Shijiazhuang

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Shijiazhuang
石家庄
Prefectur-level ceety
石家庄市
Clockwise frae tap: Shijiazhuang skyline, Hebei Airt Center, Shijiazhuang Zhengding Internaitional Airport, an Martyrs' Memorial
Location o Shijiazhuang Ceety jurisdiction in Hebei
Shijiazhuang is located in Hebei
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Location o the ceety centre in Hebei
Coordinates: 38°04′N 114°29′E / 38.067°N 114.483°E / 38.067; 114.483
Kintra Fowkrepublic o Cheenae
Province Hebei
Municipal seat Chang'an
Government
 • Pairty Secretary Sun Ruibin (孙瑞彬)
 • Mayor Ai Wenli (艾文礼)
Area
 • Prefectur-level ceety 15,722 km2 (6,070 sq mi)
 • Urban 399.3 km2 (154.2 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,917.3 km2 (740.3 sq mi)
Elevation 83 m (272 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Prefectur-level ceety 10,163,788
 • Density 650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Urban 2,604,931
 • Urban density 6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 3,833,606
 • Metro density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Time zone Cheenae Staundart (UTC+8)
Postal code 050000
Licence plate prefixes A
Ceety Flouer Rosa Chinensis
Ceety Tree Styphnolobium
Website www.sjz.gov.cn
Shijiazhuang
Simplifee'd Cheenese
Traditional Cheenese
Hanyu Pinyin Shíjiāzhuāng
Literal meanin The Stanes' Veelage

Shijiazhuang (Cheenese: ) is the caipital an lairgest ceety o North Cheenae's Hebei province. Admeenistratively a prefectur-level ceety, it is aboot 280 kilometres (170 mi) soothwast o Beijing, an it admeenisters 6 destricts, 5 coonty-level ceeties, an 12 coonties.

At the 2010 census, it haed a tot population o 10,163,788, wi 2,604,930 in the urban aurie in 2010 an 3,833,606 in its metropolitan aurie, made o 5 urban destricts plus Luquan Ceety, an the coonties o Zhengding an Luancheng. Gaocheng Ceety is aboot tae be pairt o the Shijiazhuang metropolitan aurie, its urbanisation still growin.

Shijiazhuang is a newly industrialised ceety. It experienced dramatic growth efter the foondin o the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae in 1949. The population o the metropolitan aurie haes mair than quadrupled in anly 30 years. It is a central hub o transportation routes. The ceety is home tae a lairge garrison o militar troops situatit tae protect Beijing. It haes a nummer o PLA colleges an varsities. Shijiazhuang haes some o the worst air pollution in the warld, an, as a result, in 2012 launched an initiative tae replace local coal-fired boilers wi gas-fired, an tae tak ither measurs tae reduce the air pollution problem.[1][2]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The auldest name o the ceety wis Shiyi. In pre-Han times (i.e., afore 206 BC) it wis the steid o the ceety o Shiyi in the state o Zhao, an frae Han (206 BC–AD 220) tae Sui (581–618) times it wis the steid o a coonty toun wi the same name. Wi the reorganization o local govrenment in the early period o the Tang dynasty (618–907), the coonty wis abolished. Shijiazhuang then acame wee mair than a local mercat toun, subordinated tae the flourishin ceety o Zhengding (modren Zhengding) a few miles tae the north.

The growth o Shijiazhuang intae ane o Cheenae's major ceeties began in 1905, when the BeijingWuhan (Hankou) railway reached the aurie, stimulatin much new trade an encouraging local farmers tae grow cash crops. Twa years later the toun acame the junction for the new Shitai line, running frae Shijiazhuang tae Taiyuan, Shanxi. This connection immediately transformed the toun frae a local collectin centre an mercat intae a communications centre o naitional importance on the main route frae Beijing an Tianjin tae Shanxi an later, when the railway frae Taiyuan wis extendit tae the soothwast tae Shaanxi as well. The ceety an aa acame the centre o an extensive road network.

