Windsor, Ontario

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Skyline view o Windsor frae Detroit

Windsor is the soothernmaist ceety in Canadae an is locatit in Soothwastren Ontario at the wastren end o the hivily populatit Quebec Ceety – Windsor Corridor. It is athin Essex Coonty, Ontario, although admeenistratively separatit frae the coonty government. Windsor is athort the Detroit River an sooth o Detroit, Michigan in the Unitit States. Windsor is kent as The Ceety o Roses an residents ar kent as Windsorites.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Prior tae European exploration an settlement, the Windsor aurie wis inhabited bi the First Naitions an Native American fowk. Windsor wis settled bi the French Canadaens in 1749 as an agricultural settlement. It wis the auldest continually inhabited European settlement in Canadae wast o Montreal. The area wis first named Petite Côte ("Little Coast" - as opposed tae the langer coastline on the Detroit side o the river). Later it wis called La Côte de Misère ("Poverty Coast") because o the sandy soils near LaSalle.

Windsor's Canadian heritage is reflectit in mony French street names, such as Ouellette, Pelissier, François, Pierre, Langlois, Marentette, an Lauzon. The current street seestem o Windsor (a grid wi elongated blocks) reflects the Canadian method o agricultural land division, where the farms wur lang an narrow, frontin alang the river. Today, the north-sooth street name aften indicates the name o the faimily that at ane time farmed the land. The street system o ootlyin auries is consistent wi the Breetish system for grantin land concessions. There is a significant French-speakin minority in Windsor an the surroundin auries, particularly in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh an LaSalle auries.

In 1794, efter the American Revolution, the settlement o "Sandwich" wis foondit. It wis later renamed tae Windsor, efter the toun in Berkshire, Ingland. The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's wast side is home tae some o the auldest buildings in the ceety, includin Mackenzie Hall, originally built as the Essex Coonty Courthouse in 1855. Today, this building functions as a community centre. The auldest building in the ceety is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792. It is awned bi Ontariae Heritage Trust an houses government offices. The François Baby House in dountoun Windsor wis built in 1812 an houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated tae local heestory.

The Ceety o Windsor wis the site o the Battle o Windsor during the Upper Canadae Rebellion in 1837. It wis also a pairt o the Patriot War, later that year.

Windsor wis established as a village in 1854 (the same year the village wis connectit tae the rest o Canadae bi the Grand Trunk Railway/Canadian Naitional Railway), then became a toun in 1858, an ultimately gained ceety status in 1892.

A fire consumed muckle o Windsor's dountoun core on October 12, 1871, destroyin ower 100 buildings.

On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housin the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten fowk wur killed an at least ane hunder injured. The 45t anniversary o the event wis commemoratit bi the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It wis featured on History Television's Disasters o the Century.

The Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the ceety's past, its success as a railway centre, an its contributions tae Warld War I an Warld War II. It also recalled the namin controversy in 1892 when the toun o Windsor aimed tae become a ceety. The maist popular names listed in the namin controversy wur "Sooth Detroit", "The Ferry" (frae the ferries that linked Windsor tae Detroit), Windsor, an Richmond (the runner-up in popularity). Windsor wis chosen tae promote the heritage o new Inglis settlers in the ceety an tae recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Ingland. Housomeivver, Richmond wis a popular name uised until the Seicont Warld War, mainly bi the local post office.

Sandwich, Ford Ceety an Walkerville wur separate legal entities (touns) in their awn right until 1935. They ar now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford Ceety wis offeecially incorporatit as a village in 1912; it became a toun in 1915, an a ceety in 1929. Walkerville wis incorporatit as a toun in 1890. Sandwich wis established in 1817 as a toun with nae municipal status. It wis incorporated as a toun in 1858 (the same year as neighbourin Windsor).

These three touns wur each annexed bi Windsor in 1935. The nearby villages o Ojibway an Riverside wur incorporated in 1913 an 1921 respectively. Baith wur annexed bi Windsor in 1966.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aa: Wather Records in Windsor, Ontario.

