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Udal law

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Udal law (Inglis: allodium[1]) is a Norse-derived legal system, foond in Shetlan an Orkney in Scotland, an in Manx law[2] in the Isle o Man. The term is Proto-Germanic *Ōþalan, meanin "heritage; inheritance".[3] The muckle differences fae Scots law include shore awnership richts, important for pipelines an buried cables.

Histrie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Udal law wis codified bi Norse kings Magnus I an Magnus VI. The Treaty o Perth pit ower the Waster Isles an Isle o Man tae Scots law, whiles Norse law wis still bruikt in Shetlan an Orkney.

Udal law is maistlins a pairt o histrie;[1] howsomeiver, modren Scots coorts bytimes acknowledge its supremacy in property cases, alangside Scots law.

Description[eedit | eedit soorce]

The type o tenure depends on wither the title o udal law arose:[4]

  1. Uncscreiven udal title, tho rare, exists, fur screiven title deeds wusnae needfu in udal law.
  2. Recorded udal titles, as screived in the Sasine Register, gie pruif bi prescription fur the purpose o the Prescription and Limitation (Scotland) Act 1973.[5]
  3. Some udal lairds gied thair lands ower tae the Croun fur a grant o feudal title tae the dominium utile, thus remuivin the land fae udal law.
  4. Where some feu dispositions arose in quasi-feudal circumstance, siclike sales unner the richt-tae-coff legislation wi respect tae cooncil hooses, the terms o the relevant deed will govern wit tenure applee's.

The udal tenant held withoutyn charter bi uninterrupted possession on payment tae the Croun, the kirk, or a grantee fae the Croun o a tribute cryed skat (Norse: skatt, meanin "tax" the nou), or withnae sic payment, the latter richt bein mair stricclie the udal richt. Thay wur convertible intae feus at the option o the udallers.[6] Succession law haed unique traits, as the auldest lad inherited the faither's main residence, while the rest o the property wis shared amang siblings, wi lasses inheriting hauf o wit lads got.[7]

A wheen o divers aspects o udal law are nae seen elsewhere in the UK:

  1. While in the rest o the UK ownership o land extends ainly tae the heich watter mark (the Croun awns what lies below), in Shetlan an Orkney it extends tae the laichmaist astronomical tide.[8][9] This haed complications durin the development o the North Sea ilefields, for biggers o pipelines needit permission fae the foreshore awners tae proceed wi their work.[10] Unner the Land Registration etc. (Scotland) Act 2012,[11] entry o title ontae the Land Register of Scotland maun include a cadastral plan,[12] but the foreshore on sic plans needs only tae be drawn at the mean laichmaist watter mark o ordinary spring tides.[13] Where udal title exists note maun be inserted on the plan tae indicate that title extends tae the laichmaist ebb.[13]
  2. Swans, which belang to the Croun in the muckle pairt o the UK, belang tae the fowk in Shetlan an Orkney.[14]

Modren land reform[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 extinguished any remainin obligations tae pay skat, as o 28 November 2004.[4] Forby, the Land Registration (Scotland) Act 1979 (as amended bi the Title Conditions (Scotland) Act 2003) says that, as o 1 April 2003, foremaist registration will be required on any transfer o an interest in udal tenure that hudnae been entered in the Land Register aforehand, as real richts kin ainly be obtained bi registration.[4]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

Further reading[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Drever, W. P. (1900). "Udal Law". In Chisholm, J. (ed.). Green's Encyclopaedia of the Law of Scotland. Vol. XIII. Edinburgh: William Green & Sons. pp. 28–38.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) (in Inglis)
  • Drever, W. P. (1904). "Udal Law and the Foreshore". The Juridical Review. 16: 189.(subscription needit) (in Inglis)
  • Jones, Michael R. H. (1996). "Perceptions of Udal Law in Orkney and Shetland" (PDF). Shetland's Northern Links: Language & History. Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies. pp. 186–204. ISBN 0-95059949-2. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 17 October 2018.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) (in Inglis)
  • Linklater, Eileen (2002). Udal Law - Past, Present and Future? (PDF) (LLB (Hons)). University of Strathclyde.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) (in Inglis)
  • Ryder, Jane (1988). "Udal Law: An Introduction" (PDF). Northern Studies. Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies. 25: 1–20. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 17 October 2018.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) (in Inglis)

Reference[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b UDAL, n. Also udall, uddall (Ork. 1905 E.D.D.), udel(l); odal. An allodium, land held by natural possession, freq. attested by a Shuynd Bill, according to a system of freehold tenure found in Scandinavia, Shetland and Orkney, and subject to the payment of Skatt, q.v., but not to any form of feudal service, ownership being established by unbroken possession for thirty years or by three generations and being alienable only with the consent of the owner's family. In the consequent constant subdivision, much of the orig. udal land has gradually been alienated and feudalised by charter under the Crown of Scotland; also landholding under this system, allodial tenure, freq. attrib. and in combs. udal-born, -land, -man, etc. Now chiefly hist. (Scottish National Dictionary)
  2. Collegium Medievale 8.1 (1995, publ. 1996), 5-49 Archived 2007-06-23 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Orkney Guide Book: Udal Law". www.charles-tait.co.uk. Archived frae the original on 10 Mey 2020. Retrieved 11 Mairch 2020.
  4. a b c "Legal Manual - L32: Udal Tenure". Registers of Scotland. 21 Julie 2015. Archived frae the original on 18 Apryle 2016. Retrieved 7 Apryle 2016.
  5. Template:Cite legislation UK
  6.  Ane or mair o the precedin sentences incorporates text frae a publication nou in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Udal" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 556. Cite has empty unkent parameters: |HIDE_PARAMETER15=, |HIDE_PARAMETER13=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14c=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14=, |HIDE_PARAMETER9=, |HIDE_PARAMETER3=, |HIDE_PARAMETER1=, |HIDE_PARAMETER4=, |HIDE_PARAMETER2=, |HIDE_PARAMETER8=, |HIDE_PARAMETER20=, |HIDE_PARAMETER5=, |HIDE_PARAMETER7=, |HIDE_PARAMETER10=, |separator=, |HIDE_PARAMETER14b=, |HIDE_PARAMETER6=, |HIDE_PARAMETER11=, and |HIDE_PARAMETER12= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. "Udal law". charles-tait.co.uk. 2002. Archived frae the original on 10 Februar 2006. Archived 2006-02-10 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "Wake Up Scotland!". udallaw.com. Shetland & Orkney Udal Law Group. Archived frae the original on 23 Januar 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2004.
  9. "Research Summary: Udal law and coastal property ownership" (PDF). University of Dundee. 2002. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 24 Februar 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  10. "Norse landing". The Scotsman. 22 Februar 2003. Archived frae the original on 3 Juin 2016.
  11. Land Registration etc. (Scotland) Act 2012, 2012 asp 5 Archived 2017-04-10 at the Wayback Machine
  12. "The cadastral map—the land register and land covered by water" (PDF). Registers of Scotland. 17 Juin 2016. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 17 Mairch 2017. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2017.
  13. a b "Udal Law and the Foreshore in Orkney & Shetland". Registers of Scotland. 13 Mairch 2017. Archived frae the original on 17 Mairch 2017. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2017.
  14. "Sir Peter's taste for swan has him fall foul of law". The Scotsman. 19 Mairch 2005. Archived frae the original on 25 Julie 2016.

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