Oaxaca de Juárez

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(Reguidit frae Oaxaca, Oaxaca)
Oaxaca is the name o baith a state in Mexico an that state's caipital ceety. This airticle is aboot the ceety/municipality. For the state, see Oaxaca.
Ceety & Municipality
Oaxaca de Juárez
A Street in dountoun Oaxaca
A Street in dountoun Oaxaca
Official seal of Oaxaca
Oaxaca is located in Mexico
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 17°04′04″N 96°43′12″W / 17.06778°N 96.72000°W / 17.06778; -96.72000
Municipal Status1879
 • Municipal PresesLuis Julián Ugartechea Begué (PAN) (2011-)
 • Ceety85.48 km2 (33.00 sq mi)
o seat
1555 m (5,102 ft)
 • Ceety265,006
 • Seat
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code (of seat)
Area code(s)951
Website(in Spaingie) /Official site
Historic Centre o Oaxaca an Airchaeological Steid o Monte Albán
UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid
A view o ceety o Oaxaca de Juarez frae the Cerro de Fortín.
CriteriaCultural: i, ii, iii, iv
Inscription1987 (11t Session)

The ceety an municipality o Oaxaca de Juárez, or simply Oaxaca, is the caipital an lairgest ceety o the Mexican state o the same name (Oaxaca). It is locatit in the Centro Destrict in the Valles Centrales region o the state, in the fuithills o the Sierra Madre at the base o the Cerro del Fortín extendin tae the banks o the Atoyac River.[1] This ceety relees hivily on tourism, which is based on its lairge nummer o colonial-era structurs as well as the native Zapotec an Mixtec culturs an aircheological steids.[1] It, alang wi the aircheological steid o Monte Albán, wur namit a Warld Heritage Steid in 1987.[2] It is the hame o the month-lang cultural festival cried the "Guelaguetza" an aw, which featurs Oaxacan dance, muisic an a beauty pageant for indigenous weemen.[3]

It is elk-namit "la Verde Antequera" (the green Antequera) due tae its prior name (Nueva Antequera) an the variety o structurs biggit frae a native green stane.[4] The name Oaxaca is derivit frae the Nahuatl name for the place, Huaxyacac, which wis Hispanicisit tae Guajaca, later spelt Oaxaca. "de Juárez" wis addit in honour o Benito Juárez, who wis a native o this state. The coat of airms for the municipality bears the image o the decapitatit Donaji, who wis an indigenous princess in the years immediately efter the Conquest.[1]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Monte Albán is regardit as the historical antecedent o the modren ceety o Oaxaca.

Thare haed been Zapotec an Mixtec dounsets in Valley o Oaxaca for thoosans o years, especially in connection wi the important auncient centers o Monte Albán an Mitla, which are close tae modren Oaxaca ceety.[4] The Aztecs entered the glen in 1440 an namit it "Huaxyacac," a Nahuatl phrase meanin "amang the huaje" (Leucaena leucocephala) trees. A strategic militar poseetion wis creatit here, at wha is nou cried the Cerro (lairge hill) del Fortín tae keep an ee on the Zapotec caipital o Zaachila an secur the tred route atween the Valley o Mexico, Tehuantepec an wha is nou Central Americae.[5] When the Spaingie arrivit in 1521, the Zapotecs an the Mixtecs wur involvit in ane o thair mony wars. Spaingie conquest wad end this fechtin.[6]

The first Spaingie expedeetion here arrivit late in 1521, heidit bi Caiptain Francisco de Orozco, an accompaniet bi 400 Aztecs.[5] Hernán Cortés sent Francisco de Orozco tae Oaxaca acause Moctezuma II said that the Aztec's gowd came frae thare.[6] The Spaingie expedeetion unner Orozco set aboot biggin a Spaingie ceety whare the Aztec militar post wis at the base o the Cerro de Fortín. The first mass wis said here bi Chaplain Juan Díaz on the bank o the Atoyac River unner a lairge huaje tree, whare the Kirk o San Juan de Dios wad be constructit later. This same chaplain addit saunts’ names tae the surroondin veelages in addition tae keepin thair Nahuatl names: Santa María Oaxaca, San Martín Mexicapan, San Juan Chapultepec, Santo Tomas Xochimilco, San Matías Jalatlaco, Santiago Tepeaca, etc. This group o Spaniards chose thair first mayor, Gutierres de Badajoc, thair first toun cooncil an began construction o the cathedral o Oaxaca in 1522. Thair name for the dounset wis Guajaca, a Hispanization o the Nahuatl name (which wad later be respelt as Oaxaca).[5]

