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I Dharmachakra, æ saucrit seembol fit represents Buddhism an hits tradeetions
An image of a lantern used in the Vesak Festival; which celebrates the birth, enlightenment, and Parinirvana of the Buddha.
Æ eemage o æ lantren uiset in i Vesak Fest; fit celebrates i birth, enlightenment, an parinirvana o Gautama Buddha

Buddhism (/ˈbʊdɪzəm/ BUU-dih-zəm, /[unsupported input]ˈbd-/ BOOD-),[1][2][3] kent as Buddha Dharma an Dharmavinaya (transl. "lair an discipleenes") an aw, is æ Indien releegion an philosophical tradeetion basit on teachins attributit tæ Gautama Buddha.[4] Hit originatit in praisent-day Nor Indie as æ śramaṇa–muivement in i 5th century BCE, an gradualli spreid ootthrou a meikle o Asia via i Silk Road. Hit is i warld's fowert-lairgest releegion,[5] wi ower 520 million followers (Buddhists) foo comprise seiven percent o i global population.[6][7][8]

Gautama Buddha's central lairs emphasise i aim o atteenin liberation fæ attachment or hingin-on tæ existence, fit is said tæ be markit bi impermanence (anitya), dissaitisfaction/dreein (duḥkha), an i absence o lestie pith (anātman).[9] He endorsit i Wey o i Midlins, æ path o speeritual development at avides baith sevendible asceticism an hedonism. Æ summary o 'is path is expressit in i Noble Echtfold Bruid, æ trainin o i mind throu observance o Buddhist ethics an meditation. Ither widely observit practeeses include: monasticism; "taking refuge" in i Buddha, i dharma, an i saṅgha; an i cultivation o perfections (pāramitā).[10]

Buddhist schuils vary in eir interpretation o i bruidstæ liberation (mārga), i relative importance an 'canonicity' assignit tæ various Buddhist texts, an eir speceefic teachins an practeeses an aw.[11][12] Twa major extant brainches o Buddhism ur generalli recognizit bi scholars: Theravāda (lit. 'School of the Elders') an Mahāyāna (lit. 'Great Vehicle'). I Theravada tradeetion emphasises i atteenment o nirvāṇa (lit. 'extinguishin') as æ means o transcendin i individual self an endin i cycle o deith an rebirth (saṃsāra),[13][14][15] file i Mahayana tradeetion emphasises i Bodhisattva-ideal, far een wirks fur i liberation o aw beins. I Buddhist canon is vast, wi a hantle o different textual collects in differ leids (sic as Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan an Cheenese).

I Theravāda brainch hæs æ braid fallæin in Sri Lanka an in Sootheast Asia an aw, maistli Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, an Cambodie. I Mahāyāna brainch — fit includes i tradeetions o Zen, Pure Land, Nichiren, Tiantai, Tendai, an Shingon — is maistli practicit in Nepal, Bhutan, Cheena, Malaysie, Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, an Japan. Vajrayāna (lit. 'Indestructible Vehicle'), æ body o teachins attributit tæ Indie adepts, micht be viewt as æ separate brainch or tradeetion inwith Mahāyāna.[16] Tibetan Buddhism, fit preserves i Vajrayāna teachins o echt-century Indie, is practicit in iHimalayan kintras, an in Mongolie[15] an Russian Kalmykia an aw. Historicalli, till i early 2nt millennium, Buddhism wis wideli practicit in i Indie subcontinent;[17][18][19] it hæd æ fithaud tæ some extent elsewhaur in Asia, leik Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, an i Philippines.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Buddhism is æ Indien releegion an philosophy fæ Gautama Buddha ("i Waukent Een"), æ Śramaṇa; foo leeved in Sooth Asia c. 6th or 5th century BCE.[13][20]

Followers o Buddhism, cawed Buddhists in Scots an Inglis, hæd referit tæ thaimsels as Sakyan-s or Sakyabhiksu in auncient Indie.[21] Buddhist scholart Donald S. Lopez asserts ey uisit i term Bauddha an aw, awtho scholart Richard Cohen asserts at i term wis uised ainli bi aidders tæ descrive Buddhists.[22]

Gautama Buddha[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auncient kinricks an ceeties o Indie durin i tim o Gautama Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modren-day Indie, Pakistan, Bangladesh, an Afghanistan
I gildit "Emaciated Buddha statue" in æ Ubosoth in Bangkok representin i stage o his asceticism
Enlightenment o Gautama Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nt tæ early 3rd century CE, Gandhara

Details o Gautama Buddha's life are mentiont in mony Early Buddhist Texts bit are inconsistent. His social backgrund an life details are difficult tæ pruive, an i preceese dates are swidderin, awtho i 5t century BCE seems tæ be i best estimate.[13][note 1]

