Beauty and the Beast (1991 film)

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Beauty and the Beast
North American theatrical teaser poster bi John Alvin[1]
Directit bi
Produced bi Don Hahn
Screenplay bi Linda Woolverton
Story bi
Based on Beauty and the Beast
bi Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont
Narratit bi David Ogden Stiers (prologue)
Muisic bi Alan Menken
Eeditit bi John Carnochan
Distributit bi Buena Vista Pictures[2]
Release date
  • September 29, 1991 (1991-09-29) (New York Film Festival)
  • November 22, 1991 (1991-11-22) (United States)
Runnin time
86 minutes[4]
Kintra Unitit States
Leid Inglis
Budget $25 million[5]
Box office $425 million[5]

Beauty and the Beast is a 1991 American animatit muisical romantic fantasie drama film produced bi Walt Disney Featur Animation an released bi Walt Disney Pictures. The 30t Disney animatit featur film an the third released durin the Disney Renaissance period, it is based on the French fairy tale o the same name bi Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont, who wis an aa credited in the Inglis version as well as in the French version,[6] an ideas frae the 1946 French film directed bi Jean Cocteau.[7] Beauty and the Beast focuses on the relationship atween the Beast (vyce o Robby Benson),[8] a prince who is magically transformed intae a monster as punishment for his arrogance, an Belle (vyce o Paige O'Hara),[8] a young woman whom he imprisons in his castle. Tae acome a prince again, Beast must learn tae luve Belle an earn her luve in return tae avoid remainin a monster forever. The film an aa featurs the vyces o Richard White, Jerry Orbach, David Ogden Stiers, an Angela Lansbury.[8]

Walt Disney first attemptit unsuccessfully tae adapt Beauty and the Beast intae an animatit film durin the 1930s an 1950s. Follaein the success o The Little Mermaid (1989), Walt Disney Pictures decidit tae adapt the fairy tale, which Richard Purdum oreeginally conceived as a non-muisical. Disney chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg eventually dismissed Purdum's idea an ordered that the film be a muisical seemilar tae The Little Mermaid instead. The film wis directit bi Gary Trousdale an Kirk Wise, wi a screenplay bi Linda Woolverton story first creditit tae Roger Allers.[8] Lyricist Howard Ashman an componer Alan Menken wrote the film's sangs. Ashman, who addeetionally served as the film's executive producer, died o AIDS-relatit complications aicht months afore the film's release, an the film is sicweys dedicatit tae his memory.

Beauty and the Beast premiered as an unfinished film at the New York Film Festival on September 29, 1991, followed bi its theatrical release as a completit film at the El Capitan Theatre on November 13. The film wis a box office success, grossing $425 million warldwide on a $25 million budget. Beauty and the Beast received positive reviews frae critics; it won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy an acame the first animatit film tae be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. It wan the Academy Award for Best Original Score an Best Original Song for its title song. In Apryle 1994, Beauty and the Beast acame Disney's first animatit film tae be adapted intae a Broadway musical. The success o the film spawned twa direct-to-video follae-ups: Beauty and the Beast: The Enchanted Christmas (1997) an Beauty and the Beast: Belle's Magical World (1998). This wis followed bi a spin-off television series, Sing Me a Story with Belle. An IMAX version wis released in 2002 that included "Human Again", a new five-minute musical sequence. Efter the success of the 3D re-release o The Lion King, the film wis reissued in 3D in 2012.[9] In 2002, the film wis selected for preservation in the National Film Registry bi the Library of Congress for bein "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". A live-action remake o the film wis released on Mairch 17, 2017.

Plot[eedit | eedit soorce]

In Rococo-era Fraunce, an enchantress disguised as a beggar offers a cauld-hearted prince an enchanted rose for shelter. When he refuses, she transforms him intae a monstrous beast and casts a spell on the castle. She gies him a magic mirror that enables him to view faraway events, alang with the rose. The prince is warned that, unless he learns to luve anither and earn thair luve in return afore the rose's last petal faws on his 21st birthday, he will lose his humanity forever

Ten years later, Belle dreams of adventure and brushes off advances frae Gaston, an arrogant muscular hunter. Lost in the forest while traivelin to a fair to present his latest invention, Belle's faither Maurice seeks refuge in the Beast's castle. Efter Maurice befriends the castle's servants, houiver, the Beast imprisons him. Belle ventures out in sairch for him and finds him locked in the castle's dungeon. The Beast agrees to let her tak Maurice's place.

Befriending the castle's servants, Belle is treatit to a spectacular dinner. When she wanders intae the forbidden West Wing, the Beast, enraged, frightens her intae the woods. She is cornered bi wolves, but the Beast rescues Belle and gets injured in the process. He begins to develop feelings for her while she nurses his wounds and he delights her bi shawin his extensive library.

Returning tae the veelage, Maurice is unable to convince the townsfolk to rescue Belle and is left out in the woods. Gaston, sulking ower Belle's rejections, decides to send Maurice to an insane asylum if Belle refuses Gaston's proposal again.

Efter sharin a romantic dance with the Beast, Belle discovers her faither's predicament uisin the magic mirror. The Beast releases her to save Maurice, giein her the mirror to remember him with. Back at her veelage, Belle proves Maurice's sanity bi revealing the beast in the mirror tae the townsfolk. Realizing that Belle loves the Beast, Gaston haes her thrown intae her basement with her faither and rallies the villagers to follae him tae the castle to slay the Beast. With Chip's aid, Maurice and Belle escape and Belle rushes back tae the castle.

During the battle, the servants fend off the villagers. Gaston attacks the Beast in his touer, who is too depressed to fecht back, but regains his will upon seein Belle return. He spares Gaston's life afore reuniting with Belle. Houiver, Gaston stabs the Beast, but he loses his footing and faws to his daith.[lower-alpha 1] The Beast dies as the last petal faws. When Belle tearfully professes her luve to him, the curse is undone, repairing the castle and restoring the Beast's and servants' human forms. The Prince and Belle host a ball for the kingdom, whaur thay dance happily.