The establishment o the relatively unthirlt veelage did no suit Hernán Cortes, who wantit pouer ower the entire region for hissel. Cortés sent Pedro de Alvarado, who proceedit tae drive oot maist o the veelage's population. The oreeginal Spaingie settlers appealed tae the Spaingie croun tae recognise the veelage thay foondit, which it did in 1526, wi laund dividit amang the Spaniards o Orozco's expedeetion. Housomeivver, this did no stap Cortés frae drivin oot the population o the veelage ance again an replacin the toun cooncil anerlie three month efter ryal recognition. Ance again, the oreeginal foonders appealed tae Spaingie ryal authority, this time tae the viceroy in Mexico Ceety, Nuño de Guzmán. This viceroy sidit wi the oreeginal foonders an aw, an the toun wis refoondit in 1529 as Antequera, in honour o Nuño de Guzmán's hametoun. Francisco de Herrera convened the new, Croun-appruivit toun cooncil,[5] an the first layoot o the dounset wis mappit oot bi Juan Peláez de Berrio.[1]

In the meantime, Cortés wis able tae obtain frae the croun the title o the Marquis o the Valley o Oaxaca, which contains the disputit veelage. This permittit him tae tax the aurie hivily, an tae hae control o the territory that surroondit the veelage. The veelage wis then in a poseetion o haein tae survive surroondit bi veelages which answered tae Cortés. Thir veelages no anerlie did no tak orders frae Antequera, thay wur hostile tae it, maistly likely encouragit bi Cortés.[5]

Tae coonter this, the veelage petitioned the croun tae be elevatit tae the status o a ceety, which wad gie it certaint richts, privileges an exceptions. It wad ensur that the dounset wad remain unner the direct control o the keeng an aw, rather than o Cortés. This petition wis grantit in 1532 bi Charles V o Spain.[1][5]

Efter the unthirldom o Mexico in 1821, the ceety became the seat o a municipality, an baith the name o the ceety an the municipality became Oaxaca, chyngit frae Antequera. In 1872, "de Juárez" as addit tae the ceety an municipality names tae honour Benito Juárez, who began his legal an poleetical career here.[1]

The 2006 Oaxaca protests began as a teachers’ protest, occupyin the main square, or Zocalo, o Oaxaca ceety in Mey 2006. Increases in wages an employment benefits wur annooncit a short time later, but an internal conflict in the local teachers’ union led tae accusations that the bargainin haed no really been in the teachers’ best interest. Wirk stoppage an occupation o the square continued frae 22 Mey tae 1 Juin. At this pynt, radical groups jynt in wi the protest an the disorder grew, closin banks, access roads, the airport, access tae stores an harassin the govrenor o the state in public appearances. Mony o thir groups mergit wi the teachers’ union tae form the Popular Assembly o the Fowk o Oaxaca (APPO). The disruption turned intae a siege that lastit five month.[2] Violence includit the daiths o a nummer o fowk includin Indymedia jurnalist Brad Will on October 27, 2006[7] an Roberto López Hernández an Jorge Alberto Beltrán on 29 October 2006 when ower 10,000 federal polis an airmy intervened.[8][9] The situation calmit in the seicont week o November when the Federal Preventative Polis teuk ower the ceety an disbandit the protests.[2]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oaxaca haes a Tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) wi a wet saison an a dry saison. Durin the dry saison, temperaturs durin the day remain wairm wi an average heich o 27 °C (81 °F) in the ceulest month, Dizember, an an average heich o 34 °C (93 °F) in Apryle, juist afore the beginnin o the wet saison. Awtho daytime temperaturs are wairm, nichttime temperaturs are ceul wi an average law o 9 °C (48 °F) in Januar. Due tae its altitude o 1,555 metre (5,102 ft), the climate o Oaxaca is mair mild than lawland auries wi the same climate, resultin in ceuler temperaturs than lawland auries wi the same climate. Precipitation is concentratit in the simmer months wi Juin bein the wettest wi an average precipitation o 172 mm (6.8 in).[10]

Climate data for Oaxaca (1951-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 38.5
Average heich °C (°F) 27.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.3
Average law °C (°F) 9.0
Record law °C (°F) 0.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.9 1.3 2.3 5.7 10.7 17.2 16.9 16.3 17.1 7.8 2.3 1.0 99.5
Average relative humidity (%) 47 42 41 42 46 57 57 57 60 56 52 48 50
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional[10][11]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (humidity)[12]

Economy an tourism[eedit | eedit soorce]

The events o 2006 haed a severe impact on the ceety's main generator o revenue: tourism.[2] The ceety is the primar attraction o the state, which relees economically on tourism. Ower the last 25 years, tourism grew tae acome be dominant factor o Oaxaca's economy.[13] 77% o the municipality o Oaxaca haes employment relatit in some wey tae tourism. The attractions are the verdant landscapes o the Oaxaca Glen, an the airchitectural an cultural chairms o the ceety itsel.[13] The next lairgest economic sectors are minin an manufacturin, which employ 20% o the wirk force.[1]

The ceety centre wis includit in a Warld Heritage Steid designatit bi UNESCO, in recognition o its treasur o historic biggins an monuments.[14] Tourist activity peaks in three saisons: Holy Week, simmer (especially durin Guelaguetza) an New Year. Mony o the tourists who come durin Holy Week an for New Year come frae ither pairts o Mexico an include native Oaxacans returnin tae veesit frae thair places o wirk. Maist internaitional visitors come in the simmer.[2]

Municipality o Oaxaca[eedit | eedit soorce]

Centre o Oaxaca.

