Lanzhou

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Lanzhou
兰州市
Prefectur-level ceety
View o Lanzhou
Location of Lanzhou City (yellow) in Gansu and the PRC
Lanzhou is located in China
Lanzhou
Lanzhou
Location in Cheenae
Coordinates: 36°02′N 103°48′E / 36.033°N 103.800°E / 36.033; 103.800
Kintra Fowkrepublic o Cheenae
Province Gansu
County-level divisions 8
Government
 • Mayor Yuan Zhanting (袁占亭)
 • Deputy Mayor Cai Ming
Area
 • Prefectur-level ceety 13,300 km2 (5,100 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,088 km2 (420 sq mi)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefectur-level ceety 3,616,163
 • Density 270/km2 (700/sq mi)
 • Urban 2,177,130
 • Urban density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 730000
Area code(s) 931
License plate prefixes A
GDP (2008) CNY 84.6 billion
 - per caipita CNY 25,566
Website http://www.lz.gansu.gov.cn (Cheenese)
City flowers
Rugosa Rose
Lanzhou
Traditional Cheenese 蘭州
Simplifee'd Cheenese 兰州
Literal meanin elegant state or Capital of Lan

Lánzhōu (Cheenese: 兰州; Postal map spellin: Lanchow) is the caipital an lairgest ceety o Gansu Province in Northwast Cheenae. A prefectur-level ceety, it is a key regional transportation hub, allouin auries further wast tae maintain railroad connections tae the eastren hauf o the kintra. Lanzhou is hame tae 3,616,163 inhabitants at the 2010 census an 2,177,130 in the built-up aurie (urban) o 1,088 square kilometres (420 sq mi).

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oreeginally in the territory o the Wastren Qiang fowks, Lanzhou became pairt o the territory o the State o Qin in the 6t century BC.

In 81 BC, unner the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), it wis taken frae the Huns' Huandi Chanyu an made the seat o Jincheng commandery (jùn), an later o the Jincheng coonty (xiàn), later renamit Yunwu. The ceety uised tae be cried the Gowden ceety, an syne at least the first millennium BC it wis a major link on the auncient Northren Silk Road,[1][2] an a important historic Yellae River crossin steid an aw. Tae protect the ceety, the Great Waw o Cheenae wis extendit as far as Yumen.

Efter the faw o the Han dynasty, Lanzhou became the caipital o a succession o tribal states. In the 4t century it wis briefly the caipital o the independent state o Liang. The Northren Wei dynasty (386–534) reestablished Jincheng commandery, renamin the coonty Zicheng. Mixed wi different cultural heritages, the aurie at present-day Gansu province, frae the 5t tae the 11t century, became a centre for Buddhist study. Unner the Sui Dynasty (581–618) the ceety became the seat o Lanzhou prefectur for the first time, retainin this name unner the Tang dynasty (618–907). In 763 the aurie wis owerrun bi the Tibetan Empire an in 843 wis conquered bi the Tang. Later it fell intae the haunds o the Wastren Xia dynasty (which flourished in Qinghai frae the 11t tae 13t century) an wis subsequently absorbit bi the Song dynasty (960–1126) in 1041. The name Lanzhou wis reestablished, an the coonty renamit Lanzhuan.

Efter 1127 it fell intae the haunds o the Jin dynasty, an efter 1235 it came intae the possession o the Mongol Empire.

Dountoun Lanzhou seen frae athort the Yellae River

Unner the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) the prefectur wis demotit tae a coonty an placit unner the admeenistration o Lintao superior prefectur, but in 1477 Lanzhou wis reestablished as a poleetical unit.

The ceety acquired its current name in 1656, durin the Qing dynasty. When Gansu wis made a separate province in 1666, Lanzhou became its caipital.

In 1739 the seat o Lintao wis transferred tae Lanzhou, which wis later made a superior prefectur cried Lanzhou.

