States o Brazil

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The Federative Republic o Brazil is a union o twinty-seiven Federative Units (Portuguese: Unidades Federativas (UF)): twinty-sax states (estados; singular estado) an ane federal destrict (Distrito Federal), whare is locatit the federal caipital, Brasília. The states are generally based on historical, conventional borders which hae developit ower time. The federal destrict is no a state in its awn right, but shares some characteristics o a state an some o a municipality. The Federal Destrict is bordered bi the states o Goiás an Minas Gerais. The codes given belaw are defined in ISO 3166-2:BR.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The first admeenistrative diveesions o Brazil wur the hereditary caiptaincies (capitanias hereditárias), stretches o laund leased tae Portuguese noblemen or merchants wi a chairter tae colonize the laund. The caiptaincies wur tae be passed frae faither tae son, but the croun retained the pouer o revokin it, which the keeng indeed did in the 16t century. Then the vast Portuguese dominion in Sooth Americae wis dividit atween the State o Brazil, in the soothren hauf, an the State o Maranhão, in the northren hauf (note that Maranhão bi then referred no anerlie tae current Maranhão, but rather tae the whole o the Amazon region; the name marã-nã in auld Tupi leid means "wide river", i.e. the Amazon River).

Efter the Iberie Union (1580–1640), the territory o Portuguese colonial domains in Sooth Americae wis mair than doubled, an the laund wis dividit intae caiptaincies, ryal caiptaincies an provinces. Unlike Spainyie Americae, the whole territory wis unitit unner a single viceroy, wi a seat in Salvador (an efter 1763, Rio de Janeiro). This situation contributit later tae keepin Brazil as a unifeed naition-state an avoidin the fragmentation o the Spainyie domains.

Wi unthirldom, in 1822, the colony became an empire an aw caiptaincies wur turned intae provinces. Maist internal borders wur kept unchyngit frae the colonial period, generally follaein natural featurs such as rivers an muntain ridges. Minor chynges wur made tae suit domestic politics (such as the Triângulo Mineiro frae Goiás tae Minas Gerais, the splittin o Paraná an the left bank o the São Francisco River frae Pernambuco tae Bahia), as well as additions resultin frae diplomatic dounset o territorial disputes bi the end o the 19t century (Amapá, Roraima, Palmas). Whan Brazil became a republic in 1889, aw provinces wur immediately turned intae states.

In 1943, wi the entrance o Brazil intae the Seicont Warld War, the Vargas regime detached seiven strategic territories frae the border o the kintra in order tae admeenister them directly: Amapá, Rio Branco, Acre, Guaporé, Ponta Porã, Iguaçu an the airchipelago o Fernando de Noronha. Efter the war, the first three territories became states, wi Rio Branco an Guaporé being renamit Roraima an Rondônia, respectively, whilst Ponta Porã an Iguaçu remained as territories. In 1988, Fernando de Noronha became pairt o Pernambuco.

In 1960, the square-shapit Distrito Federal wis carvit oot o Goiás in preparation for the new caipital, Brasília. The previous federal destrict became the state o Guanabara till in 1975 it wis mergit wi the state o Rio de Janeiro, retainin its name an wi the municipality o Rio de Janeiro as its caipital.

In 1977, Mato Grosso wis split intae twa states. The northren aurie retained the name Mato Grosso while the soothren aurie became the state o Mato Grosso do Sul, wi Campo Grande as its caipital. The new Mato Grosso do Sul incorporatit the territory o Ponta Porã an the northren pairt o Iguaçu. Central Iguaçu went tae Paraná, an soothren Iguaçu went tae Santa Catarina.

In 1988, the northren portion o Goiás became the state o Tocantins, wi Palmas as its caipital.

Proposed diveesion o Pará[eedit | eedit soorce]

On 11 December 2011, a plebiscite wis held in the state o Pará tae consult the population aboot the possibility o splittin the state o Pará intae three different states (Pará, Tapajós an Carajás). Baith Tapajós an Carajás wur rejectit bi the population.

Leet o Brazilian states[eedit | eedit soorce]

