Turkis leid

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Turkis
Türk dili (noon)
Türkçe (noon, adverb)
Pronunciation [ˈtyɾctʃe] ( listen)
Native tae Turkey (offeecial), Northren Cyprus (offeecial), Cyprus (offeecial), Azerbaijan, Iraq, Sirie, Lebanon, Israel, Greece, Bulgarie, Romanie, Kosovo, North Macedonie, Bosnie an Herzegovinae
Region Anatolie, Balkans, Cyprus, Mesopotamie, Levant, Transcaucasie
Ethnicity Turkis fowk
Native speakers
75.7 million[1] (2002–2018)
88 million (L1 + L2)[2]
Turkic
Early forms
Staundart forms
TRT Turkis
Dialects
Laitin (Turkis alphabet)
Turkis Braille
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
 Turkey
 Northren Cyprus
 Cyprus
Recognised minority
leid in
Regulatit bi
  • TDK (grammar, vocabulary, spellin)
  • TRT (pronunciation, vocabular)
Leid codes
ISO 639-1 tr
ISO 639-2 tur
ISO 639-3 tur
Glottolog nucl1301[3]
Linguasphere pairt o 44-AAB-a
Map of Turkish Language.png
  Kintras whaur Turkis is an offeecial leid
  Kintras whaur it is recognised as a minority leid
This article contains IPA phonetic seembols. Withoot proper renderin support, ye mey see quaisten merks, boxes, or ither seembols insteid o Unicode chairacters. For an introductory guide on IPA seembols, see Help:IPA.

Turkis is a leid that is spak in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgarie, Greece, an ither kintras that wis pairt o the umwhile Ottoman Empire. Mony fowk haes quat thae pairts in recent years for tae bide ithergates. Forby thon thare's several million speakers o Turkis in ither pairts o Europe an a puckle in Australie an North Americae.

Turkis is a member o the Altaic faimily o leids. It is ane o the few human leids wi a featur cried vouel hermony that guides whaur the vouel soonds will be athin a wird. Vouels that's unalike canna be ower naur thegither. Ither lieds that haes thon is Mongolian an Manchu that's baith Altaic leids forby.

Turkis wirds for ordinar maks a phrase in sic a wey: Subject Object Verb (SOV). Gin a body wis tae mak an SOV Scots phrase, it wad gang siclike: "The dug the hen ett."

Turkis uised tae be scrieved wi the Arabic alphabet frae aboot 900 AD tae 1928. In the Ottoman Empire, Turkis leid haed a fouthie leeteratur, an mony beuks war scrieved in it. Houaniver, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk chynged it tae the Latin alphabet acause he wantit his kintra tae be integrated wi waster kintras tae tak advantage o technological betterments o thaim. European kintras war developit gey fest efter the Renaissance an thay left the Ottoman Empire ahint. As a eftercome, maist Turks nou canna screed aff text scrieve afore the chynge. (Türkçe)

This leid is maist nearly relatit tae ither Turkic leids, includin Uzbek, Turkmen, an Kazakh. Thare is anither theory that Turkis is pairt o a muckler Altaic leid faimily, whit includes Japanese, Mongolie, an Korean an aw.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Katzner, Kenneth (2002). Languages of the World (Third ed.). loca: Routledge, An imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-415-25004-7. Turkish is the national language of Turkey, spoken by about 60 million people, or 90 percent of the country’s population. There are also some 750,000 speakers in Bulgaria, 150,000 in Cyprus, and 100,000 in Greece. In recent decades a large Turkish-speaking community has formed in Germany, numbering over 2 million people, and smaller ones exist in France, Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium, and other European countries. (90% of 2018 population would be 73 million) 
  2. Kuribayashi, Yuu (2012). "Transitivity in Turkish: A study of valence orientation" (PDF). Asian and African Languages and Linguistics. 7: 39–51. 
  3. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Turkish". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.