Lanzhou wis badly damagit durin the Dungan revolt in 1864–1875. In the 1920s an 1930s it became a centre o Soviet influence in northwastren Cheenae. Durin the Seicont Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) Lanzhou, linkit wi Xi'an bi heich-gate in 1935, became the terminus o the 3,200 km (2,000 mi) Cheenese–Soviet heich-gate, uised as a route for Soviet supplies destined for the Xi'an aurie. This heich-gate remained the primar traffec route o northwastren Cheenae till the completion o the railwey frae Lanzhou tae Urumqi, Xinjiang. Durin the war Lanzhou wis hivily bombit bi the Japanese.

Durin the 1937 Japanese invasion o Cheenae, the Guominjun Muslim Generals Ma Hongkui an Ma Bufang protectit Lanzhou wi their cavalry troops, puttin up such resistance that the Japanese niver captured Lanzhou.[3][4][5]

The ceety is the seat o a currently vacant Roman Catholic diocese[6] and was previously the center of a vicariate apostolic (Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kan-Su).[7]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou is situatit on the upper reaches o the Yellae River whaur it emerges frae the muntains an haes been a centre syne early times, bein at the soothren end o the route leadin via the Hexi Corridor athort Central Asie. It commands the approaches tae the auncient caipital aurie o Chang'an (modren Xi'an) in Shaanxi province frae baith the wast an the northwast, as well as the aurie o Qinghai Loch via the upper watters o the Yellae River an its tributars.

Climate an environs[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou is situatit in the temperate zone an enjoys a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) wi hot simmers an cauld an vera dry winters. The monthly 24-oor average temperatur ranges frae −5.3 °C (22.5 °F) in Januar tae 22.4 °C (72.3 °F) in Julie. The mean annual temperatur is 9.75 °C (49.5 °F), while annual rainfaw is 315 millimetres (12.4 in), amaist aw o which faws frae Mey tae October. The winters are so dry that snaw is extremely rare. Wi monthly percent possible sunshine rangin frae 50 percent in Dizember tae 59 percent in Februar, sunshine is generous but no abundant, as the ceety receives 2,424 oors o bricht sunshine annually.

Environmental issues[eedit | eedit soorce]

Serious air pollution in the ceety means that it haes some o the wirst air quality o ony ceety naitionally.[9] Accordin tae the Blacksmith Institute, Lanzhou is ane o the 30 maist pollutit ceeties in the warld, wi its TSP (total suspendit pairticle) ratin 247 percent abuin that o the Gansu State recommendation. Air quality is so poor that at times ane cannot see Lanshan, the muntain risin straicht up alang the sooth side o the ceety. At ane point, a controversial suggestion wis put forward tae bulldoze a muntain adjacent tae the ceety, in order tae let fresh air intae the bowl whaur Lanzhou is situatit. It wis suggestit on the premise that the surrounding mountains block a free flow o air in the ceety. The ceety is locatit in a narrae river valley wi a unfortunate curve causin it tae be hemmit in wi nae free air flow. Lanzhou is the hame o mony factories an aw, includin some involvit in petroleum processin, an suffers frae lairge dust storms kickit up frae the Gobi Desert, especially in the winter an ware. In 2011, uisin Cheenese statistics, the World Health Organization reportit that Lanzhou haes the wirst air quality (annual mean PM10 ug/m3 o 150) amang eleiven wastren Cheenese ceeties, an is even worse than Beijing wi its readin o 121.[10]

The reach o the Yellae River at Lanzhou carries a heich load o silt, giein the river its characteristic muddy appearance; housomeivver watter quality in this reach is better than the "fetid ootflow that barely passes for watter twa oors dounstream".[11]

Yirdquauks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou experiences yirdquauks regularly, awtho usually at law intensities. In 1920 a lairge yirdquauk wis experiencit killin mair than 100,000 fowk in Eastren Gansu province, awtho anerly 42 wur killed in Lanzhou itsel, the law nummer bein attributit tae the strang yet flexible natur o the firthen biggins in the ceety.[12]

