Leet o Preses o the Unitit States

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Thiss leet incloodes aw fowk wha hae been Preses o the Unitit States.

Leet o preses[eedit | eedit soorce]

      Unaffiliated (2)           Federalist (1)           Democratic-Republican (4)           Democratic (15)           Whig (4)           Republican (19)           Naitional Union (2)
Presidency[lower-alpha 1] Preses Prior office[lower-alpha 2] Pairty[lower-alpha 3] Term[lower-alpha 4] Vice Preses
1 Aprile 30, 1789
[lower-alpha 5]

Mairch 4, 1797
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[1][2][3]
Commander-in-Chief
o the
Continental Airmy

(1775–1783)
  Unaffiliatit
[4]
(1788–89)
1
(1789)
John Adams
[lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 7]
(1792)
2
(1793)
2 Mairch 4, 1797

Mairch 4, 1801
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[5][6][7]
1st
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Federalist (1796)
3
(1797)
Thomas Jefferson
[lower-alpha 8]
3 Mairch 4, 1801

Mairch 4, 1809
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[8][9][10]
2nt
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Democratic-
Republican
(1800)
4
(1801)
Aaron Burr
Mairch 4, 1801Mairch 4, 1805
(1804)
5
(1805)
George Clinton
Mairch 4, 1805Mairch 4, 1809
4 Mairch 4, 1809

Mairch 4, 1817
James Madison.jpg James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[11][12][13]
5t
Unitit States Secretar o State

(1801–1809)
Democratic-
Republican
(1808)
6
(1809)
George Clinton
Mairch 4, 1809Aprile 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton's term)
(1812)
7
(1813)
Elbridge Gerry
Mairch 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry's term)
5 Mairch 4, 1817

Mairch 4, 1825
James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[14][15][16]
7t
Unitit States Secretar o State

(1811–1817)
Democratic-
Republican
(1816)
8
(1817)
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1820)
9
(1821)
6 Mairch 4, 1825

Mairch 4, 1829
JQA Photo.tif John Quincy Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[17][18][19]
8t
Unitit States Secretar o State

(1817–1825)
Democratic-
Republican
(1824)
10
(1825)
John C. Calhoun
7 Mairch 4, 1829

Mairch 4, 1837
Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[20][21][22]
U.S. Senator frae Tennessee
(1823–1825)
Democratic (1828)
11
(1829)
John C. Calhoun
[lower-alpha 9]
Mairch 4, 1829December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun's term)
(1832)
12
(1833)
Martin Van Buren
Mairch 4, 1833Mairch 4, 1837
8 Mairch 4, 1837

Mairch 4, 1841
Martin Van Buren edit.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[23][24][25]
8t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Democratic (1836)
13
(1837)
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 Mairch 4, 1841

Aprile 4, 1841
(Died in office)
William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg William Henry Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[26][27][28]
Unitit States Meenister tae Colombie
(1828–1829)
Whig (1840)
14
(1841)
(1841)

[lower-alpha 10]
John Tyler
(Succeedit tae presidency)
10 Aprile 4, 1841
[lower-alpha 11]


Mairch 4, 1845
Tyler Daguerreotype crop (restoration).jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[29][30][31]
10t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Whig
Aprile 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Office vacant
Unaffiliated
September 13, 1841Mairch 4, 1845
[lower-alpha 12]
11 Mairch 4, 1845

Mairch 4, 1849
JKP.tif James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[32][33][34]
9t
Govrenor o Tennessee

(1839–1841)
Democratic (1844)
15
(1845)
George M. Dallas
12
Mairch 4, 1849

Julie 9, 1850
(Died in office)
Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[35][36][37]
Major General o the 1st Infantry Regiment
Unitit States Airmy
(1846–1849)
(No prior elected office)
Whig (1848)
16
(1849)
(1850)

[lower-alpha 10]
Millard Fillmore
(Succeedit tae presidency)
13 Julie 9, 1850
[lower-alpha 13]


Mairch 4, 1853
Millard Fillmore by Brady Studio 1855-65-crop.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[38][39][40]
12t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Whig Office vacant
14 Mairch 4, 1853

Mairch 4, 1857
Franklin Pierce - 1.jpg Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[41][42][43]
Brigadier General o the 9t Infantry
Unitit States Airmy
(1847–1848)
Democratic (1852)
17
(1853)
William R. King
Mairch 4Aprile 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King's term)
15 Mairch 4, 1857

Mairch 4, 1861
James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[44][45][46]
Unitit States Meenister to the
Court of St James's
(1853–1856)
Democratic (1856)
18
(1857)
John C. Breckinridge
16 Mairch 4, 1861

Aprile 15, 1865
(Died in office)
Abraham Lincoln O-116 by Gardner, 1865-crop.png Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[47][48][49]
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7t Destrict
(1847–1849)
Republican
(National Union)
[lower-alpha 14]
(1860)
19
(1861)
Hannibal Hamlin
Mairch 4, 1861Mairch 4, 1865
(1864)
20
(1865)
(1865)

