Julius Caesar

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C. Iulii Caesaris quae extant, 1678

Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (13 Julie 100 BC[2] – 15 Mairch 44 BC)[3] wis a Roman general an statesman. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation o the Roman Republic intae the Roman Empire.

In 60 BC, Caesar entered intae a poleetical alliance wi Crassus an Pompey that wis tae dominate Roman politics for several years. Thair attempts tae amass pouer for themselves throu populist tactics wur opposed athin the Roman Senate bi the conservative elite, amang them Cato the Younger wi the frequent support o Cicero. Caesar's conquest o Gaul extendit Roum's territory tae the North Sea, an in 55 BC he conductit the first Roman invasion o Breetain. Thir achievements grantit him unmatched military pouer an threatened tae eclipse Pompey's standin. The balance o pouer wis faur upset bi the daith o Crassus in 53 BC. Political realignments in Roum finally led tae a staund-aff atween Caesar an Pompey, the latter haein taken up the cause o the Senate. Ordered bi the senate tae staund trial in Roum for various chairges, Caesar mairched frae Gaul tae Italy wi his legions, crossin the Rubicon in 49 BC. This spairked a civil war frae which he emerged as the unrivaled leader o the Roman warld.

Efter assumin control o govrenment, he began extensive reforms o Roman society an govrenment. He centralised the bureaucracy o the Republic an wis eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". A group o senators, led bi Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinatit the dictator on the Ides o Mairch (15 Mairch) 44 BC, hopin tae restore the constitutional govrenment o the Republic. Housomeivver, the result wis a series o civil wars, which ultimately led tae the establishment o the permanent Roman Empire bi Caesar's adoptit heir Octavius (later kent as Augustus). Muckle o Caesar's life is kent frae his awn accoonts o his military campaigns, an ither contemporary soorces, mainly the letters an speeches o Cicero an the historical writins o Sallust. The later biographies o Caesar bi Suetonius an Plutarch are an aa major soorces.

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  1. Fully, Caius Iulius Caii filius Caii nepos Caesar Imperator ("Gaius Julius Caesar, son o Gaius, grandson o Gaius, Imperator"). Offeecial name efter deification in 42 BC: Divus Iulius ("The Divine Julius").
  2. There is some dispute ower the date o Caesar's birth. The day is sometimes statit tae be 12 Julie when his feast-day wis celebratit efter deification, but this wis acause his true birthday clashed with the Ludi Apollinares. Some scholars, based on the dates he held certain magistracies, hae made a case for 101 or 102 BC as the year o his birth, but scholarly consensus favours 100 BC. Goldsworthy, 30
  3. Efter Caesar's daith the leap years wur no inserted accordin tae his intent an there is uncertainty about when leap years were observed between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive; the dates in this article between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive are those observed in Rome and there is an uncertainty o aboot a day as tae where those dates woud be on the proleptic Julian calendar. See Blackburn, B and Holford-Strevens, L. (1999 corrected 2003). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. p. 671. ISBN 978-0-19-214231-3