Flag State Abbreviation Caipital Aurie (km²) Population (2010) Densitie (2010) GDP (% total) (2008) GDP per caipita (R$) (2008) HDI (2007) Literacy (2009) Infant mortality (2009) Life expectancy (2009)
Bandeira do Acre.svg Acre AC Rio Branco 152,581.4 732,793 4.80 6,730,000 (0.2%) 9,896 0.780 84% 28.9‰ 72.0
Bandeira de Alagoas.svg Alagoas AL Maceió 27,767.7 3,168,922 112.39 19,477,000 (0.6%) 6,227 0.720 75% 46.4‰ 67.6
Bandeira do Amapá.svg Amapá AP Macapá 142,814.6 668,689 4.68 6,765,000 (0.2%) 11,033 0.800 97% 22.5‰ 71.0
Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas AM Manaus 1,570,745.7 3,480,937 2.21 46,823,000 (1.6%) 14,014 0.800 93% 24.3‰ 72.2
Bandeira da Bahia.svg Bahia BA Salvador 564,692.7 14,021,432 24.83 121,508,000 (3.9%) 8,378 0.767 83% 31.4‰ 72.6
Bandeira do Ceará.svg Ceará CE Fortaleza 148,825.6 8,448,055 56.76 60,099,000 (1.9%) 7,112 0.749 81% 27.6‰ 71.0
Bandeira do Distrito Federal (Brasil).svg Distrito Federal DF Brasília 5,822.1 2,562,963 441.74 117,572,000 (3.8%) 45,978 0.900 97% 15.8‰ 75.8
Bandeira do Espírito Santo.svg Espírito Santo ES Vitória 46,077.5 3,511,672 76.23 69,870,000 (2.3%) 20,231 0.821 92% 17.7‰ 74.3
Flag of Goiás.svg Goiás GO Goiânia 340,086.7 6,004,045 17.65 75,275,000 (2.5%) 12,879 0.824 91% 18.3‰ 73.9
Bandeira do Maranhão.svg Maranhão MA São Luís 331,983.3 6,569,683 19.78 38,487,000 (1.2%) 6,104 0.722 81% 36.5‰ 68.4
Bandeira de Mato Grosso.svg Mato Grosso MT Cuiabá 903,357.9 3,033,991 3.36 53,023,000 (1.6%) 17,927 0.808 90% 19.2‰ 73.7
Bandeira de Mato Grosso do Sul.svg Mato Grosso do Sul MS Campo Grande 357,125.0 2,449,341 6.85 33,145,000 (1.1%) 14,188 0.830 91% 16.9‰ 74.3
Bandeira de Minas Gerais.svg Minas Gerais MG Belo Horizonte 586,528.3 19,595,309 33.40 282,522,000 (9.1%) 14,233 0.825 92% 19.1‰ 75.1
Bandeira do Pará.svg Pará PA Belém 1,247,689.5 7,588,078 6.08 58,519,000 (1.9%) 7,993 0.782 88% 23.0‰ 72.5
Bandeira da Paraíba.svg Paraíba PB João Pessoa 56,439.8 3,766,834 66.74 25,697,000 (0.9%) 6,866 0.752 78% 35.2‰ 69.8
Bandeira do Paraná.svg Paraná PR Curitiba 199,314.9 10,439,601 52.37 179,270,000 (6.1%) 16,928 0.846 93% 17.3‰ 74.7
Bandeira de Pernambuco.svg Pernambuco PE Recife 98,311.6 8,796,032 89.47 70,441,000 (2.3%) 8,065 0.742 82% 35.7‰ 69.1
Bandeira do Piauí.svg Piauí PI Teresina 251,529.2 3,119,015 12.40 16,761,000 (0.5%) 5,373 0.740 76% 26.2‰ 69.7
Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Rio de Janeiro RJ Rio de Janeiro 43,696.1 15,993,583 366.01 343,182,000 (11.2%) 21,621 0.852 96% 18.3‰ 73.7
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Norte.svg Rio Grande do Norte RN Natal 52,796.8 3,168,133 60.00 25,481,000 (0.8%) 8,203 0.753 82% 32.2‰ 71.1
Bandeira do Rio Grande do Sul.svg Rio Grande do Sul RS Porto Alegre 281,748.5 10,695,532 37.96 199,499,000 (6.6%) 20,331 0.847 95% 12.7‰ 75.5
Bandeira de Rondônia.svg Rondônia RO Porto Velho 237,576.2 1,560,501 6.56 17,888,000 (0.6%) 11,977 0.784 90% 22.4‰ 71.8
Bandeira de Roraima.svg Roraima RR Boa Vista 224,299.0 451,227 2.01 4,889,000 (0.2%) 11,845 0.782 93% 18.1‰ 70.6
Bandeira de Santa Catarina.svg Santa Catarina SC Florianópolis 95,346.2 6,249,682 65.54 123,283,000 (4.1%) 20,369 0.860 95% 15.0‰ 75.8
Bandeira do estado de São Paulo.svg São Paulo SP São Paulo 248,209.4 41,252,160 166.19 1,003,016,000 (33.9%) 24,457 0.857 95% 14.5‰ 74.8
Bandeira de Sergipe.svg Sergipe SE Aracaju 21,910.3 2,068,031 94.83 19,522,000 (0.7%) 9,779 0.770 84% 31.4‰ 71.6
Bandeira do Tocantins.svg Tocantins TO Palmas 277,620.9 1,383,453 4.98 13,091,000 (0.4%) 10,233 0.784 86% 25.6‰ 71.9

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