Windsor haes a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) wi fower distinct saisons. The mean annual temperature is 9.5°C (49 °F), amang the warmest in Canadae primarily due tae its hot simmers. Some locations in coastal an lower mainland Breetish Columbie have a slightly higher mean annual temperature due tae milder winter conditions. The coldest month is Januar an the warmest month is Julie. The coldest temperature ever recordit in Windsor wis −29.1 °C (−20.4 °F) an the warmest wis 40.2 °C (104.4 °F).

Simmers ar hot, humid an the annual average rain is 94 cm (37 inches). Winters ar generally cold wi occasional mild periods. Windsor is na located in the lake effect snawbelts an snaw cover is intermittent throughoot the winter; nevertheless, there ar typically several major snawfall events each winter. Simmers ar warm an humid, an thunderstorms ar common. Windsor haes the hiechtest number o days per year wi lightning, haze, an daily maximum temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F) o ceeties in Canadae. Precipitation is generally well-distributed throughoot the year.

Tornadoes[eedit | eedit soorce]

The strongest an deadliest tornado tae touch doun in Windsor wis a category F4 in 1946. Windsor wis the anerlie Canadaen ceety tae experience a tornado during the Super Ootbrak o 1974, an F3 which killed nine fowk at the Windsor Curlin Club. The ceety wis grazed in 1997 bi the Sootheast Michigan Tornado Ootbrak wi ane tornado (an F1) formin east o the ceety. Tornadoes hae been recordit crossin the Detroit River (in 1946 an 1997), an waterspouts ar regularly seen over Lake St. Clair an Lake Erie especially in hairst.

On April 25, 2009 an F0 tornado briefly touched doun in the ceety's east end causin minor damage tae nearby buildings, maist notably a CUPE union hall.

Climate data for Windsor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 17.8
(64.0)
20.4
(68.7)
26.6
(79.9)
31.1
(88.0)
34.0
(93.2)
40.2
(104.4)
38.3
(100.9)
37.7
(99.9)
37.2
(99.0)
32.2
(90.0)
26.1
(79.0)
19.6
(67.3)
40.2
(104.4)
Average heich °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
0.6
(33.1)
6.4
(43.5)
13.4
(56.1)
20.5
(68.9)
25.4
(77.7)
27.9
(82.2)
26.6
(79.9)
22.5
(72.5)
15.6
(60.1)
8.3
(46.9)
1.9
(35.4)
14.0
(57.2)
Average laich °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−7
(19.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
3.0
(37.4)
9.3
(48.7)
14.7
(58.5)
17.4
(63.3)
16.6
(61.9)
12.3
(54.1)
6.2
(43.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
4.9
(40.8)
Record laich °C (°F) −29.1
(−20.4)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−9.5
(14.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
2.8
(37.0)
5.6
(42.1)
5.2
(41.4)
−1.1
(30.0)
−5
(23.0)
−15.6
(3.9)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−29.1
(−20.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 57.6
(2.268)
57.3
(2.256)
75.0
(2.953)
85.1
(3.35)
80.8
(3.181)
89.8
(3.535)
81.8
(3.22)
79.7
(3.138)
96.2
(3.787)
64.9
(2.555)
75.5
(2.972)
74.7
(2.941)
918.3
(36.154)
Rainfall mm (inches) 28.7
(1.13)
33.3
(1.311)
55.6
(2.189)
80.7
(3.177)
80.7
(3.177)
89.8
(3.535)
81.8
(3.22)
79.7
(3.138)
96.2
(3.787)
64.1
(2.524)
67.3
(2.65)
47.3
(1.862)
805.2
(31.701)
Snawfall cm (inches) 35.0
(13.78)
27.5
(10.83)
20.6
(8.11)
4.3
(1.69)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.7
(0.28)
8.3
(3.27)
30.1
(11.85)
126.6
(49.84)
Avg. precipitation days 15.1 12.3 13.9 13.3 11.8 11.0 10.2 10.0 10.9 10.5 12.8 14.9 146.7
Avg. rainy days 5.7 5.6 9.4 12.2 11.8 11.0 10.2 10.0 10.9 10.5 10.6 7.9 115.8
Avg. snawy days 12.5 9.1 6.7 2.3 .03 0 0 0 0 .33 3.8 10.2 44.96
Source: Environment Canadae

Air pollution[eedit | eedit soorce]

Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. is concerned aboot pollution generatit in the Unitit States affectin Windsor. Respiratory illnesses that ar associatit wi pollution are more prevalent here than elsewhere in Canadae as Windsor is dounwind frae several strang polluters.

