Augustus

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Augustus
1st Emperor o the Roman Empire
Statue-Augustus.jpg
The statue kent as the Augustus o Prima Porta, 1st century
Ring 16 Januar 27 BC – 19 August AD 14
Predecessor None (Empire foondit)
Successor Tiberius, stepson bi 3rd wife
Born 23 September 63 BC
Roum, Roman Republic
Dee'd 19 August AD 14 (aged 75)
Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
Buirial Mausoleum o Augustus, Rome
Spouse Clodia Pulchra (42–40 BC)
Scribonia (40–38 BC)
Livia Drusilla (37 BC – 14 AD)
Issue Julia the Elder
Gaius Caesar (adoptive)
Lucius Caesar (adoptive)
Agrippa Postumus (adoptive)
Tiberius (adoptive)
Full name
Imperator Gaius Julius Divi Filius Caesar Octavianus Augustus
Hoose Julio-Claudian Dynasty
Faither Gaius Octavius
Mither Atia Balba Caesonia

Augustus (Laitin: Imperator Caesar Divi F. Augustus,[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) wis the foonder o the Roman Empire an its first Emperor, rulin frae 27 BC til his daith in 14 AD.[note 2]

He wis born Gaius Octavius intae an auld an walthy equestrian branch o the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar wis assassinatit in 44 BC, an Octavius wis named in Caesar's will as his adoptit son an heir, then kent as Octavianus (Anglicised as Octavian). He, Mark Antony, an Marcus Lepidus formed the Seicont Triumvirate tae defeat the assassins o Caesar. Follaein thair victory at the Battle o Philippi, the Triumvirate dividit the Roman Republic amang themsels an ruled as militar dictators.[note 3] The Triumvate wis eventually torn apairt bi the competin ambeetions o its members. Lepidus wis driven intae exile an stripped o his poseetion, an Antony committit suicide follaein his defeat at the Battle o Actium bi Octavian in 31 BC.

Efter the demise o the Seicont Triumvirate, Augustus restored the ootward façade o the free Republic, wi govrenmental pouer vestit in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, an the legislative assemblies. In reality, houever, he reteened his autocratic pouer ower the Republic as a militar dictator. Bi law, Augustus held a collection o pouers grantit tae him for life bi the Senate, includin supreme militar command, an thae o tribune an censor. It teuk several years for Augustus tae develop the framewirk within which a formally republican state coud be led unner his sole rule. He rejectit monarchical teetles, an instead cried himsel Princeps Civitatis ("First Ceetizen o the State"). The resultin constitutional framewark acame kent as the Principate, the first phase o the Roman Empire.

The ring o Augustus ineetiatit an era o relative peace kent as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). The Roman warld wis lairgely free frae lairge-scale conflict for mair nor twa centuries, despite continuous wars o imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers an the year-lang ceevil war kent as the "Year o the Fower Emperors" ower the imperial succession. Augustus dramatically enlairged the Empire, annexin Egyp, Dalmatie, Pannonie, Noricum, an Raetie; expandin possessions in Africae; expandin intae Germanie; an completin the conquest o Hispanie.

Yont the frontiers, he secured the Empire wi a buffer region o client states an made peace wi the Parthian Empire throu diplomacy. He reformed the Roman seestem o taxation, developed networks o roads wi an offeecial courier seestem, established a staundin airmy, established the Praetorian Guard, creautit offeecial polis an fire-fechtin services for Roum, an rebiggit much o the ceety during his reign.

Augustus dee'd in AD 14 at the age o 75. He probably dee'd frae naitural causes, awtho thare war unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia pushioned him. He wis succeedit as Emperor bi his adoptit son (an aa stepson an umwhile son-in-law) Tiberius.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Augustus (Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs]) wis kent bi mony names outthrou his life:[note 4]

  • At birth, he wis named Gaius Octavius efter his biological faither. Historians teepically refer tae him simply as Octavius (or Octavian) atween his birth in 63 till his adoption bi Julius Caesar in 44 BC (efter Julius Caesar's daith).
  • Upon his adoption, he teuk Caesar's name an becam Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance wi Roman adoption namin staundarts. He quickly droppit "Octavianus" frae his name, an his contemporaries teepically referred tae him as "Caesar" in this period; historians, houiver, refer tae him as Octavian atween 44 BC an 27 BC.[1]
  • In 42 BC, Octavian begoud the Temple o Divus Iulius or Temple o the Comet Starn[2] an addit Divi Filius (Son o the Divine) tae his name in order tae strenthen his poleetical ties tae Caesar's umwhile sodgers bi follaein the deification o Caesar, acomin Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius.
  • In 38 BC, Octavian replaced his praenomen "Gaius" an nomen "Julius" wi Imperator, the teetle bi that truips hailed thair leader efter militar success, offeecially acomin Imperator Caesar Divi Filius.
  • In 27 BC, follaein his defeat o Mark Antony an Cleopatra, the Roman Senate votit new teetles for him, offeecially acomin Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus.[note 5] It is the events o 27 BC frae that he obtained his tradeetional name o Augustus, that historians uise in reference tae him frae 27 BC till his daith in AD 14.

Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]

While his paternal faimily wis frae the toun o Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) frae Roum, Augustus wis born in the ceety o Roum on 23 September 63 BC.[3] He wis born at Ox Head, a smaw property on the Palatine Hill, verra close tae the Roman Forum. He wis gien the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemoratin his faither's veectory at Thurii ower a rebellious baund o sclaves.[4][5]

Due tae the croudit naitur o Roum at the time, Octavius wis takken tae his faither's hame veelage at Velletri tae be raised. Octavius anerly mentions his faither's equestrian faimily briefly in his memoirs. His paternal great-grandfaither Gaius Octavius wis a militar tribune in Sicily in the Seicont Punic War. His grandfaither haed served in several local poleetical offices. His faither, an aa named Gaius Octavius, haed been govrenor o Macedonie.[note 6][6] His mither, Atia, wis the niece o Julius Caesar.