Cast[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Paige O'Hara as Belle[11] – A bibliophilic young woman who seeks adventure, an offers her ain freedom tae the Beast in return for her faither's. In thair effort to enhance the character frae the oreeginal story, the filmmakers felt that Belle should be "unaware" of her ain beauty and made her "a little odd".[12] Wise recalls castin O'Hara acause o a "unique tone" she haed, "a little bit of Judy Garland", efter whose appearance Belle wis modeled.[13] James Baxter and Mark Henn served as the supervising animators for Belle.
  • Robby Benson as The Prince / Beast [11] – A young prince who is transformed intae a beast bi an enchantress as punishment for his arrogance. He haes the heid structur and horns of an American bison, the arms and body o a bear, the lugs o a deer, the eyebrows o a gorilla, the jaws, teeth, an mane o a lion, the tusks o a wild boar and the legs and tail o a wolf. Chris Sanders, ane of the film's storyboard artists, drafted the designs for the Beast and came up with designs based on birds, insects, an fish afore coming up with something close tae the final design. Glen Keane, supervising animator for the Beast, refined the design bi going tae the zoo and studyin the ainimals on which the Beast wis based.[10] Benson commented, "There's a rage and torment in this character I've never been asked to use before."[14] The filmmakers commented that "everybody was big fee-fi-fo-fum and gravelly" while Benson's vyce haed the "big voice and the warm, accessible side" and that "you could hear the prince beneath the fur".[10]
  • Richard White as Gaston[11] – A vain hunter who vies for Belle's haund in marriage and is determined nae to let anyone else win her hert. He serves as a foil personality tae the Beast, who wis ance as egotistic as Gaston prior to his transformation. Gaston's supervising animator, Andreas Deja, wis pressed bi Jeffrey Katzenberg to mak Gaston handsome in contrast tae the traditional appearance o a Disney villain, an assignment he foond difficult at first. In the beginnin, Gaston is depicted as mair o a narcissist than a villain, but later he leads all the villagers to kill the beast, enraged that Belle wad luve a Beast mair nor him.[15]
  • Jerry Orbach as Lumière[16] – The kynd-hearted but rebellious valet of the Beast's, who haes been transformed intae a caunlestick. He haes a habit of disobeying his master's strict rules, whiles causin tension atween them, but the Beast eften turns to him for advice. He is depicted as flirtatious, as he is frequently seen with the Featherduster and immediately takes a liking to Belle. A running gag throughout the movie is Lumière burning Cogsworth. Nik Ranieri served as the supervising animator for Lumière.
  • David Ogden Stiers as Cogsworth[17]Majordomo, the heid of the household staff and Lumière's best friend, who haes been transformed intae a clock. He is extremely loyal tae the Beast sae as to save himself and anyone else ony trouble, eften leadin to friction atween himself and Lumière. Will Finn served as the supervising animator for Cogsworth. Stiers an aa narrates the prologue.
  • Angela Lansbury as Mrs. Potts[18] – The castle cook, turned intae a teapot, who takes a motherly attitude toward Belle. The filmmakers went throu several names for Mrs. Potts, sic as "Mrs. Chamomile", afore Ashman suggestit the uise of semple and concise names for the household objects.[10] David Pruiksma served as the supervising animator for Mrs. Potts.
  • Bradley Pierce as Chip[19] – Mrs. Potts' son, who haes been turned intae a teacup. Oreeginally intendit to anly hae ane line, the filmmakers war impressed with Pierce's performance and expanded the character's role significantly, eschewing a mute Muisic Box character.[10] Pruiksma an aa served as the supervising animator for Chip.
  • Rex Everhart as Maurice[11] – Belle's inventor faither. The villagers see him as insane for crafting devices believed impossible to big in reality, but his loyal daughter believes he will be famous ane day. Ruben A. Aquino served as the supervising animator for Maurice.
  • Jesse Corti as Le Fou[11] – Gaston's eften abused yet loyal sidekick. Chris Wahl served as the supervising animator for Le Fou.
  • Hal Smith as Philippe[20] – Belle's Belgian horse. Russ Edmonds served as the supervising animator for Philippe.
  • Jo Anne Worley as the Wardrobe[21] – The castle's authority ower fashion, an a umwhile opera sangster, who haes been turned intae a wardrobe. The character of Wardrobe wis introduced bi visual development person Sue C. Nichols tae the then entirely male cast of servants, an wis oreeginally a mair integral character named "Madame Armoire". Wardrobe is kent as "Madame de la Grande Bouche" (Madame Big Mooth) in the stage adaptation of the film and is the anly major enchanted object character whose human form daes nae appear in the film. Tony Anselmo served as the supervising animator for the Wardrobe.
  • Mary Kay Bergman and Kath Soucie as the Bimbettes[22] – A trio of veelage maidens who constantly fawn ower Gaston, kent as the "Silly Girls" in the stage adaptation.
  • Brian Cummings as the Stove[23] – The castle's chef who haes been transformed intae a stove. He is named Chef Bouche in 1998's Belle's Magical World.
  • Alvin Epstein as the Bookseller[24] – The ainer o a beuk shop in Belle's home toun.
  • Tony Jay as Monsieur D'Arque[25] – The sadistic warden of the Asylum de Loons. Gaston bribes him to help in his plan to blackmail Belle.
  • Alec Murphy as the Baker[26] – The ainer o a bakery in Belle's home toun.
  • Kimmy Robertson as the Featherduster[27] – A maid and Lumière's sweetheart, who haes been turned intae a feather duster. She is unnamed in the 1991 film (listed as Featherduster in the credits); Babette is the name gien to this character later in the 1994 stage adaptation of the film; Fifi in the 1998 animated musical film Belle's Magical World and Plumette in the 2017 live-action remake.
  • Frank Welker as Sultan[28] – The castle's pet dug turned intae a footstool.

