Jump to content


Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
(Reguidit frae Embra)

Scots Gaelic: Dùn Èideann

Inglis an Scots: Edinburgh
Ceety o Edinburgh
Edinburgh Skyline
Edinburgh Castle
Scott Monument
Hollyrood Palace
Princes Street
Scottish Parliament building
Bute House
Royal Mile
Banner o Edinburgh
Coat of airms o Edinburgh
Coat airms
"Auld Reekie", "Athens o the North", "Edina", "Dunedin"
Edinburgh is located in Scotland
Location within Scotland
Edinburgh is located in the Unitit Kinrick
Location within the Unitit Kinrick
Edinburgh is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953°N 3.189°W / 55.953; -3.189Coordinates: 55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.953°N 3.189°W / 55.953; -3.189
Sovereign stateUnitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick
CountryScotland Scotland
Council areaCeety o Edinburgh
Lieutenancy areaEdinburgh
Admeen HQEdinburgh Ceety Centre
Foundedprior tae the 7t century
Burgh Charter1125
City status1633
 • TeepUnitary authority, Ceety
 • Governin bodyThe Ceety o Edinburgh Cooncil
 • Lord Provost of EdinburghFrank Ross
 • MSPs
 • MPs
 • Capital city and council area264 km2 (102 sq mi)
 • Urban
119 km2 (46 sq mi)
Elevation47 m (154 ft)
 (mid-2016 est.)
 • Capital city and council area488,050 (ceety)
507,200 (Council area)[1]
 • Density1828/km2 (4,730/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Language(s)
Time zoneUTC±0 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode areas
Area code(s)0131
ISO 3166-2GB-EDH
ONS codeS12000036
OS grid referenceNT275735
Primary AirportEdinburgh Airport
GDP$33 billion[6]
GDP per capita$58,000[6]
Offeecial nameOld and New Towns of Edinburgh
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv
Inscription1995 (19t Session)
Offeecial nameThe Forth Bridge
CriteriaCultural: i, iv
Inscription2015 (39t Session)

Edinburgh (Ulster Scots: Eedinburra, Scots Gaelic: Dùn Èideann; whiles cried Embra, Embro or Edinburrie an aw) is the caipital city o Scotland, an is the kintra's seicont mucklest city efter Glesga, that is 45 mile (72 km) tae the wast.[7] It is the seivent mucklest city in the Unitit Kinrick.[citation needit] Edinburgh is ane o Scotland's 32 local govrenment cooncil areas (see: City o Edinburgh) - this cooncil area includes urban Edinburgh an a 30 sq mile (78 sq km) landwaird area. In the census o 2011, thare wis 476,600 indwallers.[8]

Locatit in the sooth-east o Scotland, Edinburgh is on the east coast o Scotland's Central Belt, alang the Firth o Forth, nearby the North Sea. It haes muckle gaitherin o stane Medieval an Georgian airchitectur.

It haes been the caipital city syne aboot 1437 (replacin Pairth),[9] an is the hame o the Scots Pairlament. The city wis ane o the heidmaist centres o the Enlichtenment, led bi the Varsity o Edinburgh, an sic thinkers as Dauvit Hume, Adam Smith, James Hutton an mony ithers, giein it the byname The Athens o the North.[10] The Auld Toun an New Toun o Edinburgh wis leetit as a UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid in 1995.[11] The city haes mair nor 4500 listit biggins.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oreigin o ceety's name in Scots is unnerstuid tae come frae the Brythonic Din Eidyn (Fort o Eidyn) frae the time whan it wis a Gododdin braefort.[12] In the first century the Romans recordit the Votadini as a Brythonic tribe or kinrick i the aurie, an aboot AD 600 the poem Y Gododdin, uisin the Brythonic mak o thon name, descreives werriours feastin "in Eidin's great haw."

It cam tae be kent bi the Bernician Angles as Edin-burgh. Sum fowk syne jaloused this wis taen frae the Anglo-Saxon for "Edwin's Fort", wi a reference tae the 7t century king Edwin o Northumbrie. Houane'er, syne the name appeiringly predates King Edwin, this isna gey likely ava. The burgh pairt means "fortress" or "wawed curn o biggins" - i.e. a toun or ceity, an is sib tae the German burg an the Laitin parcus. Burgh is jist an owersettin o the Brythonic Din; Edin is untranslatit.

Ither names[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes the byname Auld Reekie acause whan the biggins wis heatit bi coal an wid ingles, lums wad boak oot muckle colums o thick black reek intae the air.[13][14][15]

Sum haes cried Edinburgh the Athens o the North an Auld Greekie efter its intellectual history, an for its topography, wi the Auld Toun o Edinburgh performin a seimilar role tae the Athenian Acropolis.[10] Edinburgh is an aa kent bi twa-thrie Laitin names; Aneda, Edina (that crops up in leeteratur, sic as that o Burns or Fergusson) or Edinensis (that can be seem on monie eddicational biggins).