A denarius frae 44 BC, shawin Julius Caesar on the obverse an the goddess Venus on the reverse o the cunyie

In 59 BC, whan he wis fower years old, his faither dee'd.[7] His mither mairied a umwhile govrenor o Sirie, Lucius Marcius Philippus.[8] Philippus claimed strynd frae Alexander the Great, an wis electit consul in 56 BC. Philippus niver haed muckle o an interest in young Octavius. Acause o this, Octavius wis raised bi his grandmither, Julia, the sister o Julius Caesar.

Julia dee'd in 52 or 51 BC, an Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmither.[9] Frae this pynt, his mither an stepfaither teuk a mair active role in raisin him. He donned the toga virilis fower years later,[10] an wis electit tae the College o Pontiffs in 47 BC.[11][12] The follaein year he wis put in chairge o the Greek gemmes that war staged in honour o the Temple o Venus Genetrix, biggit bi Julius Caesar.[12] Accordin tae Nicolaus o Damascus, Octavius wished tae jyne Caesar's staff for his campaign in Africae, but gae wey whan his mither protestit.[13] In 46 BC, she consentit for him tae jyne Caesar in Hispania, whaur he planned tae fecht the forces o Pompey, Caesar's late enemy, but Octavius fell ill an wis unable tae traivel.

Whan he haed recovered, he sailed tae the front, but wis shipwrecked; efter comin ashore wi a haundfu o companions, he crossed hostile territory tae Caesar's camp, that impressed his great-uncle conseederably.[10] Velleius Paterculus reports that efter that time, Caesar alloued the young man tae share his cairiage.[14] Whan back in Roum, Caesar depositit a new will wi the Vestal Virgins, namin Octavius as the prime beneficiary.[15]

Rise tae pouer[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heir tae Caesar[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Death of Caesar, bi Jean-Léon Gérôme (1867). On 15 Mairch 44 BC, Octavius's adoptive faither Julius Caesar wis assassinatit bi a conspiracy led bi Marcus Junius Brutus an Gaius Cassius Longinus. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Octavius wis studying an unnergaein militar trainin in Apollonia, Illyria, whan Julius Caesar wis killed on the Ides o Mairch (15 Mairch) 44 BC. He rejectit the advice o some airmy officers tae tak haud wi the truips in Macedonie an sailed tae Italy tae ascertain whather he haed ony potential poleetical fortunes or siccarity.[16] Caesar haed na leevin legitimate childer unner Roman law,[note 7] an sae haed adoptit Octavius, his grand-neffae, makkin him his primar heir.[17] Mark Antony later chairged that Octavian haed earned his adoption bi Caesar throu sexual favours, tho Suetonius descrives Antony's accusation as poleetical slander.[18] Efter laundin at Lupiae near Brundisium, Octavius learned the contents o Caesar's will, an anerly then did he decide tae acome Caesar's poleetical heir as well as heir tae twa-thirds o his estate.[12][16][19]

Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman ceetizens adoptit intae a new faimily uisually retained thair auld nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for ane that haed been an Octavius, Aemilianus for ane wha haed been an Aemilius, etc.). Houiver, tho some o his contemporars did,[20] thare is na evidence that Octavius iver himsel offeecially uised the name Octavianus, as it wad hae made his modest oreegins too obvious.[21][22][23] Historians uisually refer tae the new Caesar as Octavian in the time atween his adoption an his assumption o the name Augustus in 27 BC in order tae avoid confusin the deid dictator wi his heir.[24]

Growin tensions[eedit | eedit soorce]

A reconstructit statue o Augustus as a younger Octavian, datit ca. 30 BC

Arrivin in Roum on 6 Mey 44 BC,[22] Octavian foond consul Mark Antony, Caesar's umwhile colleague, in an uneasy truce wi the dictator's assassins. Thay haed been grantit a general amnesty on 17 Mairch, yet Antony succeedit in drivin maist o them oot o Roum.[22] This wis due tae his "inflammatory" eulogy gien at Caesar's funeral, moontin public opeenion against the assassins.[22]

Mark Antony wis amassin poleetical support, but Octavian still haed opportunity tae rival him as the leadin member o the faction supportin Caesar. Mark Antony haed lost the support o mony Romans an supporters o Caesar whan he ineetially opponed the motion tae elevate Caesar tae divine status.[25] Octavian failed tae persuade Antony tae relinquish Caesar's siller tae him. In the simmer, he managed tae win support frae Caesarian sympathizers, houiver, wha saw the younger heir as the lesser ill an haipit tae manipulate him, or tae beir wi him in their efforts tae get rid o Antony.[26]

Octavian begoud tae mak common cause wi the Optimates, the umwhile enemies o Caesar. In September, the leadin Optimate orator Marcus Tullius Cicero begoud tae attack Antony in a series o speeches portrayin him as a threat tae the Republican order.[27][28] Wi opeenion in Roum turnin against him an his year o consular pouer nearin its end, Antony attemptit tae pass laws that wad lend him control ower Cisalpine Gaul, that haed been assigned as pairt o his province, frae Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, ane o Caesar's assassins.[29][30]

Octavian meanwhile biggit up a preevat airmy in Italy bi recruitin Caesarian veterans an, on 28 November, he wan ower twa o Antony's legions wi the enticin offer o monetar gain.[31][32][33] In the face o Octavian's lairge an capable force, Antony saw the danger o stayin in Roum an, tae the relief o the Senate, he fled tae Cisalpine Gaul, that wis tae be haundit tae him on 1 Januar.[33]