Production[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early versions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937, Walt Disney sought out ither stories to adapt intae featur films, with Beauty and the Beast being amang the stories he considered.[12][29] Attempts to develop the Beauty and the Beast story intae a film war made in the 1930s and 1950s, but war ultimately gien up acause it "proved to be a challenge" for the story team.[12] Peter M. Nichols states Disney mey later hae been discouraged bi Jean Cocteau haein already done his 1946 version.[30]

Decades later, during the production of Who Framed Roger Rabbit in 1987, the Disney studio resurrected Beauty and the Beast as a project for the satellite animation studio it haed set up in London, England to work on Roger Rabbit. Richard Williams, who haed directed the animated portions of Roger Rabbit, wis approached to direct but declined in favor of continuing work on his lang-gestating project The Thief and the Cobbler. In his place, Williams recommended his colleague, Inglis animation director Richard Purdum, an work began under producer Don Hahn on a non-musical version of Beauty and the Beast set in 19t century Fraunce.[31] At the behest of Disney CEO Michael Eisner, Beauty and the Beast became the first Disney animated film to uise a screenwriter. This wis an unusual production muive for an animated film, which is tradeetionally developed on storyboards rather than in scripted form. Linda Woolverton wrote the oreeginal draft of the story afore storyboarding began, an worked with the story team to retool and develop the film.[32]

Script rewrite and musicalization[eedit | eedit soorce]

Upon seein the initial storyboard reels in 1989, Walt Disney Studios chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg ordered that the film be scrapped and stairtit ower frae scratch.

Upon seein the initial storyboard reels in 1989, Walt Disney Studios chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg ordered that the film be scrapped and stairtit ower frae scratch. A few months efter stairtin anew, Purdum resigned as director. The studio haed approached Ron Clements and John Musker to direct the film, but thay turned down the offer, saying thay war "tired" efter juist haein finished directing Disney's recent success The Little Mermaid. Disney then hired first-time featur directors Kirk Wise and Gary Trousdale. Wise and Trousdale haed previously directed the animated sections of Cranium Command, a short film for a Disney EPCOT theme park attraction. In addition, Katzenberg asked songwriters Howard Ashman and Alan Menken, who haed written the song score for The Little Mermaid, to turn Beauty and the Beast intae a Broadway-style musical film in the same vein as Mermaid. Ashman, who at the time haed learned he wis dying of complications frae AIDS, haed been wirkin with Disney on a pet project of his, Aladdin, and anly reluctantly agreed to jyne the strugglin production team. To accommodate Ashman's failing heal, pre-production of Beauty and the Beast wis moved frae London tae the Residence Inn in Fishkill, New York, close to Ashman's New York City home.[31] Here, Ashman and Menken jynt Wise, Trousdale, Hahn, an Woolverton in retooling the film's script.[12][32] Syne the oreeginal story haed anly twa major characters, the filmmakers enhanced them, added new characters in the form of enchanted household items who "add warmth and comedy to a gloomy story" and guide the audience throu the film, an added a "real villain" in the form of Gaston.[12]

Thir ideas war somewhat seemilar to elements of the 1946 French film version of Beauty and the Beast, which introduced the character of Avenant, an oafish suitor somewhat seemilar to Gaston,[33] as well as inanimate objects coming to life in the Beast's castle.[34] The animated objects war, houiver, gien distinct personalities in the Disney version. Bi early 1990, Katzenberg haed approved the revised script, an storyboarding began again.[12][32] The production flew story artists back and forth atween California and New York for storyboard approvals frae Ashman, tho the team wis nae told the reason why.[12]

Casting and recording[eedit | eedit soorce]

Disney haed oreeginally considered castin Jodi Benson frae The Little Mermaid as Belle.[35] Thay eventually decidit upon Broadway actress and sangster Paige O'Hara in favor of haein a heroine who sounded "more like a woman than a girl".[36] Accordin to co-director Kirk Wise, O'Hara wis gien the role acause she "had a unique quality, a tone she would hit that made her special",[37] reminiscent to that of American actress and sangster Judy Garland.[38] O'Hara, who, efter readin aboot the film in The New York Times,[39] competit for the role against 500 hopefuls,[40] believes the fact that lyricist Howard Ashman admired her cast recording of the musical Show Boat proved integral in her being cast.[41]

Animation[eedit | eedit soorce]

File:Beauty and the Beast screenshot.jpg
A frame frae the "Beauty and the Beast" ballroom dance sequence. The background is animated uisin computer generated imagery which, when the tradeetionally animated characters are composited against it uisin Pixar's CAPS system, gies the illusion o a dollying film camera.

Production of Beauty and the Beast wis tae be completit on a compressed timeline of twa years rather than the traditional fower-year Disney Featur Animation production schedule; this wis due tae the loss of production time spent developin the earlier Purdum version of the film.[10] Most of the production wis done at the main Featur Animation studio, housed in the Air Way facility in Glendale, California. A smawer team at the Disney-MGM Studios theme park in Lake Buena Vista, Florida assisted the California team on several scenes, parteecularly the "Be Our Guest" nummer.[12]

Beauty and the Beast wis the seicont film, efter The Rescuers Down Under, produced uisin CAPS (Computer Animation Production System), a digital scanning, ink, paint, an compositing system of software and hardware developed for Disney bi Pixar.[12][31] The software allowed for a wider range of colors, as well as soft shading and coloured line effects for the characters, techniques lost when the Disney studio abandoned haund inking for xerography in the late 1950s. CAPS an aa allowed the production crew to simulate multiplane effects: placin characters and/or backgrounds on separate layers and muivin them towards/away frae the camera on the Z-axis to gie the illusion of depth, as well as altering the focus of each layer.[10]

