Windsor, Ontario

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Coordinates: 42°17′N 83°00′W / 42.283°N 83.000°W / 42.283; -83.000

Skyline view o Windsor frae Detroit

Windsor is the soothernmaist ceety in Canadae an is locatit in Soothwastren Ontario at the wastren end o the hivily populatit Quebec Ceety – Windsor Corridor. It is athin Essex Coonty, Ontario, awtho admeenistratively separatit frae the coonty govrenment. Windsor is athort the Detroit River an sooth o Detroit, Michigan in the Unitit States. Windsor is kent as The Ceety o Roses an residents ar kent as Windsorites.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Prior tae European exploration an dounset, the Windsor aurie wis inhabited bi the First Naitions an Native American fowk. Windsor wis settled bi the French Canadaens in 1749 as an agricultural dounset. It wis the auldest continually inhabited European dounset in Canadae wast o Montreal. The aurie wis first named Petite Côte ("Little Coast" - as opposed tae the langer coastline on the Detroit side o the river). Later it wis cried La Côte de Misère ("Poverty Coast") acause o the sandy soils near LaSalle.

Windsor's Canadian heritage is reflectit in mony French street names, sic as Ouellette, Pelissier, François, Pierre, Langlois, Marentette, an Lauzon. The current street seestem o Windsor (a grid wi elangatit blocks) reflects the Canadian method o agricultural land division, whaur the farms wur lang an nairae, frontin alang the river. The day, the north-sooth street name aften indicates the name o the faimily that at ane time farmed the land. The street seestem o ootlyin auries is consistent wi the Breetish seestem for grantin land concessions. Thare is a significant French-speakin minority in Windsor an the surroundin auries, parteecularly in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh an LaSalle auries.

In 1794, efter the American Revolution, the dounset o "Sandwich" wis foondit. It wis later renamed tae Windsor, efter the toun in Berkshire, Ingland. The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's wast side is home tae some o the auldest buildings in the ceety, includin Mackenzie Hall, oreeginally biggit as the Essex Coonty Courthouse in 1855. The day, this building functions as a community centre. The auldest building in the ceety is the Duff-Baby House biggit in 1792. It is awned bi Ontariae Heritage Trust an houses govrenment offices. The François Baby House in dountoun Windsor wis biggit in 1812 an houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated tae local heestory.

The Ceety o Windsor wis the site o the Battle o Windsor during the Upper Canadae Rebellion in 1837. It wis an aa a pairt o the Patriot War, later that year.

Windsor wis established as a veelage in 1854 (the same year the veelage wis connectit tae the rest o Canadae bi the Grand Trunk Railway/Canadian Naitional Railway), then became a toun in 1858, an ultimately gained ceety status in 1892.

A fire consumed muckle o Windsor's dountoun core on October 12, 1871, destroyin ower 100 buildings.

On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housin the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten fowk wur killed an at least ane hunder injured. The 45t anniversary o the event wis commemoratit bi the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It wis featurt on History Television's Disasters o the Century.

The Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the ceety's past, its success as a railwey centre, an its contreibutions tae Warld War I an Warld War II. It an aa recalled the namin controversy in 1892 when the toun o Windsor aimed tae acome a ceety. The maist popular names listed in the namin controversy wur "Sooth Detroit", "The Ferry" (frae the ferries that linked Windsor tae Detroit), Windsor, an Richmond (the runner-up in popularity). Windsor wis chosen tae promote the heritage o new Inglis settlers in the ceety an tae recognise Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Ingland. Housomeivver, Richmond wis a popular name uised until the Seicont Warld War, mainly bi the local post office.

Sandwich, Ford Ceety an Walkerville wur separate legal entities (touns) in thair awn right until 1935. Thay ar nou historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford Ceety wis offeecially incorporatit as a veelage in 1912; it became a toun in 1915, an a ceety in 1929. Walkerville wis incorporatit as a toun in 1890. Sandwich wis established in 1817 as a toun wi nae municipal status. It wis incorporated as a toun in 1858 (the same year as neighbourin Windsor).

Thir three touns wur each annexed bi Windsor in 1935. The nearby villages o Ojibway an Riverside wur incorporated in 1913 an 1921 respectively. Baith wur annexed bi Windsor in 1966.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aa: Wather Records in Windsor, Ontario.

Windsor haes a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) wi fower distinct saisons. The mean annual temperature is 9.5°C (49 °F), amang the warmest in Canadae primarily due tae its het simmers. Some locations in coastal an lawer mainland Breetish Columbie hae a slichtly higher mean annual temperature due tae milder winter conditions. The cauldest month is Januar an the warmest month is Julie. The cauldest temperature ever recordit in Windsor wis −29.1 °C (−20.4 °F) an the warmest wis 40.2 °C (104.4 °F).

Simmers ar het, humid an the annual average rain is 94 cm (37 inches). Winters ar generally cauld wi occasional mild periods. Windsor is na locatit in the lake effect snawbelts an snaw civer is intermittent throughoot the winter; nevertheless, thare ar teepically several major snawfall events each winter. Simmers ar warm an humid, an thunderstorms ar common. Windsor haes the hiechtest nummer o days per year wi lightning, haze, an daily maximum temperatures ower 30 °C (86 °F) o ceeties in Canadae. Precipitation is generally well-distributed throughoot the year.