First conflict wi Antony[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bust o Augustus in Musei Capitolini, Rome

At the urgin o Cicero, the Senate inductit Octavian as senator on 1 Januar 43 BC, yet he an aa wis gien the pouer tae vote alongside the umwhile consuls.[32][33] In addeetion, Octavian wis grantit propraetor imperium (commandin pouer) that legalised his command o truips, sendin him tae relieve the siege alang wi Hirtius an Pansa (the consuls for 43 BC).[32][34] In Apryle 43 BC, Antony's forces war defeatit at the battles o Forum Gallorum an Mutina, forcin Antony tae retreat tae Transalpine Gaul. Baith consuls war killed, houiver, leavin Octavian in sole command o thair airmies.[35][36]

The senate heaped mony mair rewairds on Decimus Brutus nor on Octavian for defeatin Antony, then attemptit tae gie command o the consular legions tae Decimus Brutus—yet Octavian decidit nae tae cooperate.[37] Insteid, Octavian stayed in the Po Valley an refused tae aid ony further offensive against Antony.[38] In Julie, an embassy o centurions sent bi Octavian entered Roum an demandit that he receive the consulship left vacant bi Hirtius an Pansa.[39]

Octavian an aa demandit that the decree shoud be rescindit that declared Antony a public enemy.[38] Whan this wis refused, he mairched on the ceety wi aicht legions.[38] He encountered na militar opposeetion in Roum, an on 19 August 43 BC wis electit consul wi his relative Quintus Pedius as co-consul.[40][41] Meanwhile, Antony formed an alliance wi Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, anither leading Caesarian.[42]

Seicont Triumvirate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Proscriptions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Roman aureus beirin the portraits o Mark Antony (left) an Octavian (richt), issued in 41 BC tae celebrate the establishment o the Seicont Triumvirate bi Octavian, Antony an Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC. Baith sides beir the inscription "III VIR R P C", meanin "Ane o Three Men for the Regulation o the Republic".[43]

In a meetin near Bologna in October 43 BC, Octavian, Antony, an Lepidus formed a junta cried the Seicont Triumvirate.[44] This expleecit arrogation o special pouers lastin five years wis then supportit bi law passed bi the plebs, unlik the unoffeecial First Triumvirate formed bi Pompey, Julius Caesar, an Marcus Licinius Crassus.[44][45] The triumvirs then set in motion proscriptions in that 300 senators an 2,000 equites allegedly war buistit as ootlaws an deprived o their property an, for thae wha failed tae escape, thair lives.[46]

The estimation that 300 senators war proscribed wis presentit bi Appian, awtho his earlier contemporar Livy assertit that anerly 130 senators haed been proscrived.[47] This decree issued bi the triumvirate wis motivatit in pairt bi a need tae raise siller tae pay the salaries o thair truips for the upcomin conflict against Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger an Gaius Cassius Longinus.[48] Rewairds for thair arrest gae incentive for Romans tae captur thae proscrived, while the assets an properties o thae arrestit war seized bi the triumvirs.[46]

Contemporar Roman historians provide conflictin reports as tae which triumvir wis maist responsible for the proscriptions an killin. Houiver, the soorces agree that enactin the proscriptions wis a means bi aw three factions tae eliminate poleetical enemies.[49] Marcus Velleius Paterculus assertit that Octavian tried tae avoid proscribin officials whauras Lepidus an Antony war tae wyte for ineetiatin them.[50] Cassius Dio defendit Octavian as tryin tae spare as mony as possible, whauras Antony an Lepidus, bein aulder an involved in politics langer, haed mony mair enemies tae deal wi.[50]

This claim wis rejectit bi Appian, wha maintained that Octavian shared an equal interest wi Lepidus an Antony in eradicatin his enemies.[51] Suetonius said that Octavian wis reluctant tae proscrive officials, but did pursue his enemies wi mair rigor nor the ither triumvirs.[49] Plutarch descrived the proscriptions as a fell swappin o friends an faimily amang Antony, Lepidus, an Octavian. For ensaumple, Octavian alloued the proscription o his ally Cicero, Antony the proscription o his maternal uncle Lucius Julius Caesar (the consul o 64 BC), an Lepidus his brither Paullus.[50]

A denarius mintit c. 18 BC. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS; reverse: DIVVS IVLIV[S] (DIVINE JULIUS)

Battle o Philippi an diveesion o territory[eedit | eedit soorce]

On 1 Januar 42 BC, the Senate posthumously recognised Julius Caesar as a divinity o the Roman state, Divus Iulius. Octavian wis able tae forder his cause bi emphasisin the fact that he wis Divi filius, "Son o God".[52] Antony an Octavian then sent 28 legions bi sea tae face the airmies o Brutus an Cassius, wha haed biggit thair base o pouer in Greece.[53] Efter twa battles at Philippi in Macedonie in October 42, the Caesarian airmy wis victorious an Brutus an Cassius committit suicide. Mark Antony later uised the ensaumples o thir battles as a means tae belittle Octavian, as baith battles war decisively wan wi the uise o Antony's forces.[54] In addeetion tae claimin responsibility for baith veectories, Antony an aa brandit Octavian as a couart for haundin ower his direct militar control tae Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa insteid.[54]

Efter Philippi, a new territorial arrangement wis made amang the members o the Seicont Triumvirate. Gaul an the provinces o Hispanie an Italia war placed in the haunds o Octavian. Antony traiveled east tae Egyp whaur he allied himsel wi Queen Cleopatra VII, the umwhile luver o Julius Caesar an mither o Caesar's infant son Caesarion. Lepidus wis left wi the province o Africae, stymied bi Antony, wha concedit Hispanie tae Octavian insteid.[55]