In addition, CAPS allowed an easier combination of haund-drawn airt with computer-generated imagery, which afore haed tae be plotted to animation paper and then xeroxed and painted tradeetionally.[12][42] This technique wis put to significant uise during the "Beauty and the Beast" waltz sequence, in which Belle and Beast dance throu a computer-generated ballroom as the camera dollies aroond them in simulated 3D space.[10][12] The filmmakers haed oreeginally decidit against the uise of computers in favor of traditional animation, but later, when the technology haed improved, decidit it coud be uised for the ane scene in the ballroom.[30] The success of the ballroom sequence helped convince studio executives to further invest in computer animation.[43]

Music[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ashman and Menken wrote the Beauty song score during the pre-production process in Fishkill, the openin operetta-styled "Belle" being thair first composition for the film. Ither songs included "Be Our Guest," sung (in its oreeginal version) to Maurice bi the objects when he becomes the first visitor to eat at the castle in a decade, "Gaston," a solo for the swaggering villain, "Human Again," a song describing Belle and Beast's growin luve frae the objects' perspective, the luve ballad "Beauty and the Beast (Tale as Old as Time)" and the climactic "The Mob Song." As story and song development came to a close, full production began in Burbank while vyce and song recording began in New York City.[12] The Beauty songs war maistly recorded live with the orchestra and the vyce cast performing simultaneously rather than overdubbed separately, in order to gie the songs a cast album-lik "energy" the filmmakers and songwriters desired.[10]

During the course of production, mony changes war made tae the structur of the film, necessitating the replacement and re-purposing of songs. Efter screening a maistly animated version of the "Be Our Guest" sequence, story airtist Bruce Woodside suggestit that the objects should be singing the song to Belle rather than her faither. Wise and Trousdale agreed, an the sequence and song war retooled to replace Maurice with Belle. The film's title song went throu a noted bit of uncertainty during production. Oreeginally conceived as a rock-oriented song, it wis changed to a slow, romantic ballad. Howard Ashman and Alan Menken asked Angela Lansbury to perform the song, but she did nae think her vyce wis suited for the melody. When she voiced her doubts, Menken and Ashman asked her for at least ane tak and told her to perform the song as she saw fit. Lansbury reportedly reduced everyone in the studio to tears with her rendition, nailing the song in the ane tak asked of her. This version went on to win the Oscar for Best Original Song. "Human Again" wis dropped frae the film afore animation began, as its lyrics caused story problems aboot the timeline ower which the story takes place.[12] This required Ashman and Menken to write a new song in its place. "Something There," in which Belle and Beast sing (via voiceover) of thair growin fondness for each ither, wis componed late in production and inserted intae the script in place of "Human Again."[10]

Menken wad later revise "Human Again" for inclusion in the 1994 Broadway stage version of Beauty and the Beast, and anither revised version of the song wis added tae the film itself in a new sequence creautit for the film's Special Edition re-release in 2002.[10][12] Ashman died of AIDS-relatit complications at the age of 40 on Mairch 14, 1991, aicht months afore the film's release. He never saw the finished film, tho he did get to see it in its unfinished format. Ashman's work on Aladdin wis completit bi anither lyricist, Tim Rice. Afore Ashman's daith, members of the film's production team visited him efter the film's well-received first screening, with Don Hahn commentin that "the film would be a great success. Who'd have thought it?", to which Ashman replied with "I would." A tribute tae the lyricist wis included at the end of the credits crawl: "To our friend, Howard, who gave a mermaid her voice, and a beast his soul. We will be forever grateful. Howard Ashman: 1950–1991."[31] A pop version of the "Beauty and the Beast" theme, performed bi Céline Dion and Peabo Bryson ower the end credits, wis released as a commercial single frae the film's soundtrack, supported with a muisic video. The Dion/Bryson version of "Beauty and the Beast" became an international pop hit and performed considerably well on charts aroond the world. The song became Dion's seicont single to land within the top-10 of the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at nummer nine. The song peaked at nummer three on the Billboard Hot Adult Contemporary chart. In Canadae, "Beauty and the Beast" peaked at nummer twa.[44][45] Ootside of North America, the song peaked within the top ten in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, while peaking within the top twinty in Australie, Netherlands, an Ireland. The song sauld ower a million copies warldwide.[46] This version of the song wis an aa nominated for Record of the Year and Song of the Year at the Grammys, an it won the Grammy for Dion and Bryson for Best Pop Duo/Group Vocal Performance.

Release[eedit | eedit soorce]

In a first-time accomplishment for The Walt Disney Company, an unfinished version of Beauty and the Beast wis shawn at the New York Film Festival on September 29, 1991.[47] The film wis deemed a "work in progress" acause roughly anly 70% of the animation haed been completit; storyboards and pencil tests war uised in replacement of the remainin 30%.[48] Additionally, certaint segments of the film that haed already been finished war reverted to previous stages of completion. At the end of the screening, Beauty and the Beast received a 10-minute-lang staundin ovation frae the film festival audience.[31][49] The completit film wis an aa screened out of competeetion at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival.[50] The finished film premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood on November 13, 1991, beginnin a leemitit release afore expanding wide on November 22.[49]

Re-issues[eedit | eedit soorce]

The film wis restored and remastered for its New Year's Day, 2002 re-release in IMAX theatres in a special edition edit, includin a new musical sequence. For this version of the film, much of the animation wis cleaned up, a new sequence set tae the deleted song "Human Again" wis inserted intae the film's seicont act, an a new digital master frae the oreeginal CAPS production files wis uised to mak the heich resolution IMAX film negative.[51]

A sing alang edition of the film, hosted bi Jordin Sparks, wis released in select theaters on September 29 and October 2, 2010. Prior tae the shawin of the film, Sparks showed an exclusive behind-the-scenes leuk at the newly restored film and the makin of her new Beauty and the Beast muisic video. There wis an aa commentary frae producer Don Hahn, interviews with the cast and an inside leuk at how the animation wis creautit.[52][53]

