Warld War I
Warld War I (WWI) wis a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 Julie 1914 an lastit till 11 November 1918. It wis predominantly cried the Warld War or the Great War frae its occurrence till the stairt o Warld War II in 1939, an the First Warld War or Warld War I thereefter. It involved aw the warld's great pouers, which wur assembled in twa opposin alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente o the Unitit Kingdom, Fraunce an Roushie) an the Central Pouers (originally the Triple Alliance o Germany, Austrick-Hungary an Italy; but, as Austrick–Hungary haed taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did nae enter intae the war). These alliances wur baith reorganised an expandit as mair naitions entered the war: Italy, Japan an the Unitit States jyned the Allies, an the Ottoman Empire an Bulgarie the Central Pouers. Ultimately, mair than 70 million militar personnel, includin 60 million Europeans, wur mobilised in ane o the lairgest wars in history. Mair than 9 million combatants wur killed, lairgely acause o technological advancements that led tae enormous increases in the lethality o weapons wioot correspondin improvements in protection or mobility. It wis the fift-deadliest conflict in warld history, subsequently pavin the wey for various poleetical chynges, such as revolutions in mony o the naitions involved.
Ane o the long-term causes o the war wis the resurgence o imperialism in the foreign policies o the great pouers o Europe. Mair immediately, the assassination o Archduke Franz Ferdinand o Austrick, the heir tae the throne o Austrick-Hungary, on 28 Juin 1914 bi Yugoslav naitionalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo triggered a diplomatic crisis when Austrick-Hungary subsequently delivered an ultimatum tae the Kinrick o Serbie. Several alliances formed ower the previous decades wur invoked. Within weeks, the major pouers wur at war an, via their colonies, the conflict soon spread aroond the warld.
On 28 Julie, the Austro-Hungarians fired the first shots o the war as preparation for the invasion o Serbie. While the Roushies mobilised, the Germans invadit neutral Belgium an Luxembourg on the wey tae Fraunce, providin a casus belli for Britain's declaration o war against Germany. Efter the German mairch on Paris wis broucht tae a halt—the so-cried Miracle o the Marne—the Wastren Front settled intae a static battle o attrition wi a trench line that chynged little till 1917. On the Eastren Front, the Roushie airmy wis successful against the Austro-Hungarians, but wis stopped in its invasion o East Prussie bi the Germans. In November the Ottoman Empire jyned the war, openin up fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamie an the Sinai. Italy an Bulgarie went tae war in 1915 an Romanie in 1916. In Roushie, the tsar's govrenment collapsed in Mairch 1917 an a subsequent revolution in November broucht the Roushies tae terms wi the Central Powers. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives an American forces began enterin the trenches. Germany, which had its awn trooble wi revolutionaries, agreed tae an armistice on 11 November 1918. The war endit in victory for the Allies.
Events on the home fronts wur as tumultuous as on the battle fronts, as the participants tried tae mobilize their manpouer an economic resources tae ficht a tot war. Bi the end o the war, fower major imperial pouers—the German, Roushie, Austro-Hungarian an Ottoman empires—ceased tae exist. The successor states o the umwhile twa lost a great amoont o territory, while the latter twa wur dismantled entirely. The cairt o central Europe wis redrawn intae several smawer states. The League o Naitions wis formed in the hope o preventin anether such conflict. The European naitionalism spawned bi the war an the breakup o empires, the repercussions o Germany's defeat an problems wi the Treaty o Versailles are agreed tae be factors contributin tae World War II.
- Tucker & Roberts 2005, p. 273
- "British Army statistics of the Great War". 1914-1918.net. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Figures are for the British Empire
- Figures are for Metropolitan France and its colonies
- Willmott 2003, pp. 10–11
- Willmott 2003, p. 15
- Keegan 1988, p. 8
- Bade & Brown 2003, pp. 167–168
- Willmott 2003, p. 307
- Taylor 1998, pp. 80–93
- Djokić 2003, p. 24
- Evans 2004, p. 12
- Martel 2003, p. xii ff
- Keegan 1988, p. 7
- Keegan 1988, p. 11