Octavian wis left tae decide whaur in Italy tae settle the tens o thoosands o veterans o the Macedonian campaign, that the triumvirs haed promised tae discharge. The tens o thoosands that haed focht on the republican side wi Brutus an Cassius coud easily ally wi a poleetical opponent o Octavian if nae appeased, an thay an aa required laund.[55] Thare wis na mair govrenment-controlled laund tae lot as settlements for thair sodgers, sae Octavian haed tae chuise ane o twa options: alienatin mony Roman ceetizens bi confiscatin thair laund, or alienatin mony Roman sodgers wha coud moont a conseederable opposeetion against him in the Roman hertland. Octavian chuised the umwhile.[56] Thare war as mony as aichteen Roman touns affectit bi the new settlements, wi entire populations driven opt or at least gien pairtial evictions.[57]

Rebellion an mairiage alliances[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare wis widespreid dissatisfaction wi Octavian ower thir settlements o his sodgers, an this encouraged mony tae rally at the side o Lucius Antonius, wha wis brither o Mark Antony an supportit bi a majority in the Senate.[57] Meanwhile, Octavian asked for a divorce frae Clodia Pulchra, the dauchter o Fulvia (Mark Antony's wife) an her first man Publius Clodius Pulcher. He returned Clodia tae her mither, claimin that thair mairiage haed niver been consummated. Fulvia decidit tae take action. Thegither wi Lucius Antonius, she raised an airmy in Italy tae fecht for Antony's richts against Octavian. Lucius an Fulvia teuk a poleetical an mairtial gemble in opponin Octavian, houiver, syne the Roman airmy still dependit on the triumvirs for thair sellaries.[57] Lucius an his allies endit up in a defensive siege at Perusia (modren Perugia), whaurOctavian forced them intae surrender in early 40 BC.[57]

Lucius an his airmy war spared, due tae his kinship wi Antony, the strangman o the East, while Fulvia wis exiled tae Sicyon.[58] Octavian shawed na mercy, houiver, for the mass o allies leal tae Lucius; on 15 Maich, the anniversary o Julius Caesar's assassination, he haed 300 Roman senators an equestrians executit for allyin wi Lucius.[59] Perusia an aa wis pillaged an birned as a wairnin for ithers.[58] This bluidy event sullied Octavian's reputation an wis creeticised bi mony, sic as Augustan poet Sextus Propertius.[59]

Fresco pentins inside the Hoose o Augustus, his residence in his ring as emperor

Sextus Pompeius wis the son o First Triumvir Pompey an still a renegade general follaein Julius Caesar's veectory ower his faither. He wis established in Sicily an Sardinie as pairt o an agreement reached wi the Seicont Triumvirate in 39 BC.[60] Baith Antony an Octavian war vyin for an alliance wi Pompeius, wha wis a member o the republican pairty, ironically, nae the Caesarian faction.[59] Octavian succeedit in a temporar alliance in 40 BC whan he mairied Scribonia, a dauchter o Lucius Scribonius Libo that wis a follaer o Sextus Pompeius as well as his faither-in-law.[59] Scribonia gae birth tae Octavian's anerly naitural child, Julia, wha wis born the same day that he divorced her tae mairy Livia Drusilla, little mair nor a year efter their mairiage.[59]

While in Egyp, Antony haed been engaged in an affair wi Cleopatra an haed faithered three childer wi her.[61] Awaur o his deterioratin relationship wi Octavian, Antony left Cleopatra; he sailed tae Italy in 40 BC wi a large force tae oppone Octavian, layin siege tae Brundisium. This new conflict proved untenable for baith Octavian an Antony, houever. Thair centurions, that haed acome important feegurs poleetically, refused tae fecht due tae their Caesarian cause, while the legions unner their command follaed suit.[62][63] Meanwhile, in Sicyon, Antony's wife Fulvia dee'd o a sudden illness while Antony wis en route tae meet her. Fulvia's daith an the mutiny o thair centurions alloued the twa remeenin triumvirs tae effect a reconciliation.[62][63]

In the hairst o 40, Octavian an Antony appruived the Treaty o Brundisium, bi that Lepidus wad remeen in Africae, Antony in the East, Octavian in the Wast. The Italian peninsula wis left appen tae aw for the recruitment o sodgers, but in reality, this provision wis uiseless for Antony in the East.[62] Tae forder cement relations o alliance wi Mark Antony, Octavian gae his sister, Octavia Minor, in mairiage tae Antony in late 40 BC.[62] In thair mairiage, Octavia gae birth tae twa dauchters (kent as Antonia the Elder an Antonia Minor).

War wi Pompeius[eedit | eedit soorce]

Further information: Sicilian revolt
A denarius o Sextus Pompeius, mintit for his veectory ower Octavian's fleet, on the obverse the Pharus o Messina, wha defeatit Octavian, on the reverse, the monster Scylla

Sextus Pompeius threatened Octavian in Italy bi denyin shipments o grain throu the Mediterranean tae the peninsula. Pompeius' awn son wis put in chairge as naval commander in the effort tae cause widespread faimin in Italy.[63] Pompeius' control ower the sea promptit him tae tak on the name Neptuni filius, "son o Neptune".[64] A temporar peace greement wis reached in 39 BC wi the treaty o Misenum; the blockade on Italy wis liftit ance Octavian grantit Pompeius Sardinie, Corsicae, Sicily, an the Peloponnese, an ensured him a futur poseetion as consul for 35 BC.[63][64]