The Weather Network haes designatit Windsor as "the smog caipital o Canadae." Windsor's Citizens Environment Alliance holds a yearly airt event entitled Smogfest tae raise awareness o air quality issues.

A 2001 article in Environmental Health Perspectives stated that the rates o mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, an congenital anomalies in the Windsor Aurie o Concern ranked amang the highest o the 17 Auries o Concern on the Canadaen side o the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related tae pollution.

In the simmer o 2003, Transit Windsor providit free transit on smog advisory days. The pilot project wis extremely successful an drew interest frae across the kintra an Europe. Ridership increased nearly 50% on those days. There was extensive local media coverage, stories on the project wur featured on The Weather Network, CBC NewsWorld, in newspapers an on radio stations across the naition. Despite the success, the pilot project wis discontinued, as the budget for the program wis quickly expendit.

Ceetyscape[eedit | eedit soorce]

Windsor's Riverside Drive an Riverfront Bike Trail frae Dieppe Gardens.
Main airticle: Parks in the ceety o Windsor, Ontario

Windsor's Department o Parks an Recreation maintains 3,000 acres (12 km2) o green space, 180 parks, 40 miles (64 kilometres) o trails, 22 miles (35 kilometres) o sidewalk, 60 parkin lots, vacant lands, natural auries an forest cover wi'in the ceety o Windsor. The lairgest park is Mic Mac Park, which can accommodate mony different activities includin basebaa, soccer, bikin, an sleddin. Windsor haes numerous bike trails, the lairgest being the Ganatchio Trail on the far east side o the ceety. In recent years, ceety council haes pushed for the addition o bicycle lanes on ceety streets tae provide links throughoot the existin trail network.

The Windsor trail network is linked tae the LaSalle Trail in the wast end, an will eventually be linked tae the Chrysler Canadae Greenway (part o the Trans Canadae Trail). The current greenway is a 42 km umwhile railway corridor that haes been convertit intae a multi-uise recreational trail, underground utility corridor an natural green space. The corridor begins sooth o Oldcastle an continues sooth through McGregor, Harrow, Kingsville, an Ruthven. The Greenway is a fine trail for hikin, bikin, runnin, birdin, cross kintra skiin an in some areas, horseback ridin. It connects natural auries, rich agricultural lands, heestorically an architecturally significant structures, an award winnin wineries. A separate 5 km landscaped traverses the riverfront between dountoun an the Ambassador Bridge. Part o this trail winds through Odette Sculpture Park, displayin various modern an post-modern sculptures frae artists in Essex Coonty. Families o elephants (see picture), penguins, horses, an mony ither themed sculptures ar foond in the park.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

File:WindsorAssembelyPlant1.jpg
The Chrysler Minivan Assembly Plant

Windsor's economy is primarily based on education, manufacturing, tourism, an government services.

Baith the University o Windsor an St. Clair College ar significant local employers an hae enjoyed substantial growth an expansion in recent years. The recent addition o a full-program satellite medical school o the University o Wastren Ontario, which opened in 2008 at the University o Windsor is further enhancin the region's economy an the status o the university. The university is currently constructin a $112 million facility for their Ingineerin Faculty.

Windsor haes a well-established tourism industry. Caesars Windsor (umwhile Casino Windsor), ane o the lairgest casinos in Canadae, ranks as ane o the lairgest local employers. It haes been a major draw for U.S. visitors since openin in 1994. Further, the 1,150-kilometre (710 mi) Quebec Ceety – Windsor Corridor contains 18 million fowk, wi 51% o the Canadian population an three oot o the fower lairgest metropolitan auries, accordin tae the 2001 Census.

TunnelBarBQWindsorON.jpg

The ceety an aa boasts an extensive riverfront pairks seestem an fine restaurants, such as those on Erie Street in Windsor's Little Italy cawed "Via Italia", anither popular tourist destination. The Lake Erie North Shore Wine Region in Essex Coonty haes enhanced tourism in the region. Windsor is the headquarters o Hiram Walker & Sons Limited, now awned bi Pernod Ricard. Its heestoric distillery wis foondit bi Hiram Walker in 1858 in what wis then Walkerville, Ontario.

