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Banner o Latium
Coat of airms o Latium
Coat airms
 • PresesNicola Zingaretti (Democratic Pairty)
 • Total17236 km2 (6,655 sq mi)
 • Total5,550,459
 • Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Laziali / Laziale
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
GDP/ Nominal€ 174.1[1] billion (2008)
GDP per capita€ 30,800[2] (2008)

Lazio (pronounced [ˈlattsjo], Laitin: Latium) is ane o the 20 admeenistrative regions o Italy, situatit in the central peninsular section o the kintra. Wi aboot 5.7 million residents an a GDP o mair nor 170 billion euros, Lazio is the third maist populatit an the seicont richest region o Italy. It includes Roum, caipital an lairgest ceety o Italy.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Relief map o Lazio.
Panorama o the Aniene Valley.

Lazio comprises a land aurie o 17,236 km2 (6,655 sq mi) an it haes borders wi Tuscany, Umbrie, an Marche tae the north, Abruzzo an Molise tae the east, Campanie tae the sooth, an the Tyrrhenian Sea tae the wast. The region is mainly flat an hilly, wi smaw muntainous auries in the maist eastren an soothren destricts.

The coast o Lazio is mainly componit o sandy beaches, punctuatit bi the heidlands o Circeo (541 m) an Gaeta (171 m). The Pontine Islands, which are pairt o Lazio, lee opposite the soothren coast. Ahint the coastal strip, tae the north, lees the Maremma Laziale (the continuation o Tuscan Maremma), a costal plain interruptit at Civitavecchia bi the Tolfa Muntains (616 m). The central section o the region is occupeed bi the Roman Campagna, a vast alluvial plain surroondin the ceety o Roum, wi a aurie o approximately 2,100 km2 (811 sq mi). The soothren destricts are characterisit bi the flatlands o Agro Pontino, a ance swampy an malarial aurie, that wis reclaimit ower the centuries.

The Preapennines o Latium, markit bi the Tiber valley an the Liri wi the Sacco tributary, include on the richt o the Tiber, three groups o muntains o volcanic oreegin: the Volsini, Cimini an Sabatini, whose lairgest umwhile craters are occupeed bi the Bolsena, Vico an Bracciano lochs. Tae the sooth o the Tiber, ither muntain groups form pairt o the Preapennines: the Alban Hills, o volcanic oreegin an aw, an the calcareous Lepini, Ausoni an Aurunci Muntains. The Apennines o Latium are a continuation o the Apennines o Abruzzo: the Reatini Muntains wi Terminillo (2,213 m), Munts Sabini, Prenestini, Simbruini an Ernici which continue east o the Liri intae the Mainarde Muntains. The heichest peak is Munt Gorzano (2,458 m) on the mairch wi Abruzzo.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw: History o Italy

The Appian Wey (Via Appia), a road connectin Auncient Roum tae the soothren pairts o Italy, remains uisable even the day.

The Italian wird Lazio strynds frae the Laitin wird Latium. The name o the region survives in the tribal designation o the auncient population o Lautins an aw, Latini in the Laitin leid spoken bi thaim an passed on tae the ceety-state o Auncient Roum. Awtho the demografie o auncient Roum wis multi-ethnic, includin, for ensaumple, Etruscans an ither Italics besides the Latini, the latter wur the dominant constituent. In Roman meethologie, the tribe o the Latini tuek thair name frae king Latinus. Apairt frae the meethical derivation o Lazio gien bi the auncients as the place whaur Jupiter "lay hidden" frae his faither seekin tae kill him, a major modren etymologie is that Lazio comes frae the Laitin wird "latus", meanin "wide", expressin the idea o "flat land" meanin the Roman Campagna. Hintle o Lazio is in fact flat or rollin. The lands oreeginally inhabitit bi the Latini wur extendit intae the territories o the Samnites, the Marsi, the Hernici, the Aequi, the Aurunci an the Volsci, aw surroondin Italic tribes. This lairger territory wis still cried Latium, but it wis dividit intae Latium adiectum or Latium Novum, the addit lands or New Latium, an Latium Vetus, or Auld Latium, the aulder, smawer region.

The northren mairch o Lazio wis the Tiber river, which dividit it frae Etrurie.

The emperor Augustus offeecially unitit amaist aw o present-day Italy intae a single geo-poleetical entity, Italia, dividin it intae eleiven regions. Lazio – thegither wi the present region o Campanie immediately tae the sootheast o Lazio an the seat o Neapolis – became Region I.

Efter the Gothic War (535-554) an the Byzantine conquest, this region regained its freedom, acause the "Roman Duchy" became the property o the Eastren Emperor. Housomeivver, the lang wars against the barbarian Longobards weakened the region, which wis seizit bi the Roman Bishop who awready haed several properties in those territories.