The territorial greement atween the triumvirate an Sextus Pompeius began tae crummle ance Octavian divorced Scribonia an mairied Livia on 17 Januar 38 BC.[65] Ane o Pompeius' naval commanders betrayed him an haundit ower Corsicae an Sardinie tae Octavian. Octavian lacked the resoorces tae confront Pompeius alane, houiver, sae a greement wis reached wi the Seicont Triumvirate's extension for anither five-year period beginnin in 37 BC.[45][66]

In supportin Octavian, Antony expectit tae gain support for his awn campaign against Parthie, desirin tae avenge Roum's defeat at Carrhae in 53 BC.[66] In an agreement reached at Tarentum, Antony providit 120 ships for Octavian tae uise against Pompeius, while Octavian wis tae send 20,000 legionars tae Antony for uise against Parthia.[67] Octavian sent anerly a tent o thae promised, houiver, that Antony viewed as an intentional provocation.[67]

Octavian an Lepidus launched a jynt operation against Sextus in Sicily in 36 BC.[68] Despite setbacks for Octavian, the naval fleet o Sextus Pompeius wis awmaist entirely destroyed on 3 September bi general Agrippa at the naval Battle o Naulochus.[69] Sextus fled tae the east wi his remeenin forces, whaur he wis capturt an executit in Miletus bi ane o Antony's generals the follaein year.[69] As Lepidus an Octavian acceptit the surrender o Pompeius' truips, Lepidus attemptit tae claim Sicily for himsel, orderin Octavian tae leave.[69] Lepidus' truips deserted him, houiver, an defectit tae Octavian syne thay war weary o fechtin an war enticed bi Octavian's promises o siller.[69]

Lepidus surrendered tae Octavian an wis permittit tae retain the office o Pontifex Maximus (heid o the college o priests), but wis ejectit frae the Triumvirate, his public career at an end, an effectively wis exiled tae a villa at Cape Circei in Italy.[48][69] The Roman domeenions war nou dividit atween Octavian in the Wast an Antony in the East. Octavian ensured Roum's ceetizens o thair richts tae property in order tae maintain peace an stability in his portion o the Empire. This time, he settled his dischairged sodgers ootside o Italy, while an aa returnin 30,000 sclaves tae thair umwhile Roman awners—sclaves wha had fled tae jyne Pompeius' airmy an navy.[70] Octavian haed the Senate grant him, his wife, an his sister tribunal immunity, or sacrosanctitas, in order tae ensure his awn sauftie an that o Livia an Octavia ance he returned tae Roum.[71]

War wi Antony[eedit | eedit soorce]

Anthony and Cleopatra, bi Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Meanwhile, Antony's campaign turned disastrous against Parthia, tairnishin his eemage as a leader, an the mere 2,000 legionars sent bi Octavian tae Antony war hardly eneuch tae replenish his forces.[72] On the ither haund, Cleopatra coud restore his airmy tae full strenth; he awreidy wis engaged in a romantic affair wi her, so he decidit tae send Octavia back tae Roum.[73] Octavian uised this tae spreid propaganda implyin that Antony wis acomin less nor Roman acause he rejectit a legitimate Roman spoose for an "Oriental paramour".[74] In 36 BC, Octavian uised a poleetical ploy tae mak himsel leuk less autocratic an Antony mair the villain bi proclaimin that the ceevil wars war comin tae an end, an that he wad step doun as triumvir—if anerly Antony wad dae the same. Antony refuised.[75]

Roman truips capturt the Kinrick o Armenie in 34 BC, an Antony made his son Alexander Helios the ruler o Armenie. He an aa awairdit the teetle "Queen o Keengs" tae Cleopatra, acts that Octavian uised tae convince the Roman Senate that Antony haed ambeetions tae diminish the preeminence o Roum.[74] Octavian becam consul ance again on 1 Januar 33 BC, an he opened the follaein session in the Senate wi a vehement attack on Antony's grants o teetles an territories tae his relatives an tae his queen.[76]

The breach atween Antony an Octavian promptit a lairge portion o the Senators, as well as baith o that year's consuls, tae leave Roum an defect tae Antony. Houiver, Octavian received twa key deserters frae Antony in the autumn o 32 BC: Munatius Plancus an Marcus Titius.[77] Thir defectors gae Octavian the information that he needit tae confirm wi the Senate aw the accusations that he made against Antony.[78]

Octavian forcibly entered the temple o the Vestal Virgins an seized Antony's secret will, that he promptly publicised. The will wad hae gien awey Roman-conquered territories as kinricks for his sons tae rule, an designatit Alexandria as the steid for a tomb for him an his queen.[79][80] In late 32 BC, the Senate offeecially revoked Antony's pouers as consul an declared war on Cleopatra's regime in Egyp.[81][82]

The Battle o Actium, bi Laureys a Castro, pentit 1672, Naitional Maritime Museum, Lunnon

In early 31 BC, Antony an Cleopatra war temporarily stationed in Greece whan Octavian gained a preliminar veectory: the navy successfully ferried truips athort the Adriatic Sea unner the command o Agrippa.[83] Agrippa cut off Antony an Cleopatra's main force frae thair supply routes at sea, while Octavian laundit on the mainland opposite the island o Corcyra (modren Corfu) an mairched sooth.[83] Trapped on land and sea, deserters o Antony's airmy fled tae Octavian's side daily while Octavian's forces war comfortable eneuch tae mak preparations.[83]

Antony's fleet sailed throu the bay o Actium on the wastren coast o Greece in a desperate attempt tae brak free o the naval blockade. It wis thare that Antony's fleet faced the muckle lairger fleet o smawer, mair maneuverable ships unner commanders Agrippa an Gaius Sosius in the battle o Actium on 2 September 31 BC.[84] Antony an his remeenin forces war spared anerly due tae a last-ditch effort bi Cleopatra's fleet that haed been waitin nearbi.[85]