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Map # Name Simplifee'd Cheenese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)
Aurie (km²) Density
(/km²)
Lanzhou mcp.png City proper
1 Chengguan Destrict 城关区 Chéngguān Qū 1,278,745 220 5,812.47
2 Qilihe Destrict 七里河区 Qīlǐhé Qū 561,020 397 1,413.14
3 Xigu Destrict 西固区 Xīgù Qū 364,050 385 945.58
4 Anning Destrict 安宁区 Ānníng Qū 288,510 86 3,354.76
Suburban
5 Honggu Destrict 红古区 Hónggǔ Qū 136,101 575 236.69
Landwart
6 Yongdeng Coonty 永登县 Yǒngdēng Xiàn 418,789 6,090 68.76
7 Gaolan Coonty 皋兰县 Gāolán Xiàn 131,785 2,556 51.55
8 Yuzhong Coonty 榆中县 Yúzhōng Xiàn 437,163 3,362 130.03
9 Lanzhou New Aurie
A economic management aurie
no a formal admeenistrative diveesion.
兰州新区 Lánzhōu Xīnqū

Lanzhou New Aurie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Lanzhou New Aurie

On 20 August 2012, Lanzhou New Aurie wis appruivit bi the State Cooncil o Cheenae's Central Govrenment as the fift state-level new special economic development zone (follaeed bi Pudong o Shanghai, Binhai o Tianjin, Liangjiang o Chongqing, Zhoushan o Zhejiang), which is the first state-level new aurie in the northwast o Cheenae an aw.

Tourism[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • The Five Spring Mountain Park(五泉山公园) wis built at the northren side o Gaolan Muntain, is famous for its five springs an several Buddhist temples.
  • The Yellae River Brig(黄河铁桥) haes connectit the transport hub o Lanzhou tae the mainland an northwast syne the Ming dynasty when fowk began tae envisage such a crossin tae conquer the Yellae River .
  • Baita Mountain Park(白塔山公园) wis built close tae the muntains at a elevation o 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) an opened in 1958 athort the Yellae River brig.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Panoramic view o Lanzhou ceety centre

Productivity[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne 1949 Lanzhou haes been transformit frae the caipital o a poverty-stricken province intae the centre o a major industrial aurie. The GDP per caipita o Lanzhou wis 25,566 (RMB) (US$3,681) in 2008, rankin it at nummer 134 amang 659 Cheenese ceeties.

Natural resources[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare is a thermal generatin plant supplee'd wi coal frae fields in Qinghai. In addeetion, thare is a hydroelectric station at Zhulama Gorge in Gansu, an a lairge multipurpose dam haes been built in the Liujia Gorge on the Yellae River abuin Lanzhou.[13]

Industry[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main industries include textile mills, rubber processin an fertilizer plants, an ile refinery, petrochemicals, machinery, an metallurgical industry.

Gansu haes ane o the lairgest ile refineries in the kintra an Lanzhou itsel is the centre o the province's petrochemical industry. Lanzhou haes a lairge refinery linkit tae the fields at Yumen bi pipeline. It manufactures equipment for the ile industry an aw.

Lanzhou haes a lairge textile industry, pairticularly notit for the production o woolen an leather guids. In addeetion, Lanzhou produces locomotives an rollin stock for the northwastren railweys, as well as machine tuils an minin equipment. aluminum products, industrial chemicals, an fertilizers are producit on a lairge scale, an thare is a lairge rubber industry. Copper is mined in nearbi Gaolan.

Lanzhou haes been ane o the centres o Cheenae's naitional nuclear pouer industry syne the 1960s.

Industrial zones:

  • Lanzhou Economic an Technological Development Zone
  • Lanzhou Heich-tech Industrial Development Zone

Agricultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou is the collectin centre an mercat for agricultural produce an livestock frae a wide aurie.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou Railwey Station
The Yellae River seen frae the pairk o the White Pagoda.

Airlines[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Lanzhou Airport serves as the main airport an is locatit 70 km (43 mi) north o Lanzhou. Flichts frae mair than 20 ceeties depairt an arrive at the airport.

