R

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R
ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg
Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn
Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu
Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Cursive.svg
Circle sheer blue 29.gif
Circle sheer blue 29.gif
Cursive script 'r' and capital 'R'

R (named ar /ˈɑr/[1]) is the aichteent letter o the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Egyptian hieroglyph
t
Phoenician
Resh
Etruscan
R
Greek
Rho
Later Etruscan R
D1
PhoenicianR-01.png EtruscanR-01.svg Rho uc lc.svg EtruscanR-02.svg

The oreeginal Semitic letter mey hae been inspired bi an Egyptian hieroglyph for tp, "head". It wis uised for /r/ bi Semites acause in thair leid, the wird for "heid" wis rêš (an aa the name o the letter). It developed intae Greek 'Ρ' ῥῶ (rhô) an Latin R. It is likely that some Etruscan an Wastren Greek fairms o the letter addit the extra stroke tae distinguish it frae a later fairm o the letter P.

The name o the letter in Latin wis er (/ɛr/), follaein the pattern o ither letters representin continuants, such as F, L, M, N, an S. This name is preserved in French an mony ither leids. In Middlin Inglis, the name of the letter chynged frae /ɛr/ tae /ar/, follaein a pattern exhibitit in mony ither wirds such as farm (compare French ferme), an star (compare German Stern).

The minuscule (lowercase) fairm as 'r' developed through several variations on the caipital fairm. In haundwritin it wis common nae tae close the bottom o the luip but continue intae the leg, savin an extra pen stroke. The luip-leg stroke shortened intae the simple arc uised the day. Anither minuscule, r rotunda (ꝛ), kept the luip-leg stroke but dropped the vertical stroke, altho it fell oot o uise aroond the 18t century.

Uisage[eedit | eedit soorce]

In science, the letter R is a seembol for the gas constant. Mathematicians uise 'R' or \mathbb{R} (an R in blackboard bold, displayed as in Unicode) for the set o aw real nummers.

R represents a rhotic consonant in mony leids, as shawn in the table below. The Internaitional Phonetic Alphabet uises several variations o the letter tae represent the different rhotic consonants; [r] represents the alveolar trill.

Alveolar trill [r] Listen some dialects o Breetish Inglis or in emphatic speech, staundart Dutch, Finnish, Galician, German in some dialects, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Czech, Lithuanie, Latvian, Latin, Norwegian maistly in the northwast, Polish, Catalan, Portuguese (tradeetional fairm), Romanian, Scots, Spanish an Albanie 'rr', Swadish, Welsh
Alveolar approximant [ɹ] Listen Inglis (maist varieties), Dutch in some Dutch dialects (in specific poseetions o wirds), Swadish, Faroese, Sicilian
Alveolar flap / Alveolar tap [ɾ] Listen Portuguese, Catalan, Spainyie an Albanian 'r', Turkish, Dutch, Italian, Venetian, Galician, Leonese, Norwegian, Erse
Voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ] Listen Norwegian aroond Tromsø, Spainyie uised as an allophone o /r/ in some Sooth American accents; Staundart Cheenese (in pinyin); Vietnamese (soothren dialects)
Retroflex approximant [ɻ] Listen some varieties o American Inglis; Staundart Cheenese (in pinyin); an Gutnish
Retroflex flap [ɽ] Listen Norwegian when follaeed bi <d>, sometimes in Scottis Inglis
Uvular trill [ʀ] Listen German stage staundart; some Dutch dialects (in Brabant an Limburg, an some ceety dialects in The Netherlands), Swadish in Soothren Swaden, Norwegian in wastren an soothren pairts
Voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] Listen German, Danish, French, staundart European Portuguese 'rr', staundart Brazilian Portuguese 'rr', Puerto Rican Spainyie 'rr' an 'r-', Norwegian in wastren an soothren pairts.

Ither leids mey uise the letter 'r' in thair alphabets (or Latin transleeterations schemes) tae represent rhotic consonants different frae the alveolar trill. In Haitian Creole, it represents a soond so weak that it is eften written interchyngeably wi 'w', e.g. 'Kweyol' for 'Kreyol'.

Brazilian Portuguese haes a great nummer o allophones o /ʁ/ such as [χ], [h], [ɦ], [x], [ɣ], [ɹ] an [r], the latter three anes can be uised anly in certain contexts ([ɣ] an [r] as 'rr'; [ɹ] in the syllable coda, as an allophone o /ɾ/ accordin tae the European Portuguese norm an /ʁ/ accordin tae the Brazilian Portuguese norm). Uisually at least twa o them are present in a single dialect, such as Rio de Janeiro's [ʁ], [χ], [ɦ] an, for a few speakers, [ɣ].

Relatit letters an ither similar characters[eedit | eedit soorce]

Computin codes[eedit | eedit soorce]

Character R r
Unicode name LATIN CAIPITAL LETTER R     LATIN SMAA LETTER R
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 82 U+0052 114 U+0072
UTF-8 82 52 114 72
Numeric character reference &#82; &#x52; &#114; &#x72;
EBCDIC faimily 217 D9 153 99
ASCII 1 82 52 114 72
1 An aa for encodins based on ASCII, includin the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 an Macintosh faimilies o encodins.

Ither representations[eedit | eedit soorce]

NATO phonetic Morse code
Romeo ·–·
ICS Romeo.svg Semaphore Romeo.svg ⠗
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "R", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); "ar", op. cit.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Media relatit tae R at Wikimedie Commons
  • The dictionar defineetion o R at Wiktionar
  • The dictionar defineetion o r at Wiktionar


Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter R with diacritics
Ŕŕ Řř Ṙṙ Ŗŗ Ȑȑ Ȓȓ Ṛṛ Ṝṝ Ṟṟ Ɍɍ Ɽɽ ɼ ɾ
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