[lower-alpha 10]
Andrew Johnson
Mairch 4Aprile 15, 1865
(Succeedit tae presidency)
17 Aprile 15, 1865

Mairch 4, 1869
Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[50][51][52]
16t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
National Union
Aprile 15, 1865c. 1868
Office vacant
Democratic
c. 1868Mairch 4, 1869
[lower-alpha 15]
18
Mairch 4, 1869

Mairch 4, 1877
Ulysses S. Grant 1870-1880.jpg Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[53][54][55]
Commanding General o the U.S. Airmy
(1864–1869)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1868)
21
(1869)
Schuyler Colfax
Mairch 4, 1869Mairch 4, 1873
(1872)
22
(1873)
Henry Wilson
Mairch 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson's term)
19 Mairch 4, 1877

Mairch 4, 1881
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[56][57][58]
29t & 32nt
Govrenor o Ohio

(1868–1872 & 1876–1877)
Republican (1876)
23
(1877)
William A. Wheeler
20 Mairch 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Died in office)
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[59][60][61]
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19t Destrict
(1863–1881)
Republican (1880)
24
(1881)
(1881)

[lower-alpha 10]
Chester A. Arthur
(Succeedit tae presidency)
21 September 19, 1881
[lower-alpha 16]


Mairch 4, 1885
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[62][63][64]
20t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Republican Office vacant
22 Mairch 4, 1885

Mairch 4, 1889
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[65][66]
28t
Govrenor o New York

(1883–1885)
Democratic (1884)
25
(1885)
Thomas A. Hendricks
Mairch 4November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks' term)
23 Mairch 4, 1889

Mairch 4, 1893
Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[67][68][69]
U.S. Senator frae Indiana
(1881–1887)
Republican (1888)
26
(1889)
Levi P. Morton
24 Mairch 4, 1893

Mairch 4, 1897
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped).jpg Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[65][66]
22nt
President o the Unitit States

(1885–1889)
Democratic (1892)
27
(1893)
Adlai Stevenson
25 Mairch 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
(Died in office)
Mckinley.jpg William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[70][71][72]
39th
Govrenor o Ohio

(1892–1896)
Republican (1896)
28
(1897)
Garret Hobart
Mairch 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart's term)
(1900)
29
(1901)
(1901)

[lower-alpha 10]
Theodore Roosevelt
Mairch 4September 14, 1901
(Succeedit tae presidency)
26 September 14, 1901

Mairch 4, 1909
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.tif Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[73][74][75]
25t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Republican Office vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
(1904)
30
(1905)
Charles W. Fairbanks
Mairch 4, 1905Mairch 4, 1909
27 Mairch 4, 1909

Mairch 4, 1913
William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front.tif William Howard Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[76][77][78]
42nt
Unitit States Secretar o War

(1904–1908)
Republican (1908)
31
(1909)
James S. Sherman
Mairch 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman's term)
28 Mairch 4, 1913

Mairch 4, 1921
President Wilson 1919-bw.tif Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[79][80][81]
34t
Govrenor o New Jersey

(1911–1913)
Democratic (1912)
32
(1913)
Thomas R. Marshall
(1916)
33
(1917)
29 Mairch 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[82][83][84]
U.S. Senator frae Ohio
(1915–1921)
Republican (1920)
34
(1921)
(1923)

[lower-alpha 10]
Calvin Coolidge
(Succeedit tae presidency)
30 August 2, 1923
[lower-alpha 17]


Mairch 4, 1929
Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919.jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[85][86][87]
29t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Republican Office vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
(1924)
35
(1925)
Charles G. Dawes
Mairch 4, 1925Mairch 4, 1929
31
Mairch 4, 1929

Mairch 4, 1933
President Hoover portrait.tif Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[88][89][90]
3rd
Unitit States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–1928)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1928)
36
(1929)
Charles Curtis
32 Mairch 4, 1933

Aprile 12, 1945
(Died in office)
FDR 1944 Color Portrait.tif Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[91][92][93]
44t
Govrenor o New York

(1929–1932)
Democratic (1932)
37
(1933)
John Nance Garner
Mairch 4, 1933Januar 20, 1941
[lower-alpha 18]
(1936)
38
(1937)
(1940)
39
(1941)
Henry A. Wallace
Januar 20, 1941Januar 20, 1945
(1944)
40
(1945)
(1945)

[lower-alpha 10]
Harry S. Truman
Januar 20Aprile 12, 1945
(Succeedit tae presidency)
33 Aprile 12, 1945

Januar 20, 1953
Truman 58-766-09.jpg Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[94][95][96]
34t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Democratic Office vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
(1948)
41
(1949)
Alben W. Barkley
Januar 20, 1949Januar 20, 1953
34
Januar 20, 1953

Januar 20, 1961
President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[97][98][99]
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1952)
42
(1953)
Richard Nixon
(1956)
43
(1957)
35 Januar 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Died in office)
John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[100][101][102]
U.S. Senator frae Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Democratic (1960)
44
(1961)
(1963)