Railwey[eedit | eedit soorce]

Subwey[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou wis the seicont ceety in northwast Cheenae tae open a subwey line, in August 2012. The urban railwey netwirk, Lanzhou Metro, is planned tae consist o sax subway lines runnin 207 km (129 mi). Three o the subwey lines, codit Line 1, Line 2 an Line 3, will extend 90 km (56 mi) in the ceety proper, while the three ooter lines, codit Line 4, Line 5 an Line 6, will run 117 km (73 mi), connectin the ceety centre wi Lanzhou Zhongchuan Airport, Yuzhong coonty an Gaolan coonty, respectively. The first twa lines will cost aboot 23 billion yuan ($3.6 billion) an be completit bi 2020.[14]

Regional[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou Railwey Station is a major railwey hub o wastren Cheenae. Ivery day ower 100 passenger trains oreeginate or pass via this station. It is a vital focal point connectin the wastren Cheenese provinces wi the east. Lanzhou Railway Station is locatit on Huochezhan Dong Lu, in Chengguan destrict.

It haes the follaein railwey connections:

Construction o new heich-speed passenger-anerly railwey lines is carriet oot baith toward the east (the Xulan Passenger Dedicated Line) an the wast (the Lanxin High-Speed Railway). These services will uise a upgradit Lanzhou West Railway Station.

Heich-gates[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bus services[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lanzhou haes a notit bus rapid transit seestem which opened in 2013 an wan the ceety a honorable mention at the 2014 Sustainable Transport Awards.[15][16]

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

Xiguan Mosque efter a Friday Prayer

Media[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is the cultural centre o Gansu. It is hame tae mony different ethnic groups an their respective culturs, but the maist prominent three groups are the Han, Hui, an Zang.

  • Cheenese opera: Qinqiang Drama
  • Cuisine: Lanzhou beef lamian noodles, the ruit o the lily, an mony different kynds o mutton aw featur intae Lanzhou's destinct fuid cultur.
  • Islam in China: Xiguan Mosque, the mosque wis constructit in the Ming dynasty an later rebuilt in 1990, an occupees a aurie o 467 square metres, an is ane o the maist influential mosques in Cheenae. The airchitectur o the mosque predominantly reflects that o Arab airchitectur.[17]

Colleges an varsities[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is the seat o Lanzhou Varsity, foondit in 1909. The Naitional Minorities Institute at Lanzhou an a nummer o scientific institutes are locatit thare an aw. In pairticular, Northwast Normal Varsity haes been the key varsity at the provincial level, which haes prepared ower 100,000 teachers in schuils athort the province Gansu.

Leet[eedit | eedit soorce]

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor's degree programs are not listed.

Naitional level[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ither public institutions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Halthcare[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the provincial halth bureau, aboot 42,000 fowk dee o cancer ivery year in Gansu, accoontin for 25 percent o the province's oweraw daiths. Mair than 1 billion yuan (146 million U.S. dollars) is spent annually on treatin cancer in the province.

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Xian Xiaowei, Zhang Linyuan, Ai Nanshan and Wihelm Wohlke, On the relation between the evolution of natural environment and human factors and the development of urban settlement—Take the Lanzhou Valley Basin as an examples, Springerlink vol.1,no.1 (1991)
  2. C.Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, the Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham
  3. Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1989). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co. p. 285. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1983). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co. p. 285. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1983). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co. p. 285. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. Archdiocese of Lanchow at catholic-hierarchy.org
  7. Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kan-Su at Catholic Encyclopedia
  8. "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  9. Gansu Daily, [reports lowest staundin o 84 Cheenese ceeties surveyed]
  10. WHO report OAP_database_8_2011.xls
  11. Yellow River Pollution Is Price of Economic Growth, Rob Gifford. NPR, Jan. 6, 2008
  12. “The Earthquake,” E. J. Mann in Links with China and Other Lands, No. 31, April 1921, Lanzhou: China Inland Mission (quarterly) Bound volume in MS 380302, Papers of Ebenezer and Mabel Mann, SOAS, 331.[1]
  13. Liujiaxia Gorge and Bingling Temple
  14. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2012-06/27/content_15526833.htm
  15. Buenos Aires, Argentina Wins 2014 Sustainable Transport Award, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy
  16. Lanzhou BRT
  17. Xiguan Mosque from Muslim2China
  18. Institute Of Technology official website
  19. Lanzhou City University official website

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]