Tornadoes[eedit | eedit soorce]

The strangest an deadliest tornado tae touch doun in Windsor wis a category F4 in 1946. Windsor wis the anerlie Canadaen ceety tae experience a tornado during the Super Ootbrak o 1974, an F3 which killed nine fowk at the Windsor Curlin Club. The ceety wis grazed in 1997 bi the Sootheast Michigan Tornado Ootbrak wi ane tornado (an F1) formin east o the ceety. Tornadoes hae been recordit crossin the Detroit River (in 1946 an 1997), an waterspouts ar regularly seen ower Lake St. Clair an Lake Erie especially in hairst.

On Apryle 25, 2009 an F0 tornado briefly touched doun in the ceety's east end causin minor damage tae nearby buildings, maist notably a CUPE union hall.

Climate data for Windsor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 17.8
Average heich °C (°F) −0.9
Average law °C (°F) −8.1
Record law °C (°F) −29.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57.6
Average rainfaw mm (inches) 28.7
Average snowfall cm (inches) 35.0
Average precipitation days 15.1 12.3 13.9 13.3 11.8 11.0 10.2 10.0 10.9 10.5 12.8 14.9 146.7
Average rainy days 5.7 5.6 9.4 12.2 11.8 11.0 10.2 10.0 10.9 10.5 10.6 7.9 115.8
Average snawy days 12.5 9.1 6.7 2.3 .03 0 0 0 0 .33 3.8 10.2 44.96
Source: Environment Canadae

Air pollution[eedit | eedit soorce]

Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. is concerned aboot pollution generatit in the Unitit States affectin Windsor. Respiratory illnesses that ar associatit wi pollution are mair prevalent here than elsewhere in Canadae as Windsor is dounwind frae several strang polluters.

The Weather Network haes designatit Windsor as "the smog caipital o Canadae." Windsor's Citizens Environment Alliance holds a yearly airt event entitled Smogfest tae raise awareness o air quality issues.

A 2001 article in Environmental Health Perspectives stated that the rates o mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, an congenital anomalies in the Windsor Aurie o Concern ranked amang the heichest o the 17 Auries o Concern on the Canadaen side o the Great Lakes for selected end pynts that might be relatit tae pollution.

In the simmer o 2003, Transit Windsor providit free transit on smog advisory days. The pilot project wis extremely successfu an drew interest frae across the kintra an Europe. Ridership increased nearly 50% on those days. Thare wis extensive local media coverage, stories on the project wur featurt on The Weather Network, CBC NewsWorld, in newspapers an on radio stations across the naition. Despite the success, the pilot project wis discontinued, as the budget for the program wis quickly expendit.

Ceetyscape[eedit | eedit soorce]

Windsor's Riverside Drive an Riverfront Bike Trail frae Dieppe Gardens.

Windsor's Department o Parks an Recreation maintains 3,000 acre (12 km2) o green space, 180 parks, 40 mile (64 kilometre) o trails, 22 mile (35 kilometre) o sidewalk, 60 parkin lots, vacant lands, naitural auries an forest civer wi'in the ceety o Windsor. The lairgest park is Mic Mac Park, which can accommodate mony different activities includin basebaa, soccer, bikin, an sleddin. Windsor haes numerous bike trails, the lairgest bein the Ganatchio Trail on the far east side o the ceety. In recent years, ceety council haes pushed for the addition o bicycle lanes on ceety streets tae provide links throughoot the existin trail network.

The Windsor trail network is linked tae the LaSalle Trail in the wast end, an will eventually be linked tae the Chrysler Canadae Greenway (pairt o the Trans Canadae Trail). The current greenway is a 42 km umwhile railwey corridor that haes been convertit intae a multi-uise recreational trail, underground utility corridor an naitural green space. The corridor begins sooth o Oldcastle an continues sooth throu McGregor, Harrow, Kingsville, an Ruthven. The Greenway is a fine trail for hikin, bikin, runnin, birdin, cross kintra skiin an in some auries, horseback ridin. It connects naitural auries, rich agricultural lands, heestorically an architecturally significant structures, an awaird winnin wineries. A separate 5 km landscaped traverses the riverfront atween dountoun an the Ambassador Brig. Pairt o this trail winds throu Odette Sculpture Park, displayin various modren an post-modren sculptures frae artists in Essex Coonty. Families o elephants (see picture), penguins, horse, an mony ither themed sculptures ar foond in the park.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Chrysler Minivan Assembly Plant

Windsor's economy is primarily based on eddication, manufacturing, tourism, an govrenment services.

Baith the University o Windsor an St. Clair College ar significant local employers an hae enjoyed substantial growthe an expansion in recent years. The recent addition o a full-program satellite medical schuil o the University o Wastren Ontario, which opened in 2008 at the University o Windsor is faur enhancin the region's economy an the status o the varsity. The varsity is currently constructin a $112 million facility for thair Ingineerin Faculty.

