Totemsky Destrict

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Totemsky Destrict
Тотемский район (Roushie)

Location o Totemsky Destrict in Vologda Oblast
Coordinates: 59°58′N 42°45′E / 59.967°N 42.750°E / 59.967; 42.750Coordinates: 59°58′N 42°45′E / 59.967°N 42.750°E / 59.967; 42.750

The Sukhona River near the toun o Totma in Totemsky Destrict
Coat of arms of Totma and Totemsky District
Flag of Totma and Totemsky District
Federal subjectVologda Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as o Juin 2012)
Admeenistrative centretounTotma[2]
Admeenistrative diveesions:[2]
Touns o destrict significance1
Inhabitit localities:[2]
Rural localities225
Municipal structure (as o May 2010)
Municipally incorporatit asTotemsky Municipal Destrict[3]
Municipal diveesions:[3]
Urban settlements1
Rural settlements8
Aurie8,200 km2 (3,200 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)23,315 inhabitants[5]
• Urban42.0%
• Rural58.0%
Density2.84/km2 (7.4/sq mi)[6]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Established15 Julie 1929[8]
Offeecial wabsteid
Totemsky Destrict on WikiCommons

Totemsky Destrict (Roushie: То́темский райо́н) is a admeenistrative[1] an municipal[3] destrict (raion), ane o the twinty-sax in Vologda Oblast, Roushie. It is locatit in the east o the oblast an borders wi Verkhovazhsky an Tarnogsky Destricts in the north, Nyuksensky Destrict in the northeast, Babushkinsky Destrict in the east, Chukhlomsky an Soligalichsky Districts o Kostroma Oblast in the sooth, Mezhdurechensky an Sokolsky Destricts in the soothwast, an wi Syamzhensky Destrict in the wast. The aurie o the destrict is 8,200 square kilometer (3,200 sq mi).[4] Its admeenistrative centre is the toun o Totma.[2] Population: 23,315 (2010 Census);[5] 26,392 (2002 Census);[9] 27,907 (1989 Census).[10] The population o Totma accoonts for 42.0% o the destrict's tot population.[5]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The destrict is elongatit frae sooth tae north, wi a protrusion in the northeast. The main watterwey athin the destrict leemits is the Sukhona River, which crosses it frae soothwast tae northeast. Amaist aw o the destrict lees in the basin o the Sukhona an its tributars, includin the Tolshma frae the richt an the Tsaryova an Yedenga frae the left. Minor auries in the north o the destrict belang tae the basins o the Vaga an Kuloy Rivers. In pairticular, Lake Sonduzhskoye, bi far the biggest lake in the destrict, is the soorce o the Kuloy. Minor auries in the wast o the destrict belang tae the basin o the Syamzhena, a tributar o the Kubena. Some rivers in the sooth o the district drain intae the Unzha an the Kostroma an sicweys, eventually, intae the Volga. The divide atween the basins o the Northren Dvina an the Volga, which crosses the soothren pairt o the destrict, is merked bi the wastren pairt o the Northren Ridge hill chain.

Considerable auries athin the destrict are covered bi coniferous forests.

Swamps cover up tae 8% o the aurie o the destrict.[11] The biggest ane is the Bolshaya Chist Swamp locatit atween the glens o the Sukhona an the Tolshma an shared bi Totemsky an Mezhdurechensky Destricts an bi Kostroma Oblast. The aurie the swamp is aboot 200 square kilometer (77 sq mi) an it is maistly treeless. Bolshaya Chist is the lairgest aurie swamp in Vologda Oblast.[12] Ither swamps are locatit in the north o the destrict, in pairticular in the glens o the Kuloy an the Uftyuga. Lake Sonduzhskoye is surroondit bi swamps.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Totma wis first mentioned in the chronicles in 1137. It wis foondit bi Novgorodians, who uised the Sukhona River as the main waterwey leadin tae the north an eventually tae the White Sea. In the 13t century, salt production stairtit aroond Totma, an the toun, which wis oreeginally locatit dounstream o the current place, wis relocatit. In 1539-1541, Totma wis plundered bi Kazan Tatars, efter which a fortress wis biggit. In the 16t century, Totma wis ane o the maist prosperous touns o the Roushie North, due tae its salt production an trade. In 1554, monk Feodosy Sumorin foondit the Transfiguration Monastery.[13] In the 17t an 18t centuries, Totma wis visitit bi Peter the Great three times, which wis rather exceptional gien the remote location o the toun. In the 18t century, Totma wis ane o the main centres o the sploration o an the trade wi Alaska. In pairticular, Ivan Kuskov, the first admeenistrator o Fort Ross, a Roushie fortress in Californie, wis a native o Totma.