Octavian pursued them an defeatit thair forces in Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC—efter that Antony an Cleopatra committit suicide. Antony fell on his awn swuird an wis taken bi his sodgers back tae Alexandria whaur he dee'd in Cleopatra's airms. Cleopatra dee'd suin efter, reputitly bi the venomous bite o an asp or bi pushion.[86] Octavian haed exploitit his poseetion as Caesar's heir tae further his awn poleetical career, an he wis well awaur o the dangers in allouin anither person tae dae sae the same. He, tharefore, follaed the advice o Arius Didymus that "twa Caesars are ane too mony", orderin Caesarion tae be killed (Julius Caesar's son bi Cleopatra), while sparin Cleopatra's childer bi Antony, wi the exception o Antony's aulder son.[87][88]

Octavian haed previously shawn little mercy tae surrendered enemies an actit in weys that haed pruiven unpopular wi the Roman fowk, yet he wis gien credit for pairdonin mony o his opponents efter the Battle o Actium.[89]

Cheenge tae Augustus[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aureus o Octavian, circa 30 BC, Breetish Museum

Efter Actium an the defeat o Antony an Cleopatra, Octavian wis in a poseetion tae rule the entire Republic unner an unoffeecial principate[90]—but he haed tae achieve this throu incremental pouer gains. He did sae bi coortin the Senate an the fowk while uphaudin the republican tradeetions o Roum, appearin that he wis nae aspirin tae dictatorship or monarchy.[91][92] Mairchin intae Rome, Octavian an Marcus Agrippa war electit as dual consuls bi the Senate.[93]

Years o ceevil war haed left Roum in a state o near lawlessness, but the Republic wis nae prepared tae accept the control o Octavian as a despot. At the same time, Octavian coud nae semply gie up his authority withoot riskin forder ceevil wars amang the Roman generals an, even if he desired na poseetion o authority whitsaeiver, his poseetion demandit that he leuk tae the well-bein o the ceety o Roum an the Roman provinces. Octavian's aims frae this pynt forwart war tae return Roum tae a state o stability, tradeetional legality, an ceevility bi liftin the overt poleetical pressur imposed on the coorts o law an ensurin free elections—in name at least.[94]

First settlement[eedit | eedit soorce]

Augustus as a magistrate. The statue's marble heid wis made c. 30–20 BC, the bouk sculptit in the 2nt century AD (Louvre, Paris).

In 27 BC, Octavian made a shaw o returnin full pouer tae the Roman Senate an relinquishin his control o the Roman provinces an thair armies.[93] Unner his consulship, houiver, the Senate haed little pouer in ineetiatin legislation bi introducin bills for senatorial debate.[93] Octavian wis na langer in direct control o the provinces an thair airmies, but he retained the lealty o active duty sodgers an veterans alik.[93] The careers o mony clients an adherents dependit on his patronage, as his financial pouer wis unrivaled in the Roman Republic.[93]

The Senate proponed tae Octavian, the veector o Roum's ceevil wars, that he ance again assume command o the provinces. The Senate's proponal wis a ratification o Octavian's extra-constitutional pouer. Throu the Senate, Octavian wis able tae conteena the appearance o a still-functional constitution. Feingin reluctance, he acceptit a ten-year responsibility o owerseein provinces that war conseedert chaotic.[95][96]

The provinces cedit tae him for that ten-year period comprised muckle o the conquered Roman warld, includin aw o Hispanie an Gaul, Sirie, Cilicia, Cyprus, an Egyp.[95][97] Mairower, command o thir provinces providit Octavian wi control oeer the majority o Roum's legions.[97][98]

The Senate still controlled North Africae, an important regional producer o grain, as well as Illyrie an Macedonie, tws maortially strategic regions wi several legions.[99] Houiver, the Senate haed control o anerly five or sax legions distributit amang three senatorial proconsuls, compared tae the twenty legions unner the control o Augustus, an thair control o thir regions did nae amount tae ony poleetical or militar challenge tae Octavian.[91][100]

On 16 Januar 27 BC the Senate gae Octavian the new teetles o Augustus an Princeps.[101] Augustus is frae the Laitin wird Augere (meanin tae increase) an can be translatit as "the illustrious ane".[89] It wis a teetle o releegious authority raither nor poleetical authority.[89] Accordin tae Roman releegious beliefs, the teetle symbolised a stamp o authority ower humanity—an in fact naitur—that went ayont ony constitutional defineetion o his status. efter the hersh methods employed in consolidatin his control, the cheenge in name served tae demarcate his benign ring as Augustus frae his ring o terror as Octavian.

His new teetle o Augustus wis an aa mair favourable than Romulus, the previous ane that he styled for himsel in reference tae the story o the legendary foonder o Roum, that seembolised a seucont foonding o Roum.[89] The teetle o Romulus wis associatit too strangly wi notions o monarchy an keengship, an eemage that Octavian tried tae avoid.[102] Princeps comes frae the Laitin phrase primum caput, "the first heid", oreeginally meanin the auldest or maist distinguished senator whase name wad appear first on the senatorial roster. In the case o Augustus, houiver, it becam an awmaist regnal teetle for a leader wha wis first in chairge.[103] Princeps haed an aa been a teetle unner the Republic for thae wha haed served the state well; for ensaumple, Pompey haed held the teetle.

Seicont settlement[eedit | eedit soorce]

Portraits o Augustus shaw the emperor wi idealised featurs

By 23 BC, some o the un-Republican implications war acomin apparent concernin the settlement o 27 BC. Augustus' retention o an annual consulate drew attention tae his de facto dominance ower the Roman poleetical seestem, an cut in hauf the opportunities for ithers tae achieve whit wis still nominally the preeminent poseetion in the Roman state.[104] Forder, he wis causin poleetical problems bi desirin tae hae his neffae Marcus Claudius Marcellus follae in his fitsteps an eventually assume the Principate in his turn,[note 8] alienatin his three greatest supporters – Agrippa, Maecenas, an Livia.[105] Feelin pressur frae his core group o adherents, Augustus turned tae the Senate for help.