A Disney Digital 3D version of the film, the seicont o a tradeetionally animated film, wis oreeginally scheduled tae be released in US theatres on Februar 12, 2010, but the project wis postponed.[54] On August 25, 2011, Disney annoonced that the 3D version of the film wad mak its American debut at Hollywood's El Capitan Theatre frae September 2–15, 2011.[55] Disney spent less nor $10 million on the 3D conversion.[56] Efter the successfu 3D re-release of The Lion King, Disney annoonced a wide 3D re-release of Beauty and the Beast in North America beginnin Januar 13, 2012.[57]

Home media[eedit | eedit soorce]

The film wis released to VHS on September 24, 1992 as pairt of the Walt Disney Classics series, an wis later put on moratorium on Apryle 30, 1993; it wis nae included in the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection line.[58] This version contains a minor edit tae the film: skulls that appear in Gaston's pupils for twa frames during his climactic faw to his daith war removed for the oreeginal home video release. No sic edit wis made to later reissues of the film. The "work-in-progress" version screened at the New York Film Festival wis an aa released on VHS and Laserdisc at this time;[10] houiver, said version wis the anly ane available on the latter format until the faw of 1993, when the completit theatrical version wis released. This meisur wis to diminish the threat of video pirates makin copies derived frae the laserdisc (which are nae copy-pertected) and selling them in international markets, whaur the film wis yet tae be available for home release.[59][60]

Beauty and the Beast: Special Edition, as the enhanced version of the film released in IMAX/lairge-format is cried, wis released on twa-disc "Platinum Edition" DVD and VHS on October 8, 2002. The DVD set features three versions of the film: the extendit IMAX Special Edition with the "Human Again" sequence added, the oreeginal theatrical version, an the New York Film Festival "work-in-progress" version. This release went to "Disney Vault" moratorium status in Januar 2003, alang with its direct-to-video follae-ups Beauty and the Beast: The Enchanted Christmas and Belle's Magical World.[61]

The film wis released frae the vault on October 5, 2010 as the seicont of Disney's Diamond Editions, in the form o a three-disc Blu-ray Disc and DVD combination pack[62]— the first release of Beauty and the Beast on home video in heich-definition format.[63] This edition conseests o fower versions of the film: the oreeginal theatrical version, an extendit version, the New York Film Festival storyboard-anly version, an a fowert iteration displaying the storyboards via picture-in-picture alongside the oreeginal theatrical version.[64] Upon its first week of release, the Blu-ray sauld 1.1 million units, topping the Blu-ray sales chart and finishing in third place on the combined Blu-ray and DVD sales chart for the week ending on October 10, 2010.[65][66] It wis the seicont best-selling Blu-ray of 2010, behind Avatar.[67] A twa-disc DVD edition wis released on November 23, 2010.[62] A five-disc combo pack, featurin Blu-ray 3D, Blu-ray 2D, DVD and a digital copy, wis released on October 4, 2011. The 3D combo pack is identical tae the oreeginal Diamond Edition, except for the added 3D disc and digital copy. The Blu-ray release went intae the Disney Vault alang with the twa sequels on Apryle 30, 2012.[68]

A 25t anniversary Signature Edition wis released on Digital HD September 6, 2016 and wis followed bi Blu-ray/DVD combo pack on September 20, 2016.[69] Upon its first week of release on home media in the U.S., the film topped the Blu-ray Disc sales chart, an debuted at nummer 3 in the Nielsen VideoScan First Alert chart, which tracks oweraw disc sales, behind Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows and Captain America: Civil War.[70]

Reception and legacy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Critical response[eedit | eedit soorce]

Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes gies the film an approval rating of 93% and an average of 8.4 based on reviews frae 103 critics. The website's general consensus reads, "Enchanting, sweepingly romantic, and featuring plenty of wonderful musical numbers, Beauty and the Beast is one of Disney's most elegant animated offerings."[71] The film an aa holds a 95/100 on Metacritic.[72] Audiences polled bi CinemaScore gae the film a rare "A+" grade.[73]

Janet Maslin of The New York Times praised the film with the follaein statement, "Two years ago, Walt Disney Pictures reinvented the animated feature, not only with an eye toward pleasing children, but also with an older, savvier audience in mind. Disney truly bridged a generation gap with The Little Mermaid... Now, lightning has definitely struck twice with Beauty and the Beast."[74] Awarding the film a perfect score of fower stars, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times compared Beauty and the Beast positively to Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Pinocchio, writing, "Beauty and the Beast reaches back to an older and healthier Hollywood tradition in which the best writers, musicians and filmmakers are gathered for a project on the assumption that a family audience deserves great entertainment, too."[75] In 2001 Ebert again gae the IMAX re-release a full 4 out of 4 stars.[76] James Berardinelli of ReelViews rated the film similarly while hailing it as "the finest animated movie ever made", writing, "Beauty and the Beast attains a nearly-perfect mix of romance, music, invention, and animation."[77] The uise of computer animation, parteecularly in the ballroom sequence, wis singled out in several reviews as ane of the film's hielichts.[10] Hal Hinson of The Washington Post gae the film a positive review, calling the film "A delightfully satisfying modern fable, a near-masterpiece that draws on the sublime traditions of the past while remaining completely in sync with the sensibility of its time."[78] Janet Maslin of The New York Times gae the film a positive review, saying "It is a surprise, in a time of sequels and retreads, that the new film is so fresh and altogether triumphant in its own right."[79] Dave Kehr of the Chicago Tribune gae the film three out of fower stars, saying "Beauty and the Beast is certainly adequate holiday entertainment for children and their more indulgent parents..... But the film has little of the technical facility, vivid characterization and emotional impact of Disney past."[80]