[lower-alpha 10]
Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeedit tae presidency)
36 November 22, 1963

Januar 20, 1969
Lyndon B. Johnson Oval Office Portrait (cropped).png Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[103][104]
37t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Democratic Office vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
(1964)
45
(1965)
Hubert Humphrey
Januar 20, 1965Januar 20, 1969
37 Januar 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)
Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.tif Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[105][106][107]
36t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States

(1953–1961)
Republican (1968)
46
(1969)
Spiro Agnew
Januar 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
(1972)
47
(1973)
(1974)

[lower-alpha 10]
Office vacant
October 10December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
(Succeedit tae presidency)
38 August 9, 1974

Januar 20, 1977
Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680.tif Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[108][109][110]
40t
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Republican Office vacant
August 9December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974Januar 20, 1977
39 Januar 20, 1977

Januar 20, 1981
JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(93 years auld)
[111][112][113]
76t
Govrenor o Georgie

(1971–1975)
Democratic (1976)
48
(1977)
Walter Mondale
40 Januar 20, 1981

Januar 20, 1989
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan
1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[114][115][116]
33rd
Govrenor o California

(1967–1975)
Republican (1980)
49
(1981)
George H. W. Bush
(1984)
50
(1985)
41 Januar 20, 1989

Januar 20, 1993
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait cropped.jpg George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(93 years auld)
[117][118][119]
43rd
Vice Preses o the Unitit States
Republican (1988)
51
(1989)
Dan Quayle
42 Januar 20, 1993

Januar 20, 2001
Bill Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(71 years auld)
[120][121][122]
40t & 42nt
Govrenor o Arkansas

(1979–1981 & 1983–1992)
Democratic (1992)
52
(1993)
Al Gore
(1996)
53
(1997)
43 Januar 20, 2001

Januar 20, 2009
George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
Born 1946
(71 years auld)
[123][124]
46t
Govrenor o Texas

(1995–2000)
Republican (2000)
54
(2001)
Dick Cheney
(2004)
55
(2005)
44 Januar 20, 2009

Januar 20, 2017
Obama portrait crop.jpg Barack Obama
Born 1961
(56 years auld)
[125][126]
U.S. Senator frae Illinois
(2005–2008)
Democratic (2008)
56
(2009)
Joe Biden
(2012)
57
(2013)
45
Januar 20, 2017

Incumbent
165px Donald Trump
Born 1946
(71 years auld)
[127][128]
Chairman o
The Trump Organization
(1971–2017)
(Na prior electit office)
Republican (2016)
58
(2017)
Mike Pence

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. Listed here is the most recent office (either with a U.S. state, the federal government, or a private corporation) held by the individual prior to becoming President.
  3. Three presidents are counted above with multiple political affiliations: John Tyler (Whig, Unaffiliated), Abraham Lincoln (Republican, National Union), and Andrew Johnson (National Union, Democratic).
  4. Listed and numbered here are the elections and inaugurations that constitute a presidential term.
  5. Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations o the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1,461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  6. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time o the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction which became the Federalist Pairty. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the Unitit States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  7. Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations o the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  8. The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson o the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  9. John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Intra-term extraordinary inauguration.
  11. John Tyler was sworn in as President on April 6, 1841.
  12. John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most o the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  13. Millard Fillmore was sworn in as President on July 10, 1850.
  14. When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  15. Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  16. Chester A. Arthur was initially sworn in as President on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
  17. Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as President on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 23.
  18. The Twentieth Amendment to the Unitit States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "George Washington". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  2. "George Washington". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  3. "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  4. Jamison, Dennis (December 31, 2014). "George Washington's views on political parties in America". The Washington Times. Retrieved Julie 1, 2016. 
  5. "John Adams". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  6. "John Adams". History. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  7. "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  8. "Thomas Jefferson". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  9. "Thomas Jefferson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  10. "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  11. "James Madison". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  12. "James Madison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  13. "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  14. "James Monroe". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  15. "James Monroe". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  16. "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  17. "John Quincy Adams". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  18. "John Quincy Adams". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  19. "Life Portrait of John Quincy Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  20. "Andrew Jackson". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  21. "Andrew Jackson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  22. "Life Portrait of Andrew Jackson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  23. "Martin Van Buren". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  24. "Martin Van Buren". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  25. "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  26. "William Henry Harrison". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  27. "William Henry Harrison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  28. "Life Portrait of William Henry Harrison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  29. "John Tyler". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  30. "John Tyler". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  31. "Life Portrait of John Tyler". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  32. "James K. Polk". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  33. "James K. Polk". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
  34. "Life Portrait of James K. Polk". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved Mairch 6, 2016. 
  35. "Zachary Taylor". whitehouse.gov. Mairch 12, 2007. Retrieved Januar 22, 2017. 
  36. "Zachary Taylor". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved Januar 18, 2017. 
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