Edinburgh haes an aa been kent as Dunedin, taen frae the Gaelic Dùn Èideann. Dunedin in New Zealand wis oreiginally cried "New Edinburgh" an is still gied the byname the "Edinburgh o the South".[16] Ben Jonson descreivit it as Britain's ithir ee, an Walter Scott cried it yon Empress o the North.

Pairts o Edinburgh[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Auld Toun[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Auld Toun, Edinburgh

The Auld Toun haes preservit its medieval lay-oot an monie Reformation-era biggins. Ane end is closed bi the Edinburgh Castle an the main gate, the Royal Mile, leads awa frae it (wee closes an wynds gang aff the Royal Mile dounhill on aither side o the main spine in a "herrinbane" patren). Lairge squares merk whaur merkets wis aince locate an surroond public biggins sic as Saunt Giles Cathedral an the Law Courts. Ithir notable places nearhaun include the Royal Museum o Scotland, Surgeons' Haw an the McEwan Haw. The street lay-oot is teipical o the aulder pairts o monie northren European ceities, an whuar the castle sits on the tap o a rocky crag (the remains o a deid volcano) the Royal Mile rins doun the crest o a rig frae it.

Due tae space restrictions gied bi the narraness o the "tail" (aidit bi the biggin o the Flodden Waw efter 1513), the Auld Toun becam hame tae sum o the eirliest "heich rise" residential biggins.[17] Monie-flaired dwallins kent as lands wis ordinar frae the 1500s onwawrds wi ten an eleiven flairs bein teipical an ane e'en raxed tae fowerteen flairs. Eikit tae this, monie vaults ablo gate level wis bydit in bi the muckle influx o immigrants durin the Industrial Revolution. Thir still gie tift tae auld-threips o an unnergrun ceity.

The New Toun[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: New Toun o Edinburgh

The New Toun wis an 18t century solution tae the fyke o the mair an mair croudit Auld Toun. The ceity haed remainit gey compack, confinit tae the rig rinnin doun frae the castle. In 1766, a competeetion tae design the New Toun wis won bi James Craig, a 22 year auld airchitect.[18] The plan that wis bigged creatit a rigid, reddit grid, that fittit weil wi enlichtenment norries o rationality. The heidmaist gate wis tae be George Street, that folloaes the naitural rig tae the north o the Auld Toun. Aither side o it is the ithir main gates o Princes Street an Queen Street. Princes Street haes synesen becam the heidmaist shoppin street in Edinburgh, an no monie Georgian biggins survive on it. Jynin thir gates thegithir is a series o perpendicular gates. At the eist an wast ends is St Andrew Sqaure an Charlotte Square respecteivly. The hinmaist wis designed bi Robert Adam an aften thocht o as ane o the brawest Georgian squares in the wurld. Bute Hous, the offeical dwallin o the First Meenister o Scotland, is on the north side o Charlotte Square.[19]

Sittin in the glen atween the Auld an New Touns wis the Nor Loch, that wis maistly a place for horsin awa keich an ithir rubbish.[20] Bi the 1820s it wis drained. Sum plans shaw that a canal wis ettled, but Princes Street Gairdens wis creatit insteid (1830-1876).[20] Left ower eirth frae the makkin o the biggins wis horsed in the loch, makkin whit's nou The Mound.[21] In the mid 19t century the Naitional Gallery o Scotland an the Royal Scottish Academy Building wis bigged on The Mound, an weems tae Waverley Station driven throu it.[22]

The New Toun wis sae successfou that it wis extendit greaty. The grid patren wisna haudit tae, but raither a mair picturesque lay-oot wis creatit. The day the New Toun is thocht o bi monie tae be ane the best ensamples o Georgian airchitecture an plannin in the wurld.

Sooth Side[eedit | eedit soorce]

A popular residential pairt o the ceity is its sooth side, made up o a nummer o airts includin St Leonards, Marchmont, Haymerket, Polwarth, Newington, Sciennes, The Grange, Bruntsfield, Morningside an Merchiston. "Sooth side" is braidly the samen as the aurie kivvered bi the Burgh Muir, an becam mair popular efter the apenin o the Sooth Brig. Thir auries is specially popular wi faimilies (monie weil-regairdit state an private schuills is locate thare), students (the Central Varsity o Edinburgh campus is based aroun George Square jist north o Marchmont an the Meadows, an Napier Varsity haes muckle campuses aroun Merchiston an Morningside), an wi festival-gaers.