Jay Boyar of the Orlando Sentinel gae the film fower out of five stars, saying "It's not an especially scary movie, but right from the start, you can tell that this Beauty and the Beast has a beauty of a bite."[81] John Hartl of The Seattle Times gae the film three and a hauf stars out of fower, saying "It's exceptionally difficult to make an audience care for animated characters unless they're mermaids or anthropomorphized animals or insects, yet the Disney animators, with a big assist from the vocal talents of a superb cast, have pulled it off."[82] Gene Siskel, an aa of the Chicago Tribune, gae the film fower out of fower stars, saying "Beauty and the Beast is one of the year`s most entertaining films for both adults and children."[83] On thair Beauty and the Beast edition of Siskel & Ebert, baith Siskel and Roger Ebert proclaimed that the film is "a legitimate contender for Oscar consideration as Best Picture of the Year." Michael Sragow of The New Yorker gae the film a positive review, saying "It's got storytelling vigor and clarity, bright, eclectic animation, and a frisky musical wit."[84] Eric Smoodin writes in his beuk Animating Culture that the studio wis tryin to mak up for earlier gender stereotypes with this film.[85] Smoodin an aa states that, in the wey it haes been viewed as bringin thegither traditional fairy tales and feminism as well as computer and traditional animation, the film's "greatness could be proved in terms of technology narrative or even politics".[86]

Animation historian Michael Barrier wrote that Belle "becomes a sort of intellectual less by actually reading books, it seems, than by hanging out with them", but says that the film comes closer than ither "Disney-studio" films to "accepting challenges of the kind that the finest Walt Disney features met".[87] David Whitley writes in The Idea of Nature in Disney Animation that Belle is different frae earlier Disney heroines in that she is maistly free frae the burdens of domestic housework, awtho her role is somewhat undefined in the same wey that "contemporary culture now requires most adolescent girls to contribute little in the way of domestic work before they leave home and have to take on the fraught, multiple responsibilities of the working mother". Whitley an aa notes ither themes and modren influences, sic as the film's critical view of Gaston's chauvinism and attitude towards naitur, the cyborg-lik servants, an the faither's role as an inventor rather than a merchant.[88]

In 2010, IGN named Beauty and the Beast as the greatest animated film of all time, directly ahead of WALL-E, The Incredibles, Toy Story 2, and The Iron Giant.[89]

Several critics regaird the 1991 animated film as superior tae the 2017 live-action remake. Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune said that the 1991 film "worked wonderfully because it was pure Broadway, written for the screen, blending comedy and romance and magic and just enough snark in the margins", while the 2017 remake got lost in translation syne "The movie takes our knowledge and our interest in the material for granted. It zips from one number to another, throwing a ton of frenetically edited eye candy at the screen, charmlessly." Phillips an aa wrote of the 2017 film that "too often we're watching highly qualified performers, plus a few less conspicuously talented ones (Watson, primarily), stuck doing karaoke, or motion-capture work of middling quality".[90] Dana Schwartz of the Observer criticized some of the 2017 film changes tae the characters lik Gaston and the Beast as regressive bi watterin down thair distinguishing personalities frae the 1991 film, an aa arguing that added backstory tae the characters in 2017 version ending up failed to "advance the plot or theme in any meaningful way".[91] David Sims of The Atlantic wrote that the 2017 film "feels particularly egregious, in part, because it’s so slavishly devoted to the original; every time it falls short of its predecessor (which is quite often), it’s hard not to notice".[92]

Box office[eedit | eedit soorce]

During its initial release in 1991, the film grossed $145,863,363 in revenues in North America and $351,863,363 warldwide.[5] It ranked as the third maist-successfu film of 1991 in North America, surpassed anly bi the simmer blockbusters Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves.[93] At the time Beauty and the Beast wis the maist successfu animated Disney film release, an the first animated film to reach $100 million in North America.[94][95] In its IMAX re-release, it earned $25,487,190 in North America and $5,546,156 in ither territories, for a warldwide tot of $31,033,346.[96] It an aa earned $9,818,365 frae its 3D re-release overseas.[5] During the openin weekend of its North American 3D re-release in 2012, Beauty and the Beast grossed $17.8 million, coming in at the No. 2 spot, behind Contraband, and achieved the heichest openin weekend for an animated film in Januar.[97][98] The film wis expected to mak $17.5 million ower the weekend, houiver, the results topped its forecast and the expectations of box office analysts.[99][100] The re-release ended its run on Mey 3, 2012, an earned $47,617,067, which brought the film's tot gross in North America to $218,967,620.[101] It made an estimatit $206,000,000 in ither territories, for a warldwide tot of $424,967,620.[5]

Accolades[eedit | eedit soorce]

Alan Menken and Howard Ashman's song "Beauty and the Beast" won the Academy Award for Best Original Song, while Menken's score won the award for Best Original Score.[102] Twa ither Menken and Ashman songs frae the film, "Belle" and "Be Our Guest", war an aa nominated for Best Original Song.[102] Beauty and the Beast wis the first picture to receive three Academy Award nominations for Best Original Song, a feat that wad be repeated bi The Lion King (1994), Dreamgirls (2006), and Enchanted (2007).[102] Academy rules hae syne been changed to leemit each film to twa nominations in this category, due tae the consecutive unintentional failures of Dreamgirls and Enchanted to win the award.[102]

The film wis an aa nominated for Best Picture and Best Sound.[102] It wis the first animated film ever tae be nominated for Best Picture, an remained the anly animated film nominated until 2009 when the Best Picture field wis widened to ten nominees, an it remains the anly animated film nominated for the award when it haed five nominees.[102] It became the first musical in twal years tae be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Motion Picture of the Year, follaein All That Jazz (1979), and the last ane tae be nominated until Moulin Rouge! (2001), ten years later.[102] It lost the Best Picture award to The Silence of the Lambs.[102] With sax nominations, the film currently shares the record for the maist nominations for an animated film with WALL-E (2008), awtho, with three nominations in the Best Original Song category, Beauty and the Beast's nominations span anly fower categories, while WALL-E's nominations civer sax individual categories.[102]