Windsor is ane o Canadae's major automobile manufacturin centres an is aften referred tae as the Automotive Caipital o Canadae. The ceety is home tae the headquarters o Chrysler Canadae. Housomeivver, plant closures an significant job losses in recent years hae impacted Windsor's automotive manufacturin industry. Automotive facilities include the Chrysler minivan assembly plant, twa Ford Motor Company ingine plants, an a significant number o tool an die an automotive parts manufacturers.

The ceety's diversifying economy is also representit bi companies involved in pharmaceuticals, alternative energy, insurance, internet an software. Windsor is also home tae the Windsor Salt Mine an the Great Lakes Regional office o the International Joint Commission.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Census Population
1841 300
1871 4,253
1881 6,561
1891 10,322
1901 12,153
1911 17,829
1921 38,591
1931 63,108
1941 104,415
1951 120,049
1961 114,367
1971 203,300
1981 192,083
1991 191,435
2001 208,402
2006 216,473
Ethnic Origin, 2001
Ethnic Origin Percentage
Canadian 28.1%
French 21.2%
Inglis 18.5%
Erse 13.1%
Scots 12.1%
Italian 9.7%
German 7.1%
Polish 4.0%
multiple responses includit
Releegion, 2001
Reeligion Percentage
Catholic 48.3%
Protestant 23.9%
No releegion 12.1%
Muslim 4.8%
Orthodox 4.3%

In 2006, the population o Windsor wis 216,473 an that o the Windsor metropolitan aurie (consistin o Windsor, Tecumseh, Amherstburg, LaSalle an Lakeshore) wis 323,342. This represents a growth o 3.5% in the ceety population since 2001 an a growth o 5.0% in the metropolitan aurie population since 2001.

Acause o its jobs, Windsor attracts mony immigrants frae aroond the warld. Ower 20% o the population is foreign-born; this is the fowert-hichtest proportion for a Canadaen ceety. Visible minorities make up 21.0% o the population, makin it the maist diverse ceety in Ontario ootside o the Greater Toronto Aurie.

Frae the 2001 Canadaen census, Windsor's population wis 48.9% male an 51.1% female. Children unner five accoontit for 6.3% o the ceety population compared tae 5.6% for Canadae. Persons o retirement age (65 years an over) accoontit for 14.1% o the population in Windsor compared tae 13.0% for Canadae. The median age in Windsor is 36.0 years compared tae 37.6 years for Canadae.

Govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

File:Windsor city hall.JPG
Windsor Ceety Hall.

Windsor's heestory as an industrial centre haes given the New Democrats (a pairty partially foondit, governed an supportit bi labour unions), a dedicatit votin base. Durin federal an provincial elections, Windsorites hae maintained its local representation in the respective legislatures. The Liberal Party o Canadae also haes a strong electoral heestory in the ceety. Canadae's 21st Prime Meenister Paul Martin wis born in Windsor. His father Paul Martin (Sr.), a federal cabinet minister in several portfolios through the Liberal governments o the 1940s, 1950s an 1960s, wis first electit tae the House o Commons frae a Windsor ridin in the 1930s. Martin (Sr.) practiced law in the ceety an the federal buildin on Ouellette Avenue is named efter him. Eugene Whelan wis a Liberal cabinet minister an ane-time Liberal pairty leadership candidate electit frae Essex County frae the 1960s tae the early 1980s, as well as Mark MacGuigan o Windsor-Walkerville ridin, who an aa served as External Affairs, an later Juistice meenister in the early 1980s. Deputy Prime Meenister Herb Gray representit Windsor as an MP frae 1962 through 2003, winnin thirteen consecutive elections makin him the langest servin MP in Canadaen history.[1] A bust o Herb Gray is locatit at the foot o Ouellette Avenue near Dieppe Park in dountoun Windsor.

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

File:LadydipperDetroitRiverswimmer.jpg
Windsor's Riverfront walk is lined wi sculptures, such as this ane, named "Anne", the Lady Dipper.

Windsor haes several sister ceeties in the warld - dates ar in parentheses:

Windsor an aa haes a vera close relationship wi fellae Motor Ceety:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Parliament of Canada (website) “History of Federal Ridings since 1867”. . Retrieved 17 July 2007.