[eedit | eedit soorce]

The grammatical structure o Shetlandic generally follaes that o Modern Scots, wi traces o Norse (Norn) an those features shared wi Staundart Inglis.[21][22]

Articles[eedit | eedit soorce]

The definite article the is pronounced [də] often written da in dialect writing. As is usual in Scots, Shetlandic puts an article where Standard English would not:[23][24]

gyaan ta da kirk/da scole in da Simmer-- 'go to church/school in summer' da denner is ready 'dinner is ready' hae da caald 'have a cold'

Nouns[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nouns in Shetlandic have grammatical gender beside natural gender.[25] Some nouns which are clearly considered neuter in English are masculine or feminine, such as spade (m), sun (m), mön (f), kirk (f).

The plural of nouns is usually formed by adding -s, as in Staundart Inglis. There are a few irregular plurals, such as kye, 'cows' or een, 'eyes'.[26][27]

Pronouns[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shetlandic also distinguishes between personal pronouns used by parents when speaking to children, old persons speaking to younger ones, or between familiar friends or equals[28] and those used in formal situations and when speaking to superiors.[29][30] (See T–V distinction)

The familiar forms are thoo (thou), pronounced [du:], often written du in dialect writing; thine(s) (thy) pronounced [daɪn(z)], often written dine(s) in dialect writing; thee, pronounced [di(:)], often written dee in dialect writing; contrasting with the formal forms ye/you, your and you.

The familiar du takes the singular form of the verb: Du is, du hes ('you are, you have').

As is usual in Scots, the relative pronoun is that,[31] also meaning who and which, pronounced [dat] or [ət], often written dat[32] or 'at in dialect writing,[33] as in da dog at bet me... – 'the dog that bit me...'

Verbs[eedit | eedit soorce]

As is uisual in Scots, the past tense o weak verbs is formed bi either addin -ed, -it, or -t,[34][35] as in spoot, spootit (move quickly).

The auxiliary verb ta be 'to be', is uised whaur Standard Inglis woud uise 'to have':[36] I'm written for 'I have written'.

Ta hae 'to have', is uised as an auxiliary wi the modal verbs coud, hed ('had'), micht ('might'), most ('must'), sood ('should'), an wid ('would') an then reduced tae [ə], aften written a in dialect writin:[36] Du sood a taald me 'you should have told me'.

As is uisual in Scots, auxiliary an monosyllabic verbs can be made negative bi addin -na:[37][38] widna, 'would not'. Itherwise, the Scots negative no whaur staundart Inglis haes 'not'.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The uise o Shetlandic for the leid occurs in, for example, James John Haldane Burgess (1892) Rasmie's Büddie: poems in the Shetlandic, Alexander Gardner; James Inkster (1922) Mansie's Röd: Sketches in the Shetlandic; T. & J. Manson; Jack Renwick (1963) Rainbow Bridge. (A collection o poems in English & Shetlandic.), Shetland Times; Jack Renwick, Liam O'Neill, Hayddir Johnson (2007) The harp o twilight: an anthology o poems in English an Shetlandic, Unst Writers Group.
  2. SND: Shetland
  3. Catford J.C. (1957) Vowel-Systems of Scots Dialects,Transactions of the Philological Society. p.115
  4. Price, Glanville (1984) The Languages of Britain. London: Edward Arnold. p. 203 ISBN 978-0713164527
  5. Barnes, Michael (1984) Orkney and Shetland Norn. Language in the British Isles. Ed. Peter Trudgill. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 29
  6. Graham, John J. 1993. The Shetland Dictionary 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1979, 2nd ed. 1984). Lerwick: The Shetland Times. xxii
  7. 7.0 7.1 SND Introduction - Phonetic Description of Scottish Language and Dialects. p.xl
  8. McColl Millar. 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd. p.33
  9. McColl Millar. 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd. p.48
  10. McColl Millar. 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd. p.37
  11. 11.0 11.1 Johnston P. Regional Variation in Jones C. (1997) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh p.485
  12. McColl Millar. 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd. p.35
  13. 13.0 13.1 Johnston P. Regional Variation in Jones C. (1997) The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh p.469
  14. McColl Millar. 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd. p.45
  15. McColl Millar. 2007. Northren and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd. p.39
  16. Melchers, Gunnel (1991) Norn-Scots: a complicated language contact situation in Shetland. Language Contact in the British Isles: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988. Ed. P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick. Linguistische Arbeiten 238. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. p.468
  17. Graham, J.J. (1993) The Shetland Dictionary, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. xxiv
  18. Graham, J.J. (1993) The Shetland Dictionary, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. xxiv-xxv
  19. 19.0 19.1 SND:U 2 (1)
  20. SND: J
  21. Graham, J.J. (1993) The Shetland Dictionary, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. xix)
  22. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. vii
  23. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 1
  24. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p. 78
  25. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 2
  26. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 3
  27. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p. 79
  28. SND: Du
  29. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 4
  30. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p. 96-97
  31. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p. 102
  32. SND: Dat
  33. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 5
  34. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 9
  35. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p. 113
  36. 36.0 36.1 Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 11
  37. Robertson, T.A. & Graham, J.J. (1991) Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect, Lerwick, The Shetland Times Ltd. p. 10
  38. Grant, William; Dixon, James Main (1921) Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge, University Press. p. 115

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