While The Little Mermaid wis the first tae be nominated, Beauty and the Beast became the first animated film to win the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy.[102] This feat wis later repeated bi The Lion King and Toy Story 2.[102]

List of awards and nominations
Award Date of ceremony Category Recipients and nominees Result
Academy Awards[102] Mairch 30, 1992 Best Picture Don Hahn Nominatit
Best Sound Terry Porter, Mel Metcalfe, David J. Hudson & Doc Kane
Best Muisic, Original Score Alan Menken Wan
Best Muisic, Original Song Alan Menken & Howard Ashman
For the song "Be Our Guest"
Alan Menken & Howard Ashman
For the song "Beauty and the Beast"
Alan Menken & Howard Ashman
For the song "Belle"
Chicago Film Critics Association Februar 1992 Best Picture Nominatit
Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association 1992 Best Film 3rd place
Best Animated Film Wan
Golden Globe Awards[103] Januar 18, 1992 Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Don Hahn
Best Original Score – Motion Picture Alan Menken
Best Original Song – Motion Picture Alan Menken and Howard Ashman
For the song "Be Our Guest"
Alan Menken and Howard Ashman
For the song "Beauty and the Beast"
Grammy Awards[104] Februar 18, 1993 Album of the Year Nominatit
Record of the Year Celine Dion and Peabo Bryson
For the song "Beauty and the Beast"
Best Album for Childer Wan
Best Pop Performance bi a Group or Duo With Vocal For "Beauty and the Beast"
Song of the Year For "Beauty and the Beast" Nominatit
Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture Alan Menken Wan
Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television For "Beauty and the Beast"
Best Pop Instrumental Performance For "Beauty and the Beast"
Los Angeles Film Critics Association December 14, 1991 Best Animated Film Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise
Producers Guild of America Mairch 4, 1992 Darryl F. Zanuck Award for Outstanding Producer of Theatrical Motion Pictures Don Hahn Nominatit

In 2002, Beauty and the Beast wis added tae the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." In Juin 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten Top Ten" lists of the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres, based on polls of ower 1,500 fowk frae the creative community. Beauty and the Beast wis acknowledged as the 7t best film in the animation genre.[105][106] In previous lists, it ranked nummer 22 on the Institutes's leet of best musicals and nummer 34 on its leet of the best romantic American films.[107] On the leet of the greatest songs frae American films, Beauty and the Beast ranked nummer 62.[108]

American Film Institute recognition:

Adaptations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Broadway musical[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin to an article in The Houston Chronicle, "The catalyst for Disney's braving the stage was an article by The New York Times theater critic Frank Rich that praised Beauty and the Beast as 1991's best musical.... Theatre Under The Stars executive director Frank Young had been trying to get Disney interested in a stage version of Beauty about the same time Eisner and Katzenberg were mulling over Rich's column. But Young couldn't seem to get in touch with the right person in the Disney empire. Nothing happened till the Disney execs started to pursue the project from their end.... When they asked George Ives, the head of Actors Equity on the West Coast, which Los Angeles theater would be the best venue for launching a new musical, Ives said the best theater for that purpose would be TUTS. Not long after that, Disney's Don Frantz and Bettina Buckley contacted Young, and the partnership was under way."[114] A stage condensation of the film, directed bi Robert Jess Roth and choreographed bi Matt West, baith of whom moved on tae the Broadway development, haed already been presented at Disneyland at what wis then cried the Videopolis stage.[114] Beauty and the Beast premiered in a jynt production of Theatre Under The Stars and Disney Theatricals at the Muisic Hall, Houston, Texas, frae November 28, 1993, throu December 26, 1993.[114]

On Monday, Apryle 18, 1994, Beauty and the Beast premiered on Broadway at the Palace Theatre in New York City to mixed reviews.[115][116] The show transferred tae the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on November 11, 1999.[117] The commercial (tho nae critical) success of the show led to productions in the West End, Toronto, and all ower the world.[117] The Broadway version, which ran for ower a decade, received a Tony Award, and became the first o a whole line of Disney stage productions.[118] The oreeginal Broadway cast included Terrence Mann as the Beast, Susan Egan as Belle, Burke Moses as Gaston, Gary Beach as Lumière, Heath Lamberts as Cogsworth, Tom Bosley as Maurice, Beth Fowler as Mrs. Potts, an Stacey Logan as Babette the feather duster.[117] Mony well-kent actors and singers an aa starred in the Broadway production during its thirteen-year run, includin Kerry Butler, Debbie Gibson, Toni Braxton, Andrea McArdle, Jamie-Lynn Sigler, Christy Carlson Romano, Ashley Brown, and Anneliese van der Pol as Belle; Chuck Wagner, James Barbour, and Jeff McCarthy as the Beast; Meshach Taylor, Patrick Page, Bryan Batt, Jacob Young, and John Tartaglia as Lumière; and Marc Kudisch, Christopher Sieber, and Donny Osmond as Gaston.[117] The show ended its Broadway run on Julie 29, 2007 efter 46 previews and 5,461 performances.[117] As of 2016, it is Broadway's ninth longest-running show in history.[117]

Live-action film[eedit | eedit soorce]

