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Nikolsky Destrict, Vologda Oblast

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Nikolsky Destrict
Никольский район (Roushie)

Location o Nikolsky Destrict in Vologda Oblast
Coordinates: 59°32′N 45°27′E / 59.533°N 45.450°E / 59.533; 45.450Coordinates: 59°32′N 45°27′E / 59.533°N 45.450°E / 59.533; 45.450
Banner o Nikolsky Destrict
Federal subjectVologda Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as o Juin 2012)
Admeenistrative centretounNikolsk[2]
Admeenistrative diveesions:[2]
Touns o destrict significance1
Inhabitit localities:[2]
Rural localities222
Municipal structure (as o June 2010)
Municipally incorporatit asNikolsky Municipal Destrict[3]
Municipal diveesions:[3]
Urban settlements1
Rural settlements14
Aurie7,476 km2 (2,886 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)22,414 inhabitants[5]
• Urban38.0%
• Rural62.0%
Density3/km2 (7.8/sq mi)[6]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Established10 Juin 1924[8]
Offeecial wabsteid
Nikolsky Destrict on WikiCommons

Nikolsky Destrict (Roushie: Нико́льский райо́н) is a admeenistrative[1] an municipal[3] destrict (raion), ane o the twinty-sax in Vologda Oblast, Roushie. It is locatit in the sootheast o the oblast an borders wi Kichmengsko-Gorodetsky Destrict in the north, Vokhomsky Destrict o Kostroma Oblast in the east, Pavinsky, Pyshchugsky, Mezhevskoy, an Kologrivsky Destricts o Kostroma Oblast in the sooth, Babushkinsky Destrict in the soothwast, an wi Nyuksensky Destrict in the wast. The aurie o the destrict is 7,476 square kilometer (2,886 sq mi).[4] Its admeenistrative centre is the toun o Nikolsk.[2] Population: 22,414 (2010 Census);[5] 26,461 (2002 Census);[9] 31,437 (1989 Census).[10] The population o Nikolsk accoonts for 38.0% o the destrict's tot population.[5]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The veelage o Argunovo in the north o the destrict

The landscape o the destrict is dominatit bi the Northren Ridge chain o hills which separate the basins o the Northren Dvina an the Volga Rivers, or, mair generally, the basins o the Arctic Ocean an the Caspian Sea. The rivers in the eastren pairt o the destrict drain intae the Yug River, which maks a big loop inside the destrict. The toun o Nikolsk is locatit on the banks o the Yug. The Yug is ane o the twa soorces (alang wi the Sukhona) o the Northren Dvina. The northren pairt o the destrict belangs tae the basin o the Sharzhenga River, a left tributar o the Yug. The soothwastren pairt o the destrict belangs tae the basin o the Unzha River, a left tributar o the Volga, an o the Mezha River, a principal (left) tributar o the Unzha. Minor auries in the sooth an the vera east o the destrict are in the basin o the Vetluga River, anither left tributar o the Volga, an its richt tributar, the Vokhma. The soorces o the Unzha an the Vokhma is locatit athin the destrict leemits.

Considerable auries o the destrict are covered bi coniferous forests.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The aurie wis oreeginally populatit bi the Finno-Ugric fowks. In the 14t–15t centuries, durin the colonisation, it wis a disputit territory atween the Grand Duchy o Moscow an the Novgorod Republic.[11] Novgorod controlled the major pairt o the Roushie North, an, in pairticular, aw auries alang the Sukhona River northeast o Nikolsky Destrict. Moscow controlled Veliky Ustyug, which it inheritit frae the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, an the Yug River wis the watterwey it uised tae get tae Veliky Ustyug. It is kent that in 1452 Nikolsk an surroondin auries paid tribute tae Novgorod.[11] In the end o the 15t century, Novgorod wis owertaken bi the Grand Duchy o Moscow, an Nikolsk became ane o the key pynts on the wey frae Moscow tae the White Sea, which till 1703 wis the main route for the foreign trade in Roushie. In pairticular, the harbor in Nikolsk wis uised tae transport cargo.

In the course o the admeenistrative reform carriet oot in 1708 bi Peter the Great, the aurie wis includit intae Archangelgorod Govrenorate. In 1780, the govrenorate wis abolisht an transformit intae Vologda Viceryalty. Simultaneously, Nikolsk became the seat o an uyezd an wis grantit toun richts. The viceryalty wis abolisht in 1796 an Nikolsky Uyezd wis transferred tae Vologda Govrenorate. In 1918, the aurie wis transferred tae the newly establisht Northren Dvina Governorate wi the admeenistrative centre locatit in Veliky Ustyug. In 1924, the uyezds wur abolisht in favor o the new diveesions, the destricts (raions).