Early texts hæ Gautama Buddha's faimily nemme as "Gautama" (Pali: Gotama), file some texts gie Siddhartha as his faimily nemme. He wis born in Lumbini, praisent-day Nepal, an growed up in Kapilavastu,[30] æ toun in i Ganges Carse, near i modren Nepal–Indie mairch, an at he spent his life in fit is modren Bihar[32] an Uttar Pradesh i noo.[33][13] Some hagiographic leegends state at his faider wis æ keeng namit Suddhodana, his midder wis Queen Maya.[34] Scholarts sic leik Richard Gombrich conseeder is æ jubish claim acause æ combination o evidents suggests he wis born in i Shakya community, fit wis governit bi æ small oligarchy or republic-leik council far ere war næ ranks bit far seniority maitert insteid.[33][37] Some o i stories aboot Gautama Buddha, his life, his teachins, an claims aboot i society he growed up in may hæ been feingit an interpolatit at æ later tim intæ i Buddhist texts.[33][38]

Accordin æo early texts sic leik i Pali Ariyapariyesanā-sutta ("I discoorse on i noble seekin", MN 26) an hits Cheenese parallel at MĀ 204, Gautama Buddha wis movit bi i sufferin (dukkha) o life an deith, an hits endless repetition due tæ rebirth.[39] Sicweys, he set oot on æ seekin tæ airt oot liberation fæ dreein (kent as "nirvana" an aw).[40] Early texts an biographies state at Gautama Buddha first studiet unner twa teachers o meditation, nameli Āḷāra Kālāma (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) an Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learin meditation an pheelosophy, parteecularli i meditative atteenment o "i sphere o næhinness" fæ i forgane, an "i sphere o naider perception nor næ-perception" fæ i latter.[41][42][46]

Fandin this teachins tæ be insuffeecient tæ atteen his goal, he turnt tæ i practeese o commaundin asceticism, fit includit æ strict fastin regime an various forms o breith control. 'Is fell short o atteenin his goal an aw, an en he turnt tæ i meditative praceese o dhyana. He famousli sat in meditation ablo æ Ficus religiosa tree — cawed i Bodhi Tree i noo — in i toun o Bodh Gaya an attened "Awaukenin" (Bodhi).[47]

Accordin tæ various early texts leik i Mahāsaccaka-sutta, an i Samaññaphala Sutta, on awaukenin, Gautama Buddha gaint insight intæ i wirkings o karma an his umfile lives; achievin i endin o i mental aggles (asavas), i endin o dreein, an i end o rebirth in saṃsāra an aw. 'Is event broucht certainty aboot i Middle Wey as i richt bruid o speeritual practeece tæ end dreein an aw.[48][49] As æ fully enlightent Buddha, he attractit follærs an foondit æ Sangha (monastic order).[33] He hild i rest o his life teachin i Dharma he hæd diskivert, an en deed, achievin "final nirvana", at i age o 80 in Kushinagar, Indie.[50][51]

Gautama Buddha's teachins war propagatit bi his followers, fit in i laist centuries o i 1st millennium BCE becam various Buddhist schuils o thoucht, ilk ane wi hits ainbasket o texts containin differ readins an authentic teachins o Gautama Buddha;[13][52] this ower tim evolvit intæ mony tradeetions o fit i mair well knawn an widespread in i modren era are Theravada, Mahayana an Vajrayana Buddhism.[53][13][56]

Warldview[eedit | eedit soorce]


Buddha statue in 1896, Bamiyan
Efter statue malafoustert bi Islamist Taliban in 2001
Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan in 1896 (top) an efter malafoustert in 2001 bi i Taliban Islamists.[57]

I term "Buddhism" is æ occidental neologism, fur common (an "raider groffli" accordin tæ Donald S. Lopez Jr.) usit as æ owersettin fur i Dharma o Gautama Buddha, fójiào in Cheenese, bukkyō in Japanese, nang pa sangs rgyas pa'i chos in Tibetan, buddhadharma in Sanskrit, an buddhaśāsana in Pali.[58]

Fower Noble Suiths– dukkha an hits endin[eedit | eedit soorce]

I Fower Suiths express i basic orientation o Buddhism: we crave an cling tæ impermanent states an hings, fit is dukkha, "incapable o saitisfeeing" an pinefu.[59][60] 'Is keeps us caucht in saṃsāra, i undevaulin cycle o repeatit rebirth, dukkha, an deein agin.[note 2] Bit 'ere is æ wey tæ leeberation fæ 'is undevaulin cycle[66] tæ i state o nirvana, namely follæing i Noble Echtfold Bruid.[note 3]

I truith o dukkha is i basic insicht 'at life in 'is mundane warld, wi hits clingin and greenin tæ impermanent states an hings[59] is dukkha, an unsaitisfactory.[77][78] Dukkha can be owersett as "incapable o saitisfeein", "i unsaitisfactory naitur an i general shogglyness o aw condeetiont phenomena"; or "pinefu".[59][60] Dukkha is for common owersett as "dulein", bit 'is isnæ accurate, sin hit refers næ tæ episodic dulein, bit tæ i intrinsically unsaitisfactory naitur o temporar states an hings, includin pleisant bit temporar experiences.[80] We expect happiness fæ states an hings fit are impermanent, an tharefore cannæ atteen real happiness.