He appyntit notit Republican Calpurnius Piso as co-consul in 23 BC, efter his chyce Aulus Terentius Varro Murena (wha haed focht against Julius Caesar an supportit Cassius an Brutus[106]) wis executit in consequence o his involvement in the Marcus Primus affair,[107] wi an ee tae bolsterin his support amang the Republicans.

In the late ware Augustus suffered a severe illness, an on his supposed daithbed made arrangements that wad ensur the conteenuation o the Principate in some form,[108] while allayin senators' suspicions o his anti-republicanism.[109][110] Augustus prepared tae haund doun his signet raing tae his favoured general Agrippa.[109][110] Houever, Augustus haunit ower tae his co-consul Piso aw o his offeecial documents, an accoont o public finances, an authority ower leetit truips in the provinces while Augustus' supposedly favoured neffae Marcellus cam awey emptie-haundit.[109][110] This wis a surpreese tae mony wha believed Augustus wad hae named an heir tae his poseetion as an unoffeecial emperor.[111]

Augustus bestowed anerly properties an possessions tae his designatit heirs, as an obvious seestem o institutionalised imperial heirship wad have provoked resistance an hostility amang the republican-myndit Romans fearfu o monarchy.[92] Wi regairds tae the Principate, it wis obvious tae Augustus that Marcellus wis nae ready tae tak on his poseetion;[112] nonetheless, bi giein his signet raing tae Agrippa, Augustus intendit tae seegnal tae the legions that Agrippa wis tae be his successor, an that constitutional procedure naewistaundin, they shoud conteena tae obey Agrippa.[113]

The Blacas Cameo shawin Augustus weirin a gorgoneion on a three layered sardonyx cameo, AD 20–50

Suin efter his bout o illness subsidit, Augustus gae up his consulship.[110] The anerly ither times Augustus wad serve as consul wad be in the years 5 an 2 BC,[110][114] baith times tae introduce his grandsons intae public life.[106] This wis a clever ploy bi Augustus; ceasin tae serve as ane o twa annually electit consuls alloued aspirin senators a better chance tae attain the consular poseetion, while allouin Augustus tae exercise wider patronage within the senatorial cless.[115] Awtho Augustus haed resigned as consul, he desired tae retain his consular imperium nae juist in his provinces but ootthrou the empire. This desire, as well as the Marcus Primus Affair, led tae a seicont compromise atween him an the Senate kent as the Seicont Settlement.[116]

War an expansion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bi the end o his ring, the airmies o Augustus haed conquered northren Hispanie (modren Spain an Portugal)[117] an the Alpine regions o Raetia an Noricum (modren Swisserland, Bavarie, Austrick, Slovenie),[117] Illyricum an Pannonia (modren Albanie, Croatie, Hungary, Serbie, etc.),[117] an haed extendit the mairches o the Africae Province tae the east an sooth.[117]

Conquerin the fowks o the Alps in 16 BC wis anither important veectory for Roum, syne it provided a lairge territorial buffer atween the Roman ceetizens o Italy an Roum's enemies in Germania tae the north.[118]

Daith an succession[eedit | eedit soorce]

Augustus' heal haed been in decline in the months immediately afore his daith, an he haed made signeeficant preparations for a smuith transeetion in pouer, haein at last reluctantly settled on Tiberius as his chyce o heir.[119]

On 19 August AD 14, Augustus dee'd while veesitin Nola whaur his faither haed dee'd. Baith Tacitus an Cassius Dio wrote that Livia wis rumoured tae hae brocht aboot Augustus' daith bi pushionin fresh figs.[120][121] Sicweys, Tiberius teuk the teetle o Roman Emperor.

Fitmerks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. In Clessical Laitin: IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS.
  2. The dates o his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus bided unner twa calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, an the Julian efter 45 BC. Due tae departures frae Julius Caesar's intentions, Augustus restorit the Julian calendar in 8 BC, an the correspondence atween the proleptic Julian calendar an the actual calendar observit in Roum is uncertain afore 8 BC.(Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003: 670–1)
  3. As part o the Triumvirate, Octavian ruled the Wastren provinces, Antony ruled the Eastren provinces, an Lepidus ruled Africae.
  4. Clessical Laitin spellin an reconstructit Clessical Laitin pronunciation o the names o Augustus:
    1. GAIVS OCTAVIVS
      IPA: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ɔkˈtaː.wi.ʊs]
    2. GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR OCTAVIANVS
      IPA: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar ɔk.taː.wiˈaː.nʊs]
    3. IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI F(ILIVS) AVGVSTVS
      IPA: [ɪm.pɛˈraː.tɔr ˈkae̯.sar ˈdiː.wiː ˈfiː.li.ʊs au̯ˈgʊs.tʊs]
    The spelling AGVSTVS, indicating the pronunciation [aˈgʊs.tʊs], occurs in inscriptions (Allen 1965, p. 61).
  5. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus means "Commander Caesar, Son o the God [Julius Caesar], the Venerable".
  6. Suetonius, Augustus The "Marcus Octavius" vetoin the agrarian law suggestit bi Tiberius Gracchus in 133 BC mey hae been his auncestor. 1–4.
  7. His dauchter Julia haed dee'd in 54 BC.; his son Caesarion bi Cleopatra wis nae recognised bi Roman law an wis nae mentioned in his will.[15]
  8. If the testimony o Marcus Primus can be believed, whaur in his trial for illegally launchin a war in Thrace, he assertit that he actit on the orders o Marcellus an Augustus – see Southern, p. 108 an Eck (2003), p. 55