In Juin 2014, Walt Disney Pictures annoonced that a live-action film adaptation of the oreeginal film wis in the works, with Bill Condon directing and Evan Spiliotopoulos writing the script.[119][120] Condon oreeginally planned on nae anly drawing inspiration frae the oreeginal film, but an aa to include maist, if nae all, of the Menken/Rice songs frae the Broadway musical, with the intention of makin the film as a "straight-forward, live-action, large-budget movie musical".[121] In September 2014, it wis annoonced that Stephen Chbosky (The Perks of Being a Wallflower) wad re-write the script.[122] In Januar 2015, Emma Watson annoonced on her Facebook page that she wad portray Belle in the new live action remake film.[123] In Mairch 2015, Dan Stevens, Luke Evans, Emma Thompson, Josh Gad, Audra McDonald, and Kevin Kline jynt the film as the Beast, Gaston, Mrs. Potts, LeFou, Garderobe, an Maurice, respectively.[124][125][126][127] The follaein month, Ian McKellen, Ewan McGregor, Stanley Tucci, and Gugu Mbatha-Raw jynt the cast, as Cogsworth, Lumière, Cadenza, an Plumette, respectively.[128][129][130][131] Composer Alan Menken returned to score the film's muisic, with new material written bi Menken and Tim Rice.[132] In Juin 2015, Menken said the film wad nae include the songs that war written for the Broadway musical.[133] Filmin began on Mey 18, 2015 in London, and production offeecially wrapped in August 2015.[134][135] The film wis released on Mairch 17, 2017.[136]

Merchandise[eedit | eedit soorce]

Beauty and the Beast merchandise civer a wide variety of products, amang them storybook versions of the film's story, a comic beuk based on the film published bi Disney Comics, toys, childer's costumes, an ither items. In addition, the character of Belle haes been integrated intae the "Disney Princess" line of Disney's Consumer Products division, and appears on merchandise relatit to that franchise.[137] In 1995, a live-action childer's series entitled Sing Me a Story with Belle began running in syndication, remainin on the air throu 1999.[138] Twa direct-to-video followups (which tak place during the timeline depicted in the oreeginal film) war produced bi Walt Disney Television Animation: Beauty and the Beast: The Enchanted Christmas in 1997 and Belle's Magical World in 1998; in contrast tae the universal acclaim of the oreeginal, reception tae the sequels wis extremely negative.[139][140] Disney on Ice produced an ice version of the movie that opened in 1992 in Lakeland, Florida. The show wis sic a huge commercial and critical success, touring aroond the world to sell-out crowds, that a television special wis made when it toured Spain in 1994.[141] The show ended its run in 2006, efter 14 years.[141]

Video gemmes[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are several video gemmes that are loosely based on the film: The first video game based on the film wis titled Beauty and the Beast and is an action platformer developed bi Probe Software[142] and published bi Hudson Soft for the NES. It wis released in Europe in 1994.[143] Gaston is the final boss of the game acause he wants to kill the Beast and mairy Belle.[142]

The seicont video game based on the film wis titled Beauty & The Beast: Belle's Quest and is an action platformer for the Sega Genesis. Developed bi Software Creations, the game wis released in North America in 1993.[144] It is ane of twa video gemmes based on the film that Sunsoft published for the Genesis, the ither being Beauty & The Beast: Roar of the Beast. Characters frae the film lik Gaston can help the player past tricky situations. As Belle, the player must reach the Beast's castle and break the spell to live happily ever efter. To succeed, she must explore the veelage, forest, castle, an snowy forest to solve puzzles and mini-gemmes while ducking or jumping ower enemies. Belle's heal is represented bi a stack of blue beuks, which diminishes when she touches bats, rats, an ither hazards in the game. Extra lives, keys and ither items are hidden throughout the levels. While there is no continue or game saving ability, players can uise a code to stairt the game at ony of the seven levels.[145]

The third video game based on the film wis titled 'Beauty & The Beast: Roar of the Beast and is a side-scrolling video game for the Genesis. As the Beast, the player must successfully complete several levels, based on scenes from the film, in order to protect the castle from invading villagers and forest animals and rescue Belle from Gaston.[146] The fourth video game based on the film was titled Disney's Beauty and the Beast and is an action platformer for the SNES. It was developed by Probe Entertainment and published by Hudson Soft in North America in July 1994 and in Europe on February 23, 1995. The game was published by Virgin Interactive in Japan on July 8, 1994.[147] The entire game is played through the perspective of the Beast. As the Beast, the player must get Belle to fall in love so that the curse cast upon him and his castle will be broken. The final boss of the game is Gaston. The Beast can walk, jump, swipe, stomp, super stomp, and roar, the last of which is used to both damage enemies and reveal hidden objects.[148]

The fifth video game based on the film was titled Disney's Beauty & The Beast: A Boardgame Adventure and is a Disney Boardgame adventure for the Game Boy Color. It was released on October 25, 1999.[149]

The video game series Kingdom Hearts features a world based on the film, named "Beast's Castle", along with several of the film's characters. In the first game, the world has been destroyed and Belle kidnapped by the Heartless, led by Maleficent, but the Beast travels to Maleficent's stronghold and works with Sora to defeat Maleficent and rescue Belle and the other captured princesses.[150] In Kingdom Hearts II, the world has since been restored following Ansem's defeat, but Beast and Belle are having difficulties due to the enigmatic Xaldin of Organization XIII attempting to bring out the Beast's darker side in order to turn him into a Heartless and a Nobody, but the Beast eventually comes to his senses and works with Sora once again to defeat Xaldin once and for all. In the game's ending credits, the Beast turns back into the Prince. In Kingdom Hearts: 358/2 Days, the world is featured as a playable level but the story is not essential to the main plot. In Kingdom Hearts χ, the world is featured again and follows the plot of the movie more closely. The characters featured in the series are Beast, Belle, Lumiere, Gaston, Cogsworth, Mrs. Potts, Chip, Maurice and the Wardrobe. Gaston and Maurice do not appear until Kingdom Hearts χ, which takes place before the main series. After Gaston is defeated, the world's primary antagonist becomes Xaldin, an original character created for the series, but who shares several traits with Forte, the main antagonist of Beauty and the Beast: The Enchanted Christmas.[151]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Speaking together, with some crosstalk, Gary Trousdale, Kirk Wise, Don Hahn and Alan Menken confirmed on the audio commentary that Gaston died after he fell off the rooftops.[10]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

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  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 Trousdale, Gary; Wise, Kirk; Hahn, Don; and Menken, Alan (2002). DVD audio commentary for Beauty and the Beast: Special Edition. Walt Disney Home Entertainment
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