In Buddhism, dukkha is een o i tree merks o existence, alang wi impermanence an anattā (non-self).[81] Buddhism, leik idder major Indien releegions, ledges 'at awhing is impermanent (anicca), bit, unlike 'em, ledges 'at 'ere isæ permanent sel or saul in onyhin leevin (anattā) an aw.[82] I ignorance or misperception (avijjā) 'at onyhin is permanent or 'at 'ere is sel in ony body is considert æ wrang kennin, an i primary soorce o clingin an dukkha.[83][84][85]

I cycle o rebirth[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tradeetional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depictin i Feel o Life wi hits sax realms

Saṃsāra[eedit | eedit soorce]

Saṃsāra means "wanderin" or "warld", wi i connotation o cyclic, circuitous chinge.[86][87] Hit refers tæ i theory o rebirth an "cyclicality o aw life, maiter, existence", æ fundamental assumption o Buddhism, as wi aw major Indien releegions.[87][88] Samsara in Buddhism is considert tæ be dukkha, unsaitisfactory an pinefu,[89] perpetuatit bi greenin an avidya (ignorance), an i resultin karma.[87][90][91] Liberation fæ 'is cycle o existence, nirvana, hæs buin i foond an i maist important heestorical justification o Buddhism.[92][13]

Buddhist texts ledge 'at rebirth can occur in sax realms o existence, namely tree guid realms (heivenly, demi-god, human) an tree ill realms (beastie, hungrt ghaists, hellish).[note 4] Samsara ends gin æ body atteens nirvana, i "blawin oot" o i afflictions throu insicht intæ impermanence an "næ-sel".[94][95][96]

Rebirth[eedit | eedit soorce]

A very large hill behind two palm trees and a boulevard, where the Buddha is believed to have been cremated
Ramabhar Stupa in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, Indie, is regionalli believit tæ be Gautama Buddha's cremation site.

Rebirth refers tæ æ process whaurbi bodies gæ throu æ succession o lifetims as een o mony possible forms o sentient life, ilk ane runnin fæ conception tæ deith.[97] In Buddhist thoucht, is rebirth dæsnæ involve æ soul or ony fixed substance. 'Is is acause i Buddhist doctrine o anattā (Sanskrit: anātman, næsel doctrine) rejects i concepts o æ permanent sel or æ unchingin, eternal saul foond in aidder releegions.[98][99]

I Buddhist tradeetions hæ tradeetionalli disgree'd on fit hit is in æ body 'at is reborn, and foo quickly i rebirth occurs efter deith an aw.[100][101] Some Buddhist tradeetions ledge 'at "næsel" doctrine means 'at 'ere is næ endurin sel, bit 'ere is avacya (inexpressible) personality (pudgala) fit migrates fæ een life tæ anidder.[100] I majority o Buddhist tradeetions, in contrast, ledge 'at vijñāna (æ body's alistness) thou evolvin, exists as æ continuum an is i mechanistic basis o fit drees i rebirth process.[77][100] I quality o een's rebirth depends on i meerit or demeerit gaint bi een's karma (i.e. actions), an 'at fit is accresst on eens's behauf bi æ family member.[104] Buddhism developit æ complex cosmology tæ expleen i various realms or planes o rebirth an aw.[89]

Karma[eedit | eedit soorce]

Liberation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Æ aniconic depeection o Gautama Buddha's speeritual liberation (moksha) or awakenin (bodhi), at Sanchi. Gautama Buddha isnæ depictit, ainli seembolised bi i Bodhi tree an i empie seat

Dependent arisin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Næ-Sel an Empieness[eedit | eedit soorce]


I Three Jewels[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dharma Feel an triratna seembols fæ Sanchi Stupa nummer 2

Aw forms o Buddhism revere an tak speeritual refuge in i "tree jewels" (triratna): Buddha, Dharma an Sangha.[14]

Buddha[eedit | eedit soorce]

File aw varieties o Buddhism revere "Buddha" an "buddhahood", 'ey hæ differ views on fit 'ese are. Regairdless o 'eir expoondin, i concept o Buddha is central tæ aw forms o Buddhism.

