Tyne an Wear

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Tyne an Wear
Tyne an Wear within Ingland
Sovereign stateUnitit Kinrick
Constituent kintraIngland
RegionNorth East Ingland
(Local Government Act 1972) Creautit frae the five coonty burghs within Northumberland (North o Tyne) an Coonty Durham (Sooth o Tyne)
Ceremonial coonty
Heich ShirraMrs Catherine Moran OBE [1] (2019–20)
Area538 km2 (208 sq mi)
 • Rankit44t o 48
Population (2011 est.)1,119,600
 • Rankit13t o 48
Density2,073/km2 (5,370/sq mi)
91.49% White British
4.10% Asian
1.98% Other White
0.97% Mixed
0.78% Black
0.67% Other
Metropolitan coonty
Aurie538 km2 (208 sq mi)
ONS code2D

Destricts o Tyne an Wear
  1. Gateshead
  2. Newcastle upon Tyne
  3. North Tyneside
  4. Sooth Tyneside
  5. Sunderland
Members o Pairlament
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
 • Simmer (DST)Breetish Simmer Time (UTC+1)

Tyne an Wear /ˌtn ən ˈwɪər/ is a metropolitan coonty in North East Ingland aroond the mooths o the Rivers Tyne an Wear. It came intae existence as a metropolitan coonty in 1974 efter the passage o the Local Govrenment Act 1972. It consists o the five metropolitan burghs o South Tyneside, North Tyneside, City of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead an the City of Sunderland.

Prior tae reforms in 1974, the territory comprisin the coonty o Tyne an Wear straddled the mairch atween the coonties o Northumberland an Coonty Durham. North Tyneside an Newcastle upon Tyne haed previously existit athin o Northumberland, whareas South Tyneside, Gateshead an Sunderland wur aw previously athin the borders o Coonty Durham, wi the River Tyne formin the mairch o the twa coonties.

Tyne and Wear County Council wis abolished in 1986, an sae its destricts (the metropolitan burghs) are nou unitary authorities. Housomeivver, the metropolitan coonty continues tae exist in law an as a geographic frame o reference.[3][4][5]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead an Sunderland war aw constitutit as coonty burghs unner the Local Govrenment Act 1888 (Newcastle haed haed 'coonty burgh' status as the County and Town of Newcastle upon Tyne syne 1400). Thir wur jynt bi Tynemouth in 1904. Atween the coonty burghs various settlements wur pairt o the admeenistrative coonties o Durham an Northumberland.

The need tae reform local govrenment on Tyneside wis recognisit as early as 1935, when a Royal Commission tae Investigate the Conditions of Local Government on Tyneside wis appointit.[6] The three commissioners wur tae "examine the seestem o local govrenment in the auries o local govrenment north an sooth o the river Tyne frae the sea tae the boondary o the Rural District of Castle Ward and Hexham in the County of Northumberland an tae the Wastren boondary o the County of Durham, tae consider wha chynges, if ony, shoud be made in the existin arrangements wi a view tae securin greater economy an efficiency, an tae mak recommendations."

The report o the Ryal Commission wis published in 1937.[7] It recommendit the establishment o a Regional Cooncil for Northumberland an Tyneside (tae be cried the "Northumberland Regional Council") tae admeenister services that needit tae be exercisit ower a wide aurie, wi a seicont tier o smawer units for ither local govrenment purposes. The seicont-tier units wad be formit bi amalgamatin the various existin burghs an destricts. The coonty burghs in the aurie wad lose thair status. Athin this aurie, a single municipality wad be formit coverin the fower coonty burghs o Newcastle, Gateshead, Tynemouth, South Shields an ither urban destricts an burghs.[8]

A minority report proposed amalgamation o Newcastle, Gateshead, Wallsend, Jarrow, Felling, Gosforth, Hebburn an Newburn intae a single "coonty burgh o Newcastle-on-Tyneside". The 1937 report wis no actit upon : local authorities wur unable tae gree on a scheme an the legislation o the time did no allou central govrenment tae compel ane.[9]

Tyneside (excludin Sunderland) wis a Special Review Area unner the Local Govrenment Act 1958. The Local Government Commission for England came back wi a recommendation tae creaut a new coonty o Tyneside based on the review aurie, dividit intae fower separate burghs. This wis no implementit. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed a Tyneside unitary authority, again excludin Sunderland, which wis tae form a separate East Durham unitary authority.

The White Paper that led tae the Local Govrenment Act 1972 proposed as "aurie 2" a metropolitan coonty includin Newcastle an Sunderland, extendin as far sooth doun the coast as Seaham an Easington, an borderin "aurie 4" (which wad acome Cleveland). The Bill as presentit in November 1971 pruned back the soothren edge o the aurie, an gae it the name 'Tyneside'. The name 'Tyneside' wis controversial on Wearside, an the name chyngit tae 'Tyne an Wear' bi a govrenment amendment upon the request o Sunderland County Borough Council.[10]

post-1974 pre-1974
Metropolitan coonty Metropolitan burgh Coonty burghs Nan-coonty burghs Urban destricts Rural destricts

Tyne an Wear is an amalgamation o 24 umwhile local govrenment destricts, includin five coonty burghs.
Gateshead Gateshead - Blaydon • Felling • Ryton • Whickham • Chester-le-Street
Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne - Gosforth • Newburn • Castle Ward •
North Tyneside Tynemouth Wallsend • Whitley Bay • Longbenton • Seaton Valley • -
South Tyneside South Shields Jarrow Boldon • Hebburn • -
Sunderland Sunderland - WashingtonHoughton-le-SpringHetton-le-Hole Easington •