İskenderun

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İskenderun
Ceety
İskenderun is located in Turkey
İskenderun
İskenderun
Location o İskenderun athin Turkey.
Coordinates: 36°34′54″N 36°09′54″E / 36.5817°N 36.1650°E / 36.5817; 36.1650
Kintra Turkey
Region Mediterranean
Province Hatay
Elevation 4 m (13 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 201,183
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 31
Area code(s) (0)326
Licence plate 31
Website http://www.iskenderun.bel.tr

İskenderun is a ceety an urban destrict in the province o Hatay on the Mediterranean coast o Turkey. The current mayor is Yusuf Hamit Civelek (CHP).

Names[eedit | eedit soorce]

The antique ceety wis namit Alexandretta (in Auncient Greek Ἀλεξανδρέττα) at its foondin in honour o Alexander the Great which it retained durin the Roman period. This later mutatit tae al-ʼIskandarūn (Arabic الإسكندرون) wi the Islamic period an then tae İskenderun in Turkis.

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

İskenderun is locatit on the Mediterranean coast on Gulf o İskenderun at the fuit o the Nur Muntains (Amanos Mountains).

İskenderun is a busy commercial centre, the lairgest ceety in the Hatay Province, surpassin the Hatay provincial seat o Antakya. The ceety is ane o Turkey's lairgest ports on the Mediterranean an an important industrial centre hame tae the İsdemir steelwirks, ane o Turkey's lairgest. İskenderun haes an active, modren life wi guid hotels, restaurants an cafes alang the palm-lined sea front, an there is a variety o accommodation for visitors. İskenderun is an aw an important naval trainin base.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The climate on this stretch o the Mediterranean is hot an humid in simmer, when fowk escape tae the kintraside or tae the beach. At certain times o the year the toun is swept bi the strang wind cried 'Yarıkkaya'. The kintraside contains lairge auries o fruit groves, important producers o oranges, tangerines an lemons, an even tropical fruits such as mangoes. Winters are mild an wet.

Climate data for İskenderun
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
26.4
(79.5)
31.7
(89.1)
36.0
(96.8)
40.0
(104.0)
37.6
(99.7)
37.2
(99.0)
38.8
(101.8)
40.0
(104.0)
37.4
(99.3)
31.2
(88.2)
26.5
(79.7)
40
(104.0)
Average heich °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
16.1
(61.0)
18.7
(65.7)
22.3
(72.1)
25.5
(77.9)
28.5
(83.3)
30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
30.3
(86.5)
27.1
(80.8)
21.7
(71.1)
17.1
(62.8)
23.74
(74.74)
Average laich °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
9.0
(48.2)
11.3
(52.3)
14.7
(58.5)
18.4
(65.1)
22.0
(71.6)
25.0
(77.0)
25.7
(78.3)
23.3
(73.9)
18.9
(66.0)
13.8
(56.8)
10.2
(50.4)
16.74
(62.14)
Record laich °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.3
(31.5)
0.4
(32.7)
5.1
(41.2)
11.2
(52.2)
14.8
(58.6)
18.6
(65.5)
18.6
(65.5)
15.4
(59.7)
2.5
(36.5)
2.4
(36.3)
0.8
(33.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 88.4
(3.48)
90.6
(3.567)
86.8
(3.417)
63.8
(2.512)
48.0
(1.89)
35.9
(1.413)
12.1
(0.476)
18.9
(0.744)
41.9
(1.65)
84.8
(3.339)
90.5
(3.563)
90.9
(3.579)
752.6
(29.63)
humidity 61 63 66 69 72 74 74 72 67 65 63 63 67.4
Avg. rainy days 11.9 11.3 11.4 9.4 6.9 3.3 3.1 3.7 6.1 9.0 8.7 11.1 95.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 142.8 189.1 216 279 309 294.5 288.3 264 232.5 168 124 2,637.4
Source no. 1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [1]
Source no. 2: Weatherbase [2]