Dharma[eedit | eedit soorce]

I saicont o i tree jewels is "Dharma" (Pali: Dhamma), fit in Buddhism refers tæ Gautama Buddha's teachins, includin aw o i main idees ootlinit abuin. File is teachin reflects i true naitur o reality, hit isnæ æ belief tæ be clung tæ, bit æ pragmatic teachin tæ be pit intæ practeece. Hit is likenit tæ æ raft fit is "fur crossin ower" (tæ nirvana), næ fur haudin ontæ.[14] Hit refers tæ i universal law an cosmic order an aw, fit 'at teachin baith reveals an lippens. Hit is æ everlastin principle fit applees tæ aw beins an aw warlds. In at sense hit is i ultimate truth and reality about the universe an aw; hit is thus "i wey 'at hings really are."

Sangha[eedit | eedit soorce]

Buddhist monks an nuns prayin in i Buddha Tuith Relict Temple o Singapore

Aidder key Mahāyāna views[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bruids tæ liberation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bruids tæ liberation in i early screeds[eedit | eedit soorce]

Noble Echtfauld Bruid[eedit | eedit soorce]

I Echtfauld Bruid consists o æ set o echt interconnected factors or conditions, 'at fan developit together, lead tæ i cessation o dukkha.[105] This echt factors are: Richt View (or Richt Kennin), Richt Mintin (or Richt Thocht), Richt Speech, Richt Action, Richt Livelihood, Richt Ettlin, Richt Mindfulness, an Richt Concentration.

I Echtfauld Bruid is i fowert o i Fower Noble Truiths, an ledges i bruid tæ i ceasin o dukkha (syte, pine, unsaitisfactoriness).[13][75] I bruid teaches 'at i wey oe i enlichtent eens stappit 'eir greenin, clinging, an karmic accumulations, an sicweys endit 'eir undevaulin cycles o rebirth an pinein.[67][106][91]

I Noble Echtfold Bruid is booracht intæ tree basic diveesions, as follæs:[107][14][106]

Diveesion Echtfauld pairt Sanskrit, Pali Description

(Sanskrit: prajñā,

Pāli: paññā)
1. Rict view samyag dṛṣṭi,

sammā ditthi
I belief at ere is æ efterlife an næ awhings end wi deith, at Siddhartha taucht an follæd æ fendie bruid tæ nirvana;[107] accordin tæ Peter Harvey, i richt view is held in Buddhism as æ belief in i Buddhist principles o karma an rebirth, an i importance o i Fower Noble Truiths an i True Realities.[14]
2. Richt mint samyag saṃkalpa,

sammā saṅkappa
Giein up haim an adoptin i life o æ releegious mendicant tæ follæ i bruid;[107] is concept aims at peacefu renunciation, intæ n environment o næ-sensualiti, noæ-ill-makkin (tæ lueinkinness), 'wa fæ cruelty (tæ compassion).[14]
Moral virtues[14]

(Sanskrit: śīla,

Pāli: sīla)
3. Richt gab samyag vāc,

sammā vāca
Næ leeing, næ bairdy speech, næ tellin een person fit anidder says aboot him, speakin at fit leads tæ salvation.[107]
4. Richt action samyag karman,

sammā kammanta
Næ killin or injurin, næ takin fit's næ gien; næ sexual acts in monastic pursuit[107]. Fur lay Buddhists, næ sensual misconduct sic as sexual involvement wi a body mairied, or wi æ unmairied umman pertectit bi er paurents or relatives.[108][109][110]
5. Richt livelihood samyag ājīvana,

sammā ājīva
Fur monks, beg tæ feed, ainli auchtin fit is essential tæ sustain life.[107] Fur lay Buddhists, i canonical texts state richt livelihood as abstainin fæ wrang livelihood, expleenit as næ becomin æ soorce or means o sufferin tæ sentient bodys b cheatin em, or hairmin or killin em in ony way.[14][111]

(Sanskrit an Pāli: samādhi)
6. Richt effort samyag vyāyāma,

sammā vāyāma
Gaird agin sensual thochts; is concept aims at forfendin unhalesome states at discomfit meditation.[14]
7. Richt mindfulness samyag smṛti,

sammā sati
Neer be absent-mindit, conscious of fit een's dæin; is forders mindfulness aboot impermanence o i body, feelins an mind; tæ experience i five skandhas, i five hindrances, i fower True Realities an seiven factors o waukenin.[14]
8. Richt concentration samyag samādhi,

sammā samādhi
Correct meditation or concentration (dhyana), explainit as i fower jhānas.[107][112]

Furcommon Buddhist practices[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sermon in i Deer Park depictit at Wat Chedi Liam, near Chiang Mai, Northren Thailand

Hearin an learin i Dharma[eedit | eedit soorce]

Place o Haud[eedit | eedit soorce]

Śīla – Buddhist ethics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Buddhist monks collect alms in Si Phan Don, Laos. Giein is æ important virtue in Buddhism.