In the course o the admeenistrative reform carriet oot in 1708 bi Peter the Great, the aurie wis includit intae Archangelgorod Govrenorate. Totma wis explicitly mentioned as ane o the touns includit in the govrenorate. In 1780, the govrenorate wis abolisht an transformit intae Vologda Viceryalty; simultaneously, Totemsky Uyezd wis establisht. The viceryalty wis abolisht in 1796, an the pairt o it which includit Totma became Vologda Govrenorate.

On 15 Julie 1929, several govrenorates, includin Vologda Govrenorate, wur mergit intae Northren Krai, an the uyezds wur abolisht. Insteid, Totemsky Destrict wi the admeenistrative centre in the toun o Totma wis establisht as a pairt o Vologda Okrug. It includit pairts o the umwhile aurie o Totemsky Uyezd. In the follaein years, the first-level admeenistrative diveesion o Roushie kept chyngin. In 1936, Northren Krai wis transformit intae Northren Oblast. In 1937, Northren Oblast itsel wis split intae Arkhangelsk Oblast an Vologda Oblast. Totemsky Destrict remained in Vologda Oblast iver syne.

On 15 Julie 1929, Tolshmensky Destrict wi the admeenistrative centre in the selo o Krasnoye[14] wis establisht an aw. On 30 Julie 1931, it wis abolisht an dividit atween Shuysky an Totemsky destricts. Syamzhensky Destrict, which wis establisht on 15 Julie 1929 an aw, wis likwise abolisht on 30 Julie 1931 an dividit atween Totemsky an Kharovsky Destricts. On 25 Januar 1935, Syamzhensky Destrict wis re-establisht.[8]

Admeenistrative an municipal diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Monza Railroad station in the dounset o Gremyachy, which is admeenistratively a pairt o Gryazovetsky Destrict, but municipally is a pairt o Totemsky Municipal Destrict

As an admeenistrative diveesion, the destrict is dividit intae ane toun o destrict significance (Totma) an fifteen selsoviets.[2] As a municipal diveesion, the destrict is incorporatit as Totemsky Municipal Destrict an is dividit intae ane urban an aicht landwart dounsets.[3] The municipal destrict includes aw o the inhabitit localities o the admeenistrative destrict, as well as twa landwart localities (the dounsets o Gremyachy an Karitsa) frae Gryazovetsky Destrict.[2][3]

Economie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Industrie (includin the energy, gas, an watter netwirks) employs 12.7% o the population o the destrict; further 17.1% are employed in agricultur, 15.9% in eddication, 12.6% in transportation services, an 11.6% in the trade.[15]

Industry[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fuid industrie is the major industrie in the destrict.[15]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paved roads connect Totma wi Vologda via Kadnikov (soothwast), Veliky Ustyug via Nyuksenitsa (northeast), an Nikolsk via Imeni Babushkina (east). Afore the road atween Totma an Veliky Ustyug alang the Sukhona wis completit in the first decade o the 2000s, the anerlie connection atween the touns wis via Nikolsk.

The anerlie railwey in the destrict is the Monza Railroad, biggit for timber transport an operatit bi the timber production authorities, which runs alang the border o Vologda an Kostroma Oblasts. The railwey crosses Totemsky Destrict frae wast tae east. Plans tae extend it further east tae Nikolsk wur niver realisit.[16]

While the Sukhona is navigable athin the destrict leemits, thare is nae passenger navigation.

Cultur an recreation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Nativity Kirk in Totma (1746-1748)

Totma is a historical toun which preserved, alang wi ither heritage, several kirks, aw o which hae seemilar structur no relatit tae ony ither region o Roushie. A Totma kirk is a biggin on which the kirk proper is based on ane side an the bell-touer on the ither side, sae that the construction reminds a ship. This style is whiles referred tae as Totma Baroque.[17]

Totemsky Destrict haes a heich concentration o historical, airchaeological, an airchitectural monuments. The destrict contains saxteen objects classifee'd as cultural an historical heritage bi Roushie Federal law (twal o thaim in the toun o Totma), an addeetionally ninety-nine objects classifee'd as cultural an historical heritage o local importance (seiventy-fower o thaim in Totma).[18] Maist o thir are kirks an chapels locatit in the aurie.

