Chengde

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Chengde (Cheenese: 承德; pinyin: Chéngdé), previously kent as Jehol, is a prefectur-level ceety in Hebei province, Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, situatit northeast o Beijing. It is best kent as the steid o the Muntain Resort, a vast imperial garden ceety umwhile uised as the simmer residence bi the Manchu Emperors o the Qing Dynasty.[1] The urban centre haed a population o approximately 450,000 as o 2009.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) tourin Chengde.

In 1703, Chengde wis chosen bi the Kangxi Emperor as the location for his simmer residence. Constructit throughoot the aichteent century, the Muntain Resort (避暑山庄; literally "avoidin the heat muntain villa") wis uised bi baith the Yongzheng an Qianlong emperors. The site is currently a UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid. Syne the seat o government follaed the emperor, Chengde wis a poleetical centre o the Cheenese empire durin these times.

The ceety o Jehol reached its heicht unner the Qianlong Emperor 1735-1796 (dee'd 1799). The great monastery temple o the Potala, loosely based on the famous Potala in Lhasa, was completit efter juist fower years o wirk in 1771. It wis hivily decorate wi gowd an the emperor worshipped in the Gowden Pavilion. In the temple itsel wis a bronze-gilt statue o Tsongkhapa, the Reformer o the Gelugpa sect. Hedin referred tae it as "the maist beautiful Lama temple in Cheenae."[2]

Unner the Republic o Cheenae, Chengde wis the caipital o Rehe province. Frae 1933 tae 1945 the ceety wis unner Japanese control as a pairt o the Manchurian puppet state kent as Manchukuo. Efter Warld War II the Kuomintang regained jurisdiction. In 1948, the Fowk Liberation Airmy teuk control o Chengde. It woud remain a pairt o Rehe till 1955, when the province wis abolished, an the ceety wis incorporatit intae Hebei.

The ceety is hame tae lairge populations o ethnic minorities, Mongol an Manchu in pairticular. The name for Chengde in Manchu is Erdemu be aliha fu.

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chengde haes ceety pairtnerships wi the follaein ceeties:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Hedin (1933), pp. 1, 14.
  2. Hedin (1933), pp. 24-29.