Precepts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vinaya[eedit | eedit soorce]

Æ ordination ceremony at Wat Yannawa in Bangkok. I Vinaya codes raads i various sangha acts, includin ordination.

Restreent an owergie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bidin at i ruit o æ tree (trukkhamulik'anga) is een o i dhutaṅgas, æ series o optional ascetic practeeses fur Buddhist monastics.

Mindfulness an clear comprehension[eedit | eedit soorce]

Meditation – Sama-amādhi an dhyāna[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kōdō Sawaki practicin Zazen ("sittin dhyana")

Springheid[eedit | eedit soorce]

I formless atteenments[eedit | eedit soorce]

Meditation an insicht[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kamakura Daibutsu, Kōtoku-in, Kamakura, Japan

I Brahma-vihara[eedit | eedit soorce]

gilded statue of Buddha in Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Thailand
Statue o Buddha in Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok, Thailand

I fower immeasurables or fower based, called Brahma-viharas an aw, are virtues or airtins fur meditation in Buddhist tradeetions, fit helps æ body be reborn in i heivenli (Brahma) realm.[113][14][114] This are tradeetionalli believit tæ be æ characteristic o i deity Brahma an i heivenli bade he bides in.[115]

I fower Brahma-vihara are:

  1. Lueing-kindness (Pāli: mettā, Sanskrit: maitrī) is acteeve guidwill tæwart aw;[14][116]
  2. Compassion (Pāli an Sanskrit: karuṇā) efterclasts fæ metta; hit is identifyin i dulein o idders as een's ain;[14][116]
  3. Empathetic jey (Pāli an Sanskrit: muditā): is i feelin o jey acause idders are happy, een gin een dædnæ contreebute tæ hit; hit is æ form o sympathetic jey;[116]
  4. Equanimity (Pāli: upekkhā, Sanskrit: upekṣā): is een-mindedness an serenity, treatin awbady impartially.[14][116]

Tantra, veesualisation an i suttle body[eedit | eedit soorce]

Æ 18t century Mongolien miniature fit depicts i creaution o i Vairocana Mandala
Æ section o i Northren waw mural at i Lukhang Temple depictin tummo, i tree chennels (nadis) an phowa

Ken[eedit | eedit soorce]

Devotion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tibetan Buddhist prostration practeese at Jokhang, Tibet

Maist forms o Buddhism "conseeder saddhā (Skt śraddhā), 'trustful confidence' or 'feth', as æ quality fit maun be balancit bi wiseheid, an as æ preparation fur, or accompaniment o, meditation."[14] Acause o is, devotion (Skt. bhakti; Pali: bhatti) is æ important pairt o i practeece o maist Buddhists.[117] Devotional practeeces include ritual prayer, prostration, offerins, pilgrimage, and chaunting.[88] Buddhist devotion is usual focusit on some object, eemage, or location at is seen as haly or speeritualli influential. Ensaumples o objects o devotion include pentins or statues o Buddhas an bodhisattvas, stupas, an bodhi treen.[14] Public group chauntin fur devotional an ceremonial purposes is common tæ aw Buddhist tradeetions an gæs back tæ elderin Indie, far chauntin aidit in i memorization o i oralli transmittit teachins.[14] Rosaries cawed malas are usit in aw Buddhist tradeetions tæ coont repeatit chauntin o common formulas or mantras. Chauntin is thus æ type o devotional group meditation fit leads tæ tranquiliti an communicates i Buddhist teachins.[14]

Vegetarianism an ainimal ethics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vegetarian meal at Buddhist temple. East Asien Buddhism tends tæ forder vegetarianism.

Basit on i Indien principle o ahimsa (næ-hairmin), Gautama Buddha's ethics strangli condamm i hairmin o aw sentient beins, includin aw beasts. He thus condammt i bestial saicrifeece o i Brahmins, an huntin an killin/butchin beasts fur fuid.[118] Fooaniver, early Buddhist texts depict Gautama Buddha as allouin monastics tæ eat flesh. 'Is seems tæ be acause monastics beggt fur 'eir fuid an thus were suppost æo accept fiteer fuid wis offert tæ them.[118] 'Is wis tempert bi i rule at flesh hæd tæ be "tree times clean": "'ey hædnæ seen, hædnæ haurd, an hædnæ ony raison tæ suspect at i beast hæd been killt sæ at i flesh coud be gien tæ 'em".[119] File Gautama Buddha dædnæ explicitli forder vegetarianism in his discoorses, he dæd state at gainin een's livelihood fæ i flesh trade wis unethical. In contrast tæ is, various Mahayana sutras an texts leik i Mahaparinirvana sutra, Surangama sutra an i Lankavatara sutra state at Gautama Buddha fordert vegetarianism oot o compassion.[120] Indien Mahayana hinkers leik Shantideva fordert i avidence o flesh.[118] Oouthrou historiee, i issue o gin Buddhists shoud be vegetarian hæs remaint æ meikle communet topic an ere is æ variety o opeenions on is issue amang modren Buddhists.