The monuments classifee'd as cultural heritage bi the federal law are the follaein:

  • the complex o the Resurrection Kirk an the Assumption Kirk (1744–1755) in Totma
  • the Nativity Kirk (1746–1748) in Totma
  • the Trinity Kirk in Zelenskaya Rybatskaya Sloboda (1768–1772) in Totma
  • the complex o the Kirk o the Entry intae Jerusalem an the Kirk o St. John the Baptist (1738–1740) in Totma
  • the Kholodilov Hoose (middle o 19t century) in Totma
  • the ensemble o Spaso-Sumorin Monastery (1685–1689) in Totma
  • the toun haw o Totma
  • the hoose whaur Anatoly Lunacharsky livit in 1903-1904
  • the Pogost in the veelage o Predtecha (the Nativity Kirk an the Kirk o St. John the Baptist). The firthen Kirk o St. John the Baptist collapsed in 2007.
  • the umwhile location o the Totma fortress
  • the Krugletsky burial grund

Totma hosts five state museums:[19] the Totma Regional Museum, foondit in 1915, the museum o Kirk Antiquities, the Hoose o Ivan Kuskov, the museum o Sea Splorers (in the biggin o the Kirk o the Entry intae Jerusalem), an the museum o airtifacts in Spaso-Sumorin Monastery. Thare is a museum in the dounset o Tsaryova an aw, which shows ethnografic collections.[20]

Roushie poet Nikolay Rubtsov spent aicht years, frae 1942 (age o 6) tae 1950, in an orphanage in the selo o Nikolskoye o Totemsky Destrict. He then muivit tae Totma, whaur in 1952 he graduatit frae a college an then left the toun.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b Law #371-OZ
  2. a b c d e Resolution #178
  3. a b c d e Law #1114-OZ
  4. a b "О районе" (in Russian). Администрация Тотемского муниципального района. Retrieved 2 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  5. a b c Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census] (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. The value o density wis calculatit automatically bi dividin the 2010 Census population bi the aurie specifee'd in the infobox. Please note that this vailyie is anly approximate as the aurie specifee'd in the infobox daes nae necessarily correspond tae the aurie o the entity proper or is reportit for the same year as the population.
  7. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  8. a b "Справка об изменениях административно-территориального устройства и сети партийных и комсомольских органов на территории Вологодской области (1917-1991)" (in Russian). Архивы России. Archived frae the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  9. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (21 Mey 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  10. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  11. "Природные ресурсы и природоохранные зоны района" (in Russian). администрация Тотемского муниципального района. Archived frae the original on 25 Apryle 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  12. "Болото Великая Чисть" (in Russian). Archived frae the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  13. "Исторический очерк" (in Russian). Администрация Тотемского муниципального района. Archived frae the original on 25 Apryle 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  14. Кузнецов, А.В. (1997). Русские топонимы Тотемского края. In: Тотьма: Краеведческий альманах. Вып. 2. Старинные города Вологодской области (in Russian). Вологда: Русь. pp. 37–83. Retrieved 8 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  15. a b "Структура видов экономической деятельности" (in Russian). Администрация Тотемского муниципального района. Archived frae the original on 7 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  16. Белихов, А. Б. (2009). А.М. Белов, А.В. Новиков (ed.). Развитие железных дорог Костромского края в ХХ веке. II Романовские чтения. Центр и провинция в системе российской государственности: материалы конференции. Кострома: КГУ им. Н.А. Некрасова. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  17. Брамфилд, Уильям (2000). "Памятники церковной архитектуры Тотемского района" (in Russian). Поморский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова. Retrieved 3 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  18. "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 3 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  19. "Музеи Тотьмы" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 15 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  20. "Музей "Царева"" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 15 October 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №1124-ОЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ Тотемского муниципального района, границах и статусе муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №2809-ОЗ от 5 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы области, устанавливающие границы и статус муниципальных образований области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №242, 11 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #1124-OZ of December 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of Totemsky Municipal District, on the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #2809-OZ of July 5, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Oblast, Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).