Leith[eedit | eedit soorce]

Leith is the sea-port o Edinburgh. It still hauds a seperate identity frae Edinburgh, an it wisna weil thocht o thare whan, in 1920, the burgh o Leith wis jyned wi Edinburgh. E'en the day the pairlamentary seat at Westminster is kent as "Edinburgh North an Leith." Wi the redevelopin o Leith, Edinburgh haes won the business o a nummer o cruise liner companies that nou gie cruises tae Norrowey, Swaden, Denmark, Germany an the Netherlands. Leith an aa haes the Royal Yacht Britannia, berthit ahint the Ocean Terminal as weil as bein hame tae Hibernian Fitbaw Club.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Edinburgh is weil-kent for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a gaitherin o offeicial an unthirled festivals haulden ilka year ower aboot fower week in early August.[23] The maist kenspeckle o thir events is the Edinburgh Frings (the lairgest performin airts festival in the wurld), the Edinburgh Comedy Festival (the lairgest comedy festival in the wurld), the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, the Edinburgh Internaitional Film Festival an the Edinburgh Internaitional Beuk Festival.

Ithir notable events include the Hogmanay street pairty an Burns Nicht an St. Andra's Day an aa hae events merkin thaim. The ceety is ane Europe's heidmaist tourist destinations, breingin in 13 million veisitor ilka year, an efter Lunnon is the seicond maist veisatit tourist destination in the Unitit Kinrick.[24]

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Edinburgh Airport (Scots Gaelic: Port-adhair Dhùn Èideann) (IATA: EDIICAO: EGPH) is locatit in the Ingliston airt.

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kintra Ceety or municipality Subdiveesion Date o greement
Germany Munich Bavarie 1954
Fraunce Nice Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur 1958
Italy Florence Tuscany 1964
New Zealand Dunedin Otago 1974
Canadae Vancouver Breetish Columbie 1977
United States San Diego Californie 1977
Spain Segovia Castile an León 1985
Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Xi'an Shaanxi 1985
Ukraine Kiev Kiev Ceety Municipality 1989
Denmark Aalborg Nordjylland 1991
Japan Kyoto Prefectur Kansai 1994
Poland Kraków Lesser Poland Voivodeship 1995

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National Statistics. 22 Juin 2017. Retrieved 27 Juin 2017.
  2. ""Metropolitan Area Populations"". 22 Februar 2020. Archived frae the original on 1 Mairch 2020. Retrieved 1 Mairch 2020.
  3. "Edinburgh, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Queensferry Road, Edinburgh)". The Weather Underground, Inc. Archived frae the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  4. "Girl About Globe – A Scottish Gamble for Macau?". 9 Mey 2018. Archived frae the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 Januar 2019.
  5. Simpson, Andy (2013). Why Would Anyone Want to Swing a Cat? and 499 other questions. Constable & Robinson Ltd. p. 163. ISBN 9781849019477. Archived frae the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  6. a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived frae the original on 5 Juin 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  7. "Edinburgh | Geography, History, & Points of Interest | Britannica". www.britannica.com (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  8. "2011 Census Edinburgh: Population, age structure and household overview, initial findings from first release of Census data at local authority level". Mairch 2013. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  9. "Pride restored to 'ancient capital' Perth". BBC News (in Inglis). 15 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  10. a b "Athens Of The North". Edinburgh World Heritage. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  11. "World Heritage City". Edinburgh World Heritage. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  12. "Din Eidyn". Oxford Reference (in Inglis). doi:10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095719185. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  13. "Dictionaries of the Scots Language:: SND :: auld". Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  14. "Dictionaries of the Scots Language:: SND :: reek n1 v". Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  15. Ramsay, Allan. The poems of Allan Ramsay. 1. p. 50.
  16. "Dunedin City: Edinburgh of the south". www.aa.co.nz (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  17. "Edinburgh-Royal Mile Old Town and New Town". www.royal-mile.com. Archived frae the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  18. Team, National Records of Scotland Web (31 Mey 2013). "National Records of Scotland". National Records of Scotland (in English). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  19. "About Bute House". www.gov.scot (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  20. a b "Lost Edinburgh: The Nor' Loch". www.scotsman.com (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  21. "Edinburgh's Nor Loch (Witches, Skeleton's & Why it was Drained) – DiggingUp1800". diggingup1800.com. Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  22. "Our history". www.nationalgalleries.org (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  23. "Edinburgh Festivals & Fringe". www.visitscotland.com (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.
  24. "Leading UK city destinations 2019". Statista (in Inglis). Retrieved 12 Mey 2022.