Buddhist texts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Æ depiction o i supposit Erst Buddhist cooncil at Rajgir. Communal recitation wis een o i oreeginal weys o transmittin an preservin Early Buddhist texts.

Early Buddhist texts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gandhara birkbark scrowe rinds(c. 1st century) fæ i Breetish Leebrary Collection

I Early Buddhist Texts refers tæ i leeteratur fit is conseedert bi modren scholarts tæ be i earliest Buddhist material. I first fower Pali Nikayas, an i correspondin Cheenese Āgamas are generalli conseedert tæ be amang i earliest material.[13][121][122] Apairt fæ these, ere are ormal collects o EBT materials in idder leids an aw, sic as Sanskrit, Khotanese, Tibetan an Gāndhārī. I modren study o early Buddhism aft lippens on comparative scholarship uisein this various early Buddhist sources tæ identify parallel texts an common lair content. Een faitur o this early texts are literary structures fit reflect oral transmission, sic as widespread repeteetion.[123]

I Tripitakas[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter i development o i differ early Buddhist schuils, this schuils began tæ develop eir ain textual collects, fit were termt Tripiṭakas (Treeple Baskets).[66]

Mony early Tripiṭakas, leik i Pāli Tipitaka, war dividit intæ tree sections: Vinaya Pitaka (focuses on monastic rowle), Sutta Pitaka (Buddhist discoorses) an Abhidhamma Pitaka, fit conteen exposeetions an commends on i lairs. I Pāli <i id="mwBtM">Tipitaka</i> (kent as i Pali Canon an aw) o i Theravada Schuil constitutes i ainli hale collect o Buddhist texts in æ Indic leid fit hæs survivit till i day.[124] Fooaniver, mony Sutras, Vinayas an Abhidharma wirks fæ idder schuils survive in Cheenese owersetts, as pairt o i Cheenese Buddhist Canon. Accordin tæ some sources, some early schuils o Buddhism hæd five or seiven pitakas.[125]

Mahāyāna texts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tripiṭaka Koreana in South Korea, over 81,000 wood printing blocks stored in racks
I Tripiṭaka Koreana in Sooth Korea, æ edeetion o i Cheenese Buddhist canon kervit an preservit in ower 81,000 wid prentin blunks

Tantric texts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Throu i Gupta Empire, æ nyew class o Buddhist saucrit leeteratur began tæ develop, fir are cawed i Tantras. Bi i 8t century, i tantric tradeetion wis verra influential in Indie an yont. Asides drawin on æ Mahāyāna Buddhist framework, this texts borrowed godheids an matereel fæ idder Indien releegious tradeetions an aw, sic leik i Śaiva an Pancharatra tradeetions, local god/goddess cults, an local speerit wirship (sic leik yaksha or nāga speerits).

Some features o this texts include i widespread uise o mantras, meditation on isuttle body, wirship o fairce godheids, an antinomian an transgressive practeeses sic lyke inbibin alcohol an performing sexual rituals.[91][126]

Historie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mahākāśyapa meets æ Ājīvika ascetic, een o i common Śramaṇa groups in auncient Indie

Historeecal ruits[eedit | eedit soorce]

Indien Buddhism[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ajanta Coves, Cove 10, æ erst period type chaitya wirship haw wi stupa bit næ eedols

I historee o Indien Buddhism micht be dividit intæ five periods:[113] Early Buddhism (occasionalli cawed pre-sectarian Buddhism), Nikaya Buddhism or Sectarian Buddhism: I period o i early Buddhist schuils, Early Mahayana Buddhism, Late Mahayana, an i era o Vajrayana or i "Tantric Speal".

Pre-sectarian Buddhism[eedit | eedit soorce]

I Yoke teachins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ashokan Era an i early schuils[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sanchi Stupa No. 3, near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, Indie
Map o i Buddhist meesions throu i ring o Ashoka accordin tæ i Edicts o Ashoka

Post-Ashokan wauxin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Extent o Buddhism an tred routes in i 1st century CE
Buddhist expansion ootthrou Asie

Mahāyāna Buddhism[eedit | eedit soorce]

stone statue group, a Buddhist triad depicting, left to right, a Kushan, the future buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd–3rd century. Guimet Museum
Æ Buddhist triad depictin, left tæ richt, æ Kushan, i futur buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, i bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, an æ monk. Seicont–thrid century. Guimet Museum
Site o Nalanda University, æ great center o Mahāyāna thocht

Hyne Indien Buddhism an Tantra[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vajrayana adoptit godheids sic leik Bhairava, kent as Yamantaka in Tibetan Buddhism.