As municipal seat, Oaxaca ceety haes govrenmental jurisdiction ower the follaein commonties: Arbolada Ilusión, Camino a San Luis Beltrán, Camino Ancho, Casas del Sol, Colonia Buena Vista, El Bajío (Rancho Guadalupe Victoria), El Silencio, Entrada de el Silencio, Gloria Antonio Cruz, Guadalupe Victoria, Guadalupe Victoria Segunda Sección (La Mina), Lachigulera, Las Salinas (El Arco Grande), Loma Bonita, Lomas Panorámicas, Los Ángeles, Los Ángeles Uno, Miravalle, Paraje Caballetiyo, Paraje el Cerrito, Paraje el Pando, Paraje la Canoa, Paraje la Loma, Paraje la Mina, Paraje la Rabonera, Paraje Pio V (Ojito de Agua), Paraje Tierra Colorada, Pueblo Nuevo Parte Alta, Rancho el Chilar, Rancho los Girasoles, San Bernardo, Solidaridad, an Viguera The municipality haes a tot aurie o 85.48 km2[1] an a population o 265,006, 97% percent o which lifes in the ceety o Oaxaca[15] While hintle o the indigenous population disappeared durin the colonial era, saxteen different ethnic groups continue tae inhabit the municipality. Spainyie is the maist commonly uised tongue[13] but durin the 2005 census, thare wur 20,109 fowk who spoke an indigenous leid, atween seiven an aicht percent o the population.[1]

The municipality is bordered bi San Pablo Etla, San Antonio de la Cal, Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, San Andrés Huayapam, San Agustín Yatareni, Santa Lucía del Camino, Santa María Atzompa an San Jacinto Amilpas.[1] It is locatit in the Glen o Oaxaca in the Sierra Madre del Sur Muntains, at 17°05′N 96°45′W / 17.083°N 96.750°W / 17.083; -96.750Coordinates: 17°05′N 96°45′W / 17.083°N 96.750°W / 17.083; -96.750 near the geografic center o the state, an at an altitude o aboot 1550 m (5000 ft). The aurie is kent as the three "Valles Centrales" (Central Glens) region an is surroondit bi thick forests o pine an holm oak.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b c d e f g h i j "Enciclopedia de los Municipios de Mexico-Oaxaca:Oaxaca de Juárez" (in Spanish). Archived frae the original on 10 Januar 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  2. a b c d e Rivera Rosas, Ricardo (2008). The measurement of the economic impact and damage to Oaxaca City tourism economy, after the sociopolitical movement in 2006 (PDF) (Report). 9th internacional forum of Tourism Statistics.[deid airtin]
  3. Municipality of Oaxaca. "Guelaguetza" (in Spanish). Oaxaca. Archived frae the original on 28 August 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  4. a b c Quintanar Hinojosa, Beatriz (2007). "Oaxaca: jubilo de los sentidos". Guía México Desconocido: Oaxaca. 137: 10–22. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. a b c d e f Oaxaca.org. "Oaxaca cumple 476 años como ciudad" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 September 2009. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. a b "Fundación e historia de Oaxaca de Juárez" (in Spanish). El Clima. Retrieved 8 September 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  7. "Official Press Release on Brad Will Murder From Ad-Hoc Media Group". Indymedia New York City. 28 October 2006. Archived frae the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 29 October 2006.
  8. "APPO Reports Two Dead in Confrontations with Federal Police in Oaxaca". Indymedia New York City. 30 October 2006. Archived frae the original on 3 Januar 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  9. "Violence flares in Oaxaca, Indymedia reporter murdered". Indymedia United Kollectives. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  10. a b "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). National Meteorological Service of Mexico. Archived frae the original on 9 Julie 2015. Retrieved 18 Februar 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  11. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Oaxaca 1930-2009" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived frae the original on 9 Julie 2015. Retrieved 18 Februar 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  12. "Normales climatológicas para Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved 18 Februar 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)[deid airtin]
  13. a b c "Riots and Protests in Oaxaca, Mexico". What Oaxaca Travel Guide. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
  14. "Historic Centre of Oaxaca and Archaeological Site of Monte Albán - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 Januar 2011.
  15. "Resultados 2005 ITER" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved 8 September 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]