Augustus

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Augustus
1st Emperor o the Roman Empire
Statue-Augustus.jpg
The statue kent as the Augustus o Prima Porta, 1st century
Ring 16 Januar 27 BC – 19 August AD 14
Predecessor None (Empire foondit)
Successor Tiberius, stepson bi 3rd wife
Born 23 September 63 BC
Roum, Roman Republic
Dee'd 19 August AD 14 (aged 75)
Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
Buirial Mausoleum o Augustus, Rome
Spouse Clodia Pulchra (42–40 BC)
Scribonia (40–38 BC)
Livia Drusilla (37 BC – 14 AD)
Issue Julia the Elder
Gaius Caesar (adoptive)
Lucius Caesar (adoptive)
Agrippa Postumus (adoptive)
Tiberius (adoptive)
Full name
Imperator Gaius Julius Divi Filius Caesar Octavianus Augustus
Hoose Julio-Claudian Dynasty
Faither Gaius Octavius
Mither Atia Balba Caesonia

Augustus (Laitin: Imperator Caesar Divi F. Augustus,[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) wis the foonder o the Roman Empire an its first Emperor, rulin frae 27 BC til his daith in 14 AD.[note 2]

He wis born Gaius Octavius intae an auld and wealthy equestrian branch o the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar wis assassinatit in 44 BC, an Octavius wis named in Caesar's will as his adoptit son an heir, then kent as Octavianus (Anglicised as Octavian). He, Mark Antony, an Marcus Lepidus formed the Seicont Triumvirate tae defeat the assassins o Caesar. Follaein thair victory at the Battle o Philippi, the Triumvirate dividit the Roman Republic amqng themselves an ruled as militar dictators.[note 3] The Triumvate wis eventually torn apairt bi the competin ambeetions o its members. Lepidus wis driven intae exile an stripped o his poseetion, an Antony committit suicide follaein his defeat at the Battle o Actium bi Octavian in 31 BC.

Efter the demise o the Seicont Triumvirate, Augustus restored the ootward façade o the free Republic, wi govrenmental pouer vestit in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, an the legislative assemblies. In reality, houever, he reteened his autocratic pouer ower the Republic as a militar dictator. Bi law, Augustus held a collection o pouers grantit tae him for life bi the Senate, includin supreme militar command, an thae o tribune an censor. It teuk several years for Augustus tae develop the framewirk within which a formally republican state coud be led unner his sole rule. He rejectit monarchical teetles, an instead cried himsel Princeps Civitatis ("First Ceetizen o the State"). The resultin constitutional framewark acame kent as the Principate, the first phase o the Roman Empire.

The reign o Augustus ineetiatit an era o relative peace kent as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). The Roman warld wis lairgely free frae lairge-scale conflict for mair nor twa centuries, despite continuous wars o imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers an the year-lang ceevil war kent as the "Year o the Fower Emperors" ower the imperial succession. Augustus dramatically enlairged the Empire, annexin Egyp, Dalmatie, Pannonie, Noricum, an Raetie; expandin possessions in Africae; expandin intae Germanie; an completin the conquest o Hispanie.

Yont the frontiers, he secured the Empire wi a buffer region o client states an made peace wi the Parthian Empire throu diplomacy. He reformed the Roman seestem o taxation, developed networks o roads wi an offeecial courier seestem, established a staundin airmy, established the Praetorian Guard, creautit offeecial polis an fire-fechtin services for Roum, an rebiggit much o the ceety during his reign.

Augustus dee'd in AD 14 at the age o 75. He probably dee'd frae naitural causes, awtho thare war unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia pushioned him. He wis succeedit as Emperor bi his adoptit son (an aa stepson an umwhile son-in-law) Tiberius.

Fitmerks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. In Clessical Laitin: IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS.
  2. The dates o his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus bided unner twa calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, an the Julian efter 45 BC. Due tae departures frae Julius Caesar's intentions, Augustus restorit the Julian calendar in 8 BC, an the correspondence atween the proleptic Julian calendar an the actual calendar observit in Rome is uncertain afore 8 BC.(Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003: 670–1)
  3. As part o the Triumvirate, Octavian ruled the Wastren provinces, Antony ruled the Eastren provinces, an Lepidus ruled Africae.