Spreid tæ East an Sootheast Asia[eedit | eedit soorce]

Angkor Thom built bi Khmer King Jayavarman VII (c. 1120–1218)

Schuils an tradeetions[eedit | eedit soorce]

color map showing Buddhism is a major religion worldwide
Distribution o major Buddhist tradeetions
Buddhists o various tradeetions, Yeunten Ling Tibetan Institute

Monasteries an temples[eedit | eedit soorce]


Buddha statue in 1896, Bamiyan
Efter statue malafoustert bi Islamist Taliban in 2001
Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan in 1896 (top) an efter malafoustert in 2001 bi i Taliban Islamists.[127]
Various types of Buddhist buildings

Buddhism in i modren era[eedit | eedit soorce]

Buddhist monk in Siberia in robes leaning on railing looking at temple
Buryat Buddhist monk in Siberia

Colonial era[eedit | eedit soorce]

Buddhism in i Wast[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ben o i Thai Buddhist wat in Nukari, Nurmijärvi, Finland


Buddha statue in 1896, Bamiyan
After statue destroyed by Islamist Taliban in 2001
Buddhas o Bamiyan, Afghanistan in 1896 (top) an efter crockination in 2001 bi i Taliban Islamists.[128]

Neo-Buddhism muivements[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sexual abuiss an misbehaviour[eedit | eedit soorce]

Buddhism hænæ been immune fæ sexual abuiss an misbehaviour scandals, wi veectims comin forrit in various Buddhist schuils sic leik Zen an Tibetan.[129][130][131][132] "There are huge kiver ups in i Catholic Kirk, bit fit hæs happent wi-in Tibetan Buddhism is quite alang i same lines," says Mary Finnigan, an author an jurnalist foo hæs buin chroniclin i alleged abuisses syne i mid-80s.[133] Een notably kivertcase in media o various Wastren kintras wis at o Sogyal Rinpoche, fit began in 1994,[134] an endit wi his reteeral fæ his poseetion as Rigpa's speeritual director in 2017.[135]

Cultur influence[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lhasa's Potala Palace, i day æ UNESCO Warld Heritage Site, picturt in 2019
Indea's Mahabodhi temple, built unner i Gupta Empire, 6t century CE

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Purple Percentage of Buddhists by country, showing high in Burma to low in United States
Percentage o Buddhists bi kintra, accordin tæ i Pew Research Center, as o 2010

Buddhism is practisit bi an estimatit 488 million,[6] 495 million,[136] or 535 million[14] people as o i 2010s, representin 7% tæ 8% o i warld's hale population. Cheena is i kintra wi i lairgest population o Buddhists, approximately 244 million or 18% o hits tot population.[6][note 5] 'Ey are maistli followers o Cheenese schuils o Mahayana, makin is i lairgest body o Buddhist tradeetions. Mahayana, practisit in broader East Asie an aw, is follæd bi ower half o i warld's Buddhists.[6]

Buddhism is i dominant releegion in Thailand, Cambodia, Tibet, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Laos, Mongolie, Japan,[138] Hong Kong,[139] Macau,[140] Singapore,[141] an Vietnam. [142] Lairge Buddhist populations bide in Mainland Cheena, Taiwan, Nepal, an North an Sooth Korea.[143] In Roushie, Buddhists form æ majority in Tuva (52%) an Kalmykia (53%). Buryatia (20%) an Zabaykalsky Krai (15%) hiv signeeficant Buddhist populations an aw.[144]

Buddhism is growin bi conversion an aw. In New Zealand, aboot 25–35% o i tot tBuddhists are converts tæ Buddhism.[145][146] Buddhism hæs spreid tæ i Nordic kintras; fur ensaumple, i Burmese Buddhists foundit in i ceety o Kuopio in North Savonia i erst Buddhist monastery o Finland, named i Buddha Dhamma Ramsi monastery.[147]