Pre-Warld War II Shijiazhuang wis a lairge railway toun as well as a commercial an collectin centre for Shanxi an regions farther wast an for agricultural produce o the North Cheenae Plain, particularly grain, tobacco, an cotton. Bi 1935 it haed far ootstripped Zhengding as an economic centre. At the end o Warld War II the character o the ceety chynged ance again. Nae anly did it assume an admeenistrative role as the preeminent ceety in wastren Hebei, but it an aa developed intae an industrial ceety. Some industries, such as match manufacturin, tobacco processin, an glassmaking, haed already been established afore the war.

In 1948 the ceety, formerly kent as Shímén (石門), wis renamed Shijiazhuang.

Xibaipo, a veelage aboot 90 km (56 mi) frae dountoun Shijiazhuang, in Pingshan Coonty wis the location o the Central Committee o the Communist Pairty o Cheenae an the heidquarters o the Fowk's Liberation Airmy durin the decisive stages o the Cheenese Ceevil War atween May 26, 1948 an Mairch 23, 1949, at which pynt thay wur moved tae Beijing. The day, the aurie is a memorial steid.[3]

Efter 1949 the planned industrialisation o the ceety gathered momentum. Its population mair than tripled in the decade 1948–58. In the 1950s, the ceety experienced a major expansion in the textile industry, wi lairge-scale cotton spinning weavin, printin, an dyein wirks. In addeetion thare are various plants processin local fairm produce. In the 1960s it wis an aa the steid o a new chemical industry, wi plants producin fertilizer an caustic soda. Shijiazhuang an aa acame an engineerin base, wi a tractor-accessory plant. Thare are important coal deposits at Jingxing an Huailu, nou named Luquan, a few miles tae the wast in the fithills o the Taihang Muntains, which provide fuel for a thermal-generatin plant supplyin pouer tae local industries. The ceety's role as a transport centre haes been supplementit bi the construction o an airport handlin regular domestic flichts.

In 1967, Tianjin wis again carved oot o Hebei, remainin a separate entity the day, an thus the provincial caipital wis moved tae Baoding. It wis chaotic in the midst o the Cultural Revolution, an unner the direction o Mao Zedong, in 1968, tae "prepare for war an naitural disasters", Shijiazhuang acame the provincial caipital.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shijiazhuang is locatit in sooth-central Hebei, an is pairt o the Bohai Economic Rim. Its admeenistrative aurie ranges in latitude frae 37° 27' tae 38° 47' N, an the longitude 113° 30' tae 115° 20' E. The prefectur-level ceety reaches a 148 kilometres (92 mi) north-sooth extent an a 175 kilometres (109 mi) wide frae east tae wast. The prefectur haes borders stretchin 760 kilometres (472 mi) lang an covers an aurie o 15,722 square kilometres (6,070 sq mi). Bordering prefectur-level ceeties in Hebei are Hengshui (E), Xingtai (S), an Baoding (N/NE). Tae the wast lies the province o Shanxi.

The ceety stands at the edge o the North Cheenae Plain, which rises tae the Taihang Muntains tae the wast o the ceety, an lies sooth o the Hutuo River (滹沱河). Frae wast tae east, the topografie can be summarised as moderately-heich muntains, then law-lyin muntains, hills, basin, an finally plains. Oot o the aicht east-wast routes athort the Taihang Muntains, the fifth, the Niangzi Pass, connects the ceety directly wi Taiyuan, Shanxi.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), characterised bi het, humid simmers due tae the East Asie monsoon, an generally cauld, windy, very dry winters that reflect the influence o the vast Siberian anticyclone. Ware can bear witness tae sandstorms blowin in frae the Mongolie steppe, accompanied bi rapidly wairmin, but generally dry, conditions. Hairst is similar tae ware in temperatur an lack o rainfaw. Januar averages −2.3 °C (27.9 °F), while Julie averages 26.8 °C (80.2 °F); the annual mean is 13.38 °C (56.1 °F). Mair than hauf o the annual rainfaw occurs in Julie an August alane.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shijiazhuang is twinned wi:

Poplar trees alang a road

Shijiazhuang an aa haes a Sister Ceety Agreement:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]