Cuisine[eedit | eedit soorce]

Destinctive İskenderun dishes include Künefe, a hot dessert wi cheese. The main dishes include the Turkis staples such as döner an ither kebabs servit in the flat dürüm bread, lahmacun, an an aw Antakya influenced cuisine includin kibbeh, an sour pomegranate syrup uised as a salad dressin. İskenderun in pairticular affers guid quality fish an prawns.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Antiquity[eedit | eedit soorce]

Azganlık aurie o İskenderun

İskenderun preserves the name, but probably no the exact steid, o Alexandria ad Issum (İskender being the Arabic renderin o Alexander). The settlement wis foondit bi Alexander the Great in 333 BC tae supersede Myriandrus as the key tae the Sirie Gates, about 23 miles sooth o the scene o his victory at the Battle o Issus. The importance o the place iver syne haes derived frae its relation tae this pass, the easiest approach tae the open grund o Hatay Province an o Northren Sirie, an the Romans continued tae fecht wi Persie for control o this aurie during their era o dominance.

Alexander campit at the heich-lands o İskenderun, aroond Esentepe, an then ordered the ceety tae be established an namit "Alexandria". İskenderun is ane o mony ceeties foondit bi Alexander's orders, includin Alexandria.

Ottoman Era[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Martyrs Monument in İskenderun

The aurie wis still a scene o fechtin unner the Ottomans, as it wis here in 1606 that the airmy o general Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppressed the rural uprisin o Celali Canbulatoğlu. The Ottomans continued tae fortifee the ceety an the remains o early 17t century Ottoman castle waws can still be seen, (whaur the Güzün stream crosses the Varyant road). The ceety wis well describit in 1675 bi the Inglis naval chaplain Henry Teonge in his diary. The next airmy tae cross the Pass o Belen an attack Anatolie through here wur the Egyptians o Muhammad Ali in 1832.

Housomeivver in the later Ottoman period the ceety grew an grew as the main ootlet for the owerland trade frae Baghdad an Indie, which haed great importance until the establishment o the Egyptian owerland route. Iskenderun served as a base first o Genoese an Venetian merchants, then Wast an North European merchants. The Breetish Levant Company maintained an agency an factory here for 200 years, till 1825, in spite o appallin mortality amang its employees. Durin the 19t century the port grew, the railway wis built in 1912, an the road tae Aleppo wis impruivit.

At the ootset o Warld War I when Breetain wis contemplatin the dismemberment o the Ottoman Empire, Laird Kitchener considered the conquest o Alexandretta tae be essential in providin Breetain wi a port an railheid frae which tae access Iraq. He proposed a new railway frae Alexandretta which wad greatly reduce the time for reachin Indie frae the UK. The de Bunsen Committee (8 Aprile - 30 Juin 1915), a Breetish inter-depairtmental group which wis set up tae discuss the issue in greater detail, preferred Haifa for this purpose.[3]

Republic o Hatay[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Hatay State

Follaein the collapse o the Ottoman Empire at the end o the First Warld War maist o Hatay includin İskenderun wis occupeed bi French troops an in 1921 wis established as the autonomous Sanjak o Alexandretta athin French-controlled Sirie. This led tae the foondation o the Republic o Hatay. In 1939, the Republic o Hatay joined wi the Republic o Turkey, efter a referendum. See Hatay Province for a detailed history o this era.

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Media[eedit | eedit soorce]

Iskenderun is served bi the Güney Gazetesi newspaper

Cultural references[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • In the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Jones claims the Holy Grail is in the "canyon o the crescent muin" ootside o Alexandretta. Indiana explains that Alexandretta wis completely demolished bi the end o the first crusades an that the ceety is nou kent as Iskenderun, even though that name is simply Alexandretta in Arabic.
  • The progressive metal group Andromeda released the sang "İskenderun" on their album Chimera.

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]