On 10 Juin 1924, Nikolsky Destrict wis establisht. In 1929, Northren Dvina Govrenorate waes mergit intae Northren Krai. The krai consistit o five okrugs, ane o which, Northren Dvina Okrug, haed the admeenistrative centre is Veliky Ustyug. Nikolsky Destrict became a pairt o Northren Dvina Okrug. In Julie 1930, the okrugs wur abolisht, an the destricts wur directly subordinatit tae Northren Krai. In 1936, Northren Krai wis transformit intae Northren Oblast, an in 1937, Northren Oblast itsel wis split intae Arkhangelsk Oblast an Vologda Oblast. Nikolsky Destrict remained in Vologda Oblast iver syne.[8]

On 10 Juin 1924, Roslyatinsky Destrict wis establisht, wi the admeenistrative centre in the selo o Roslyatino. On 30 Julie 1931, it wis mergit intae Ledengsky Destrict, then in 1935 it wis re-establisht, an on 12 November 1960, Roslyatinsky Destrict wis abolisht again wi its aurie dividit atween Babushkinsky an Nikolsky Destricts.[8][12]

Till the 1990s, Nikolsky Destrict wis ane o the maist remote auries o Vologda Oblast. Nikolsk wis connectit bi roads tae Veliky Ustyug an Vologda, but travelin frae Nikolsk tae Moscow required a detour tae Vologda. The problem wis solvit when the road tae Pyshchug an Manturovo, baith in Kostroma Oblast, wis biggit in the end o the 1990s.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Industrie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Timber industrie is the basis o the economie o the destrict. Fuid industrie, includin meat, milk, an breid production, is present an aw. Thare is linum textile production an aw.[13]

Agriculture[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are aboot a hunder ferms in the destrict, wi no mair nor a dozen o thaim bein lairge-scale. The main activity o the ferms is cattle breedin, pork production, an linum growin. Maist o the crops are grown tae feed cattle.[13]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pavit roads connect Nikolsk wi Pyshchug an Manturovo in the sooth, crossin the border wi Kostroma Oblast, wi Totma in the wast, an wi Veliky Ustyug via Kichmengsky Gorodok in the north. Thare is regular bus service on thir roads, as well as local bus traffic oreeginatin frae Nikolsk.

The Yug is navigable dounstream frae Nikolsk; housomeivver, thare is nae passenger navigation.

Thare are nae railweys operatit bi the Roushie Railweys in the destrict, an the closest railwey stations wi regular passenger service are Kotlas in Arkhangelsk Oblast an Sharya in Kostroma Oblast. Thare wur plans tae extend the Monza Railroad—a railwey biggit for timber transport, which runs alang the border o Vologda an Kostroma Oblasts—tae Nikolsk; housomeivver, thir plans wur niver realisit.[14] Several kilometres o tracks at the eastren end o the Monza Railroad, includin Kema terminal station, are locatit athin the destrict.

Cultur an recreation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Presentation Cathedral (1780-1833) in Nikolsk efter the 2005 fire

The destrict contains 137 objects (60 o thaim locatit in Nikolsk) classifee'd as cultural an historical heritage o local importance.[15] Maist o thir are ferms, toun hooses, an kirks biggit prior tae 1917.

Author Alexander Yashin, associatit wi the Veelage Prose muivement in Roushie leeteratur, wis born in 1913 in wha is nou Nikolsky Destrict, got his eddication in Nikolsk, an livit in Nikolsk till the mid-1930s. The anerlie state museum in the destrict is the Memorial Museum o Alexander Yashin, locatit in Nikolsk.[16] The museum occupees the hoose which belangit tae Yashin's parents, as well as the umwhile hoose o Yashin.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b Law #371-OZ
  2. a b c Resolution #178
  3. a b c Law #1119-OZ
  4. a b "Никольский район" (in Russian). Правительство Вологодской области. Archived frae the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  5. a b c Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census] (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. The value o density wis calculatit automatically bi dividin the 2010 Census population bi the aurie specifee'd in the infobox. Please note that this vailyie is anly approximate as the aurie specifee'd in the infobox daes nae necessarily correspond tae the aurie o the entity proper or is reportit for the same year as the population.
  7. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  8. a b c "Справка об изменениях административно-территориального устройства и сети партийных и комсомольских органов на территории Вологодской области (1917-1991)" (in Russian). Архивы России. Archived frae the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  9. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (21 Mey 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  10. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  11. a b "г.Никольск" (in Russian). Правительство Вологодской области. Archived frae the original on 12 December 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  12. "История" (in Russian). Администрация Бабушкинского р-на. Archived frae the original on 17 Apryle 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  13. a b "Промышленность" (in Russian). Правительство Вологодской области. Retrieved 22 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)[deid airtin]
  14. Белихов, А. Б. (2009). А.М. Белов, А.В. Новиков (ed.). Развитие железных дорог Костромского края в ХХ веке. II Романовские чтения. Центр и провинция в системе российской государственности: материалы конференции. Кострома: КГУ им. Н.А. Некрасова. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  15. "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 21 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  16. "Никольский историко-мемориальный музей А.Я.Яшина" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 22 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №1119-ОЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ Никольского муниципального района, границах и статусе муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №2809-ОЗ от 5 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы области, устанавливающие границы и статус муниципальных образований области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №242, 11 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #1119-OZ of December 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of Nikolsky Municipal District, on the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #2809-OZ of July 5, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Oblast, Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).