Explanatory notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Buddhist texts such as the Jataka tales of the Theravada Buddhist tradition, and early biographies such as the Buddhacarita, the Lokottaravādin Mahāvastu, the Sarvāstivādin Lalitavistara Sūtra, give different accounts about the life of the Buddha; many include stories of his many rebirths, and some add significant embellishments.[23][24] Keown and Prebish state, "In the past, modern scholars have generally accepted 486 or 483 BCE for this [Buddha's death], but the consensus is now that they rest on evidence which is too flimsy.[25] Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most accept that he lived, taught and founded a monastic order, but do not consistently accept all of the details contained in his biographies."[26][27][28][29]
  2. On samsara, rebirth and redeath:
    * Paul Williams: "All rebirth is due to karma and is impermanent. Short of attaining enlightenment, in each rebirth one is born and dies, to be reborn elsewhere in accordance with the completely impersonal causal nature of one's own karma. The endless cycle of birth, rebirth, and redeath, is samsara."[61]
    * Buswell and Lopez on "rebirth": "An English term that does not have an exact correlate in Buddhist languages, rendered instead by a range of technical terms, such as the Sanskrit Punarjanman (lit. "birth again") and Punabhavan (lit. "re-becoming"), and, less commonly, the related PUNARMRTYU (lit. "redeath")."[62]

    See also Perry Schmidt-Leukel (2006) pp. 32–34,[63] John J. Makransky (1997) p. 27.[64] for the use of the term "redeath." The term Agatigati or Agati gati (plus a few other terms) is generally translated as 'rebirth, redeath'; see any Pali-English dictionary; e.g. pp. 94–95 of Rhys Davids & William Stede, where they list five Sutta examples with rebirth and re-death sense.[65]
  3. Graham Harvey: "Siddhartha Gautama found an end to rebirth in this world of suffering. His teachings, known as the dharma in Buddhism, can be summarized in the Four Noble truths."[67] Geoffrey Samuel (2008): "The Four Noble Truths [...] describe the knowledge needed to set out on the path to liberation from rebirth."[68] See also [69][70][71][61][72][67][73][web 1][web 2]

    The Theravada tradition holds that insight into these four truths is liberating in itself.[74] This is reflected in the Pali canon.[75] According to Donald Lopez, "The Buddha stated in his first sermon that when he gained absolute and intuitive knowledge of the four truths, he achieved complete enlightenment and freedom from future rebirth."[web 1]

    The Maha-parinibbana Sutta also refers to this liberation.[web 3] Carol Anderson: "The second passage where the four truths appear in the Vinaya-pitaka is also found in the Mahaparinibbana-sutta (D II 90–91). Here, the Buddha explains that it is by not understanding the four truths that rebirth continues."[76]

    On the meaning of moksha as liberation from rebirth, see Patrick Olivelle in the Encyclopædia Britannica.[web 4]
  4. Earlier Buddhist texts refer to five realms rather than six realms; when described as five realms, the god realm and demi-god realm constitute a single realm.[93]
  5. This is a contested number. Official numbers from the Chinese government are lower, while other surveys are higher. According to Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, in non-government surveys, "49 percent of self-claimed non-believers [in China] held some religious beliefs, such as believing in soul reincarnation, heaven, hell, or supernatural forces. Thus the 'pure atheists' make up only about 15 percent of the sample [surveyed]."[137]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Citations[eedit | eedit soorce]


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  6. a b c d Pew Research Center (2012a).
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  22. Beyond Enlightenment: Buddhism, Religion, Modernity by Richard Cohen. Routledge 1999. ISBN 0-415-54444-0. p. 33. Bauddha is "a secondary derivative of buddha, in which the vowel's lengthening indicates connection or relation. Things that are bauddha pertain to the buddha, just as things Saiva related to Siva and things Vaisnava belong to Visnu. ... baudda can be both adjectival and nominal; it can be used for doctrines spoken by the buddha, objects enjoyed by him, texts attributed to him, as well as individuals, communities, and societies that offer him reverence or accept ideologies certified through his name. Strictly speaking, Sakya is preferable to bauddha since the latter is not attested at Ajanta. In fact, as a collective noun, bauddha is an outsider's term. The bauddha did not call themselves this in India, though they did sometimes use the word adjectivally (e.g., as a possessive, the buddha's)."
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  24. Gethin (1998), pp. 15–24.
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  30. The exact identity of this ancient place is unclear. Please see Gautama Buddha article for various sites identified.
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  46. The earliest Buddhist biographies of the Buddha mention these Vedic-era teachers. Outside of these early Buddhist texts, these names do not appear, which has led some scholars to raise doubts about the historicity of these claims.[43][44] According to Alexander Wynne, the evidence suggests that Buddha studied under these Vedic-era teachers and they "almost certainly" taught him, but the details of his education are unclear.[43][45]
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External links[eedit | eedit soorce]

[[Category:Indie releegions]] [[Category:Buddhism]] [[Category:Webarchive template wayback airtins]] [[Category:CS1: abbreviated year range]] [[Category:CS1: lang volume vailyie]]
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