Windsor haes a well-established tourism industry. Caesars Windsor (umwhile Casino Windsor), ane o the lairgest casinos in Canadae, ranks as ane o the lairgest local employers. It haes been a major draw for U.S. visitors syne openin in 1994. Faur, the 1,150-kilometre (710 mi) Quebec Ceety – Windsor Corridor contains 18 million fowk, wi 51% o the Canadian population an three oot o the fower lairgest metropolitan auries, accordin tae the 2001 Census.

The ceety an aa boasts an extensive riverfront pairks seestem an fine restaurants, sic as those on Erie Street in Windsor's Little Italy cawed "Via Italia", anither popular tourist destination. The Lake Erie North Shore Wine Region in Essex Coonty haes enhanced tourism in the region. Windsor is the headquarters o Hiram Walker & Sons Leemitit, nou awned bi Pernod Ricard. Its heestoric distillery wis foondit bi Hiram Walker in 1858 in what wis then Walkerville, Ontario.

Windsor is ane o Canadae's major automobile manufacturin centres an is aften referred tae as the Automotive Caipital o Canadae. The ceety is home tae the headquarters o Chrysler Canadae. Housomeivver, plant closures an significant job losses in recent years hae impacted Windsor's automotive manufacturin industry. Automotive facilities include the Chrysler minivan assembly plant, twa Ford Motor Company ingine plants, an a significant nummer o tool an die an automotive pairts manufacturers.

The ceety's diversifying economy is an aa representit bi companies involved in pharmaceuticals, alternative energy, insurance, internet an software. Windsor is an aa home tae the Windsor Salt Mine an the Great Lakes Regional office o the International Joint Commission.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Census Population
1841 300
1871 4,253
1881 6,561
1891 10,322
1901 12,153
1911 17,829
1921 38,591
1931 63,108
1941 104,415
1951 120,049
1961 114,367
1971 203,300
1981 192,083
1991 191,435
2001 208,402
2006 216,473
Ethnic Origin, 2001
Ethnic Oreegin Percentage
Canadian 28.1%
French 21.2%
Inglis 18.5%
Erse 13.1%
Scots 12.1%
Italian 9.7%
German 7.1%
Pols 4.0%
multiple responses includit
Releegion, 2001
Reeligion Percentage
Catholic 48.3%
Protestant 23.9%
No releegion 12.1%
Muslim 4.8%
Orthodox 4.3%

In 2006, the population o Windsor wis 216,473 an that o the Windsor metropolitan aurie (consistin o Windsor, Tecumseh, Amherstburg, LaSalle an Lakeshore) wis 323,342. This represents a growthe o 3.5% in the ceety population syne 2001 an a growthe o 5.0% in the metropolitan aurie population syne 2001.

Acause o its jobs, Windsor attracts mony immigrants frae aroond the warld. Ower 20% o the population is foreign-born; this is the fowert-hichtest proportion for a Canadaen ceety. Veesible minorities mak up 21.0% o the population, makin it the maist diverse ceety in Ontario ootside o the Greater Toronto Aurie.

Frae the 2001 Canadaen census, Windsor's population wis 48.9% male an 51.1% female. Childer unner five accoontit for 6.3% o the ceety population compared tae 5.6% for Canadae. Persons o retirement age (65 years an ower) accoontit for 14.1% o the population in Windsor compared tae 13.0% for Canadae. The median age in Windsor is 36.0 years compared tae 37.6 years for Canadae.

Govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Windsor Ceety Hall.

Windsor's heestory as an industrial centre haes gien the New Democrats (a pairty partially foondit, governed an supportit bi labour unions), a dedicatit votin base. Durin federal an provincial elections, Windsorites hae maintained its local representation in the respective legislatures. The Liberal Party o Canadae an aa haes a strong electoral heestory in the ceety. Canadae's 21st Prime Meenister Paul Martin wis born in Windsor. His faither Paul Martin (Sr.), a federal cabinet minister in several portfolios throu the Liberal governments o the 1940s, 1950s an 1960s, wis first electit tae the House o Commons frae a Windsor ridin in the 1930s. Martin (Sr.) practiced law in the ceety an the federal buildin on Ouellette Avenue is named efter him. Eugene Whelan wis a Liberal cabinet minister an ane-time Liberal pairty leadership candidate electit frae Essex Coonty frae the 1960s tae the early 1980s, as well as Mark MacGuigan o Windsor-Walkerville ridin, who an aa served as External Affairs, an later Juistice meenister in the early 1980s. Deputy Prime Meenister Herb Gray representit Windsor as an MP frae 1962 throu 2003, winnin thirteen consecutive elections makin him the langest servin MP in Canadaen history.[1] A bust o Herb Gray is locatit at the fit o Ouellette Avenue near Dieppe Park in dountoun Windsor.

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Windsor's Riverfront walk is lined wi sculptures, sic as this ane, named "Anne", the Lady Dipper.

Windsor haes several sister ceeties in the warld - dates ar in parentheses:

Windsor an aa haes a vera close relationship wi fellae Motor Ceety:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Parliament of Canada (website) “History of Federal Ridings since 1867” Archived 2010-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. . Retrieved 17 July 2007.