The strenthenin o the releegious an ecclesiastical aristocracy led tae continuous pouer struggles atween lairds an the Roman bishop till the middle o the 16t century. Innocent III treed tae strengthen his awn territorial pouer, wishin tae assert his authority in the provincial admeenistrations o Tuscia, Campagna an Marittima throu the Kirk's representatives, in order tae reduce the power o the Colonna faimily. Ither papes treed tae dae the same. Durin the period when the papacy residit in Avignon, Fraunce (1309–1377), the feudal lairds' pouer increased due tae the absence o the Pape frae Roum. Smaw communes, an Roum abuin aw, opposed the lairds' increasin pouer, an wi Cola di Rienzo, thay treed tae present thaislves as antagonists o the ecclesiastical pouer. Housomeivver, atween 1353 an 1367, the papacy regained control o Lazio an the rest o the Papal States.

Frae the middle o the 16t century, the papacy poleetically unifeed Lazio wi the Papal States, sae that thir territories became provincial admeenistrations o St. Peter's estate; govrenors in Viterbo, in Marittima an Campagna, an in Frosinone admeenistered thaim for the papacy.

Lazio comprisit the short-livit Roman Republic, in which it became a puppet state o the First French Republic unner the forces o Napoleon. The Republic existit frae 15 Februar 1798 till Lazio wis returned tae the Papal States in October 1799. In 1809, Lazio wis annexed tae the French Empire, but returned unner the Pape in 1815.

On 20 September 1870 the capture o Roum, durin the reign o Pape Pius IX, an Fraunce's defeat at Sedan, completit Italian unification, an Lazio wis incorporatit intae the Kinrick o Italy.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Agricultur, crafts, ainimal husbandry an fishery are the main tradeetional soorces o income. Agricultur is characterisit bi the cultivation o wine grapes, fruit, vegetables an olives.

Industrial development in Lazio is limitit tae the auries sooth o Roum. Communications an - abuin aw - the settin o the mairch o the Cassa del Mezzogiorno some kilometres sooth o Roum, hae influencit the poseetion o industry, favourin the auries wi the best links tae Roum an those near the Autostrada del Sole (motorway), especially aroond Frosinone. Firms are aften smaw tae middlin in size an operate in the biggin an biggin materials (Roum, Civitavecchia), paper (Sora), petrochemical (Gaeta, Roum), textile (Frosinone), ingineerin (Rieti, Anagni), automobile (Cassino), electronic an electrotechnical (Viterbo) sectors.

Approximately 73% o the wirkin population are employed in the services sector; this is a considerable proportion, but is justifeed bi the presence o Roum, which is the core o public admeenistration, bankin, tourism, insurance an ither sectors. Mony naitional an multinaitional corporations, public an private, hae thair heidquairters in Roum (ENI, Enel, Finmeccanica, Alitalia, RAI).

Lazio's limitit industrial sector an heichlie developit service industries alloued the region tae well ootperform the Italian economy in 2009.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Historical population
1861 356,000—    
1871 1,173,000+229.5%
1881 1,257,000+7.2%
1901 1,586,000+26.2%
1911 1,771,000+11.7%
1921 1,997,000+12.8%
1931 2,349,000+17.6%
1936 2,655,000+13.0%
1951 3,341,000+25.8%
1961 3,959,000+18.5%
1971 4,689,000+18.4%
1981 5,002,000+6.7%
1991 5,140,000+2.8%
2001 5,112,000−0.5%
2011 5,732,000+12.1%
Source: ISTAT 2001

Wi a population o aboot 5.7 million, Lazio is the third maist populatit region o Italy. The oweraw population density in the region is 332 indwallers per km2. Housomeivver, the population density widely ranges frae amaist 800 indwallers per km2 in the heichlie urbanizit Province o Roum tae less nor 60 indwallers per km2 in the muntainous an landwart Province o Rieti. As o Januar 2010, the Italian naitional institute o statistics ISTAT estimatit that 497,940 foreign-born immigrants live in Lazio, equal tae 8.8% o the tot regional population.[3]

Govrenment an politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Roum is center-left poleetically orientit bi tradeetion, while the rest o Lazio is center-richt orientit. In the 2008 general election, Lazio gae 44.2% o its vote tae the centre-richt coalition, while the centre-left block teuk 41.4% o vote. In the 2013 general election, Lazio gae 40.7% o its vote tae the centre-left block coalition, 29.3% tae the centre-richt coalition an 20.2 tae the Five Star Muivement.

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lazio is dividit intae five provinces:

Province Aurie (km²) Population Density
Province o Frosinone 3,244 496,545 153.1
Province o Latina 2,251 543,844 241.4
Province o Rieti 2,749 158,545 57.7
Province o Roum 5,352 4,097,085 765.5
Province o Viterbo 3,612 314,690 87.1

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. EUROPA - Press Releases - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London
  3. "Foreign-born population in Italy, 1 January 2010" (PDF). Istat. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]