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Jo-Ann Shelton, As the Romans Did (Oxford University Press, 1998), 58.
  2. Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 2.93–94
  3. (Suetonius 2013, §5, footnote a) Roman calendar.
  4. Suetonius, Augustus 7
  5. 5–6 on-line text.
  6. Rowell (1962), 14.
  7. Chisholm (1981), 23.
  8. Suetonius, Augustus 4–8; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus 3. Archived 26 July 2007 at WebCite
  9. Suetonius, Augustus 8.1; Quintilian, 12.6.1.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Suetonius, Augustus 8.1
  11. Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus 4. Archived 26 July 2007 at WebCite
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Rowell (1962), 16.
  13. Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus 6. Archived 26 July 2007 at WebCite
  14. Velleius Paterculus 2.59.3.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Suetonius, Julius 83.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Eck (2003), 9.
  17. Rowell (1962), 15.
  18. Suetonius, Augustus 68, 71.
  19. Appian, Civil Wars 3.9–11.
  20. E.g., Cicero. Letters to Atticus. Perseus Digital Library. pp. 16:14. Retrieved 8 December 2015. 
  21. Mackay (2004), 160.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Eck (2003), 10.
  23. Southern, Augustus pp. 20–21
  24. Southern, Augustus pp. 21
  25. Eck (2003), 11.
  26. Syme (1939), 114–120.
  27. Chisholm (1981), 26.
  28. Rowell (1962), 30.
  29. Eck (2003), 11–12.
  30. Rowell (1962), 21.
  31. Syme (1939), 123–126.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Eck (2003), 12.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Rowell (1962), 23.
  34. Syme (1939), 167.
  35. Syme (1939), 173–174
  36. Scullard (1982), 157.
  37. Rowell (1962), 26–27.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Rowell (1962), 27.
  39. Chisholm (1981), 32–33.
  40. Eck (2003), 14.
  41. Rowell (1962), 28.
  42. Syme (1939), 176–186.
  43. Sear, David R. "Common Legend Abbreviations On Roman Coins". Archived frae the oreeginal on 30 Julie 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2007. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 Eck (2003), 15.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Scullard (1982), 163.
  46. 46.0 46.1 Eck (2003), 16.
  47. Southern (1998), 52–53.
  48. 48.0 48.1 Scullard (1982), 164.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Scott (1933), 19–20.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Scott (1933), 19.
  51. Scott (1933), 20.
  52. Syme (1939), 202.
  53. Eck (2003), 17.
  54. 54.0 54.1 Eck (2003), 17–18.
  55. 55.0 55.1 Eck (2003), 18.
  56. Eck (2003), 18–19.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 57.3 Eck (2003), 19.
  58. 58.0 58.1 Rowell (1962), 32.
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 59.4 Eck (2003), 20.
  60. Scullard (1982), 162
  61. Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, an Ptolemy Philadelphus
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 Eck (2003) 21.
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 Eder (2005), 19.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Eck (2003), 22.
  65. Eck (2003), 23.
  66. 66.0 66.1 Eck (2003), 24.
  67. 67.0 67.1 Eck (2003), 25.
  68. Eck (2003), 25–26.
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 69.4 Eck (2003), 26.
  70. Eck (2003), 26–27.
  71. Eck (2003), 27–28.
  72. Eck (2003), 29.
  73. Eck (2003), 29–30.
  74. 74.0 74.1 Eck (2003), 30.
  75. Eder (2005), 20.
  76. Eck (2003), 31.
  77. Eck (2003), 32–34.
  78. Eck (2003), 34.
  79. Eck (2003), 34–35
  80. Eder (2005), 21–22.
  81. Eck (2003), 35.
  82. Eder (2005), 22.
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 Eck (2003), 37.
  84. Eck (2003), 38.
  85. Eck (2003), 38–39.
  86. Eck (2003), 39.
  87. Green (1990), 697.
  88. Scullard (1982), 171.
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 Eck (2003), 49.
  90. Gruen (2005), 34–35.
  91. 91.0 91.1 CCAA, 24–25.
  92. 92.0 92.1 Gruen (2005), 38–39.
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 93.3 93.4 Eck (2003), 45.
  94. Eck (2003), 44–45.
  95. 95.0 95.1 Eck (2003), 46.
  96. Scullard (1982), 210.
  97. 97.0 97.1 Gruen (2005), 34.
  98. Eck (2003), 47.
  99. Eder (2005), 24.
  100. Scullard (1982), 211.
  101. Eck (2003), 50.
  102. Eck (2003), 149
  103. Eck (2003), 3, 149.
  104. Wells, p. 51
  105. Holland, p. 294
  106. 106.0 106.1 Davies, p. 259
  107. Ando, p. 140; Raaflaub, p. 426; Wells, p. 53
  108. Southern, p. 108; Holland, p. 295
  109. 109.0 109.1 109.2 Eder (2005), 25.
  110. 110.0 110.1 110.2 110.3 110.4 Eck (2003), 56.
  111. Gruen (2005), 38.
  112. Stern, Gaius, Women, children, and senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae: A study of Augustus' vision of a new world order in 13 BC, p. 23
  113. Holland, pp. 294–95; Southern, p. 108
  114. Eder (2005), 26.
  115. Gruen (2005), 36.
  116. Eck (2003), 57.
  117. 117.0 117.1 117.2 117.3 Eck (2003), 94.
  118. Eck (2003), 98.
  119. Eck (2003), 123.
  120. Tacitus Annals 1.5
  121. Cassius Dio 55.22.2; 56.30

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