|Comune di Subiaco|
|• Mayor||Francesco Pelliccia (syne Mey 2011)|
|• Total||63 km2 (24 sq mi)|
|Elevation||408 m (1,339 ft)|
|Population (30 June 2010)|
|• Density||150/km2 (390/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saunt||St. Benedict|
|Saunt day||March 21|
Subiaco is a toun an comune in the Province o Roum, in Lazio, Italy, 40 kilometres (25 mi) frae Tivoli alangside the river Aniene. It is mainly renouned as a tourist an releegious resort for its sacred grotto (Sacro Speco), in the medieval St. Benedict's Abbey, an for the Abbey o St. Scholastica.
At a time when several German monks haed been assigned tae the monastery, German printers established a printin press in the toun. They printit the first beuks in Italy in the late 15t century.
Table o contents
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Auncient settlers o the aurie wur the Aequi, an Italic fowk. In 304 BC they wur conquered bi the Romans, who introduced their ceevilization an teuk advantage o the watters of the Aniene river. The present name o the ceety comes frae the airtificial lochs o the luxurious villa that emperor Nero haed built: in Latin Sublaqueum means "unner the loch." The name wis appleed tae the toun that developit nearbi. The biggest o the three Subiaco Dams wis the heichest dam in the warld till its destruction in 1305. Efter the faw o the Roman Empire, the villa an the toun wur abandoned, becomin amaist forgotten ruins.
When St. Benedict, at the age o fowerteen, retired frae the warld an livit for three years in a cave abuin the river Anio, he wis suppleed wi the necessars o life bi a monk, St. Roman. Frae this grotto, St. Benedict developed the concepts an organization o the Benedictine Order. He built twal monasteries an placit twal monks in each, includin ane at the grotto. In 854 a record notit its renovation. In this year, Pape Leo IV is said tae hae consecratit a altar tae Sts. Benedict an Scholastica an anither tae St. Sylvester. Anither renovation teuk place in 1053 unner Abbot Humbert o St. Scholastica. Abbot John V, creatit cardinal b Pape Gregory VII, made the grotto the terminus o a yearly procession, built a new road, an haed the altars reconsecratit.
In 1200 thare wis a commonty o twal, which Pape Innocent III made a priory; Pape John XXII in 1312 appointit a special abbot tae the monks. A new road was built by the city in 1688. The sacred grotto is still a favourite pilgrimage. On 27 October 1909, Pape Pius X grantit a daily plenar indulgence tae those who receive Holy Communion thare an pray accordin tae the intention o the Pape (Acta. Ap. Sedis, II, 405).
The Abbey o St. Scholastica, aboot a mile an a hauf belaw the grotto, wis built bi St. Benedict aboot 520, an endoued bi the Roman patricians, Tertullus an Æquitius. The seicont abbot, St. Honoratus, chyngit the auld monastery intae a chapter room an built a new ane, dedicatin it tae Sts. Cosmas an Damian. It wis destroyed bi the Lombards in 601 an abandoned for a century. Bi order o John VII, it wis rebuilt bi Abbot Stephen an consecratit tae Sts. Benedict an Scholastica. Demolished in 840 bi the Saracens an again in 981 bi the Hungarians, it wis rebuilt again.
Pape Benedict VII consecratit the new kirk, an henceforth the abbey wis kent bi the name St. Scholastica. In 1052, Pape Leo IX came tae Subiaco tae settle various disputes an tae correct abuisses; a similar visit wis made bi Gregory VII. Special favour wis shown bi Paschal II, who teuk the abbey frae the jurisdiction o the Bishop o Tivoli an made it a abbacy nullius. Its temporal welfare wis a care o the papes an aw. Amangithers, Pape Innocent III at his visit in 1203 increased the revenues o the abbey.
Wi the decline o releegious fervour, strife an dissension arose tae such a extent that Abbot Bartholomew in 1364, bi command o the pape, haed tae dismiss some o the incorrigible monks an fill their places wi releegious frae ither monasteries. Numerous monks wur brocht in frae Germany, an for mony decades Subiaco wis a centre o German thrift, science, an airt. Urban VI (1378–1389) abolished the abbots for life, teuk awa frae the monks the richt o election, an gave the admeenistration an revenues tae a member o the Curia.
The assignment o German monks tae Subiaco attractit ither Germans. The printers Sweinheim an Pannartz established a printin press in Subiaco and printed Donatus pro parvulis, Lactantius (1465) an De Civitate Dei (1467). Those wur the first beuks tae be printit in Italy.
Pape Callixtus III, in 1455, gave the abbey in commendam tae a cardinal. The first o these wis the Spainyie Cardinal Juan de Torquemada an the seicont Roderigo Borgia (later Pape Alexander VI), who remodeled the Castrum Sublacence, ance the summer resort o the papes, an made it the residence o the commendatory abbot. Mony o these abbots cared little for the releegious life o the monks an leukit anerly for revenue. As a example, Pompeo Colonna, Bishop o Rieti, commendatory abbot syne 1506, squandered the guids o the abbey an gave the income tae unworthy subjects. On complaint o the commonty, in 1510 Pape Julius II readjustit matters an restored the monastic possessions. For spiritual benefit, a union haed been made atween Subiaco an the Abbey o Farfa, but it lastit a short time. In 1514, Subiaco joined the Congregation o St. Justina, whose abbot-general wis titular o St. Scholastica, while a cardinal remained commendatory abbot. Even efter this union, thare wur quarrels between Subiaco an Farfa, Subiaco an Monte Cassino, essentially amang the Germans an the Italians.
Efter this little is kent frae historical records aboot the abbey an the ceety till the 19t century. In 1798-1799 an 1810-1814 French troops unner Napoleon entered the ceety, plunderin the monasteries an the kirks. In 1849 an 1867 Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered the ceety in his plan tae destroy the temporal rule o the Pape an unifee Italy: in 1870 the ceety become definitively pairt o the Regno d'Italia.
In 1891, a Benedictine abbey foondit earlier in wastren Arkansas, Unitit States, chyngit its name tae Subiaco as pairt o a effort tae mair closely align its teachins an practices tae those o the famous abbeys o the Italian namesak.
In the first years o the 20t century, the aurie wis impruivit bi naitional investment in infrastructur, wi the connection tae a railwey, a hydroelectric plant an a aqueduct. Electricity wis brocht tae the hooses an a hospital wis built. In Warld War II, Subiaco wis bombed bi Allied planes.
Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]
In addeetion tae the twa abbeys, noteworthy are an aw:
- Rocca Abbaziale ("Abbots castle"), a massive medieval edifice lairgely rebuilt in the 16t an 17t centuries.
- Kirk o Saint Francis (1327), haulds notable pentins frae the 15t an 16t centuries.
- The medieval St. Francis' brig, a fortifeed brig featurin a span o 37m
- The neo-clessical kirks o Sant'Andrea an Santa Maria della Valle.
Notable natives or residents[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Lucrezia Borgia (1480–1519)
- Francesco Graziani (born 1952), Italian international footballer
- Gina Lollobrigida (born 1927), film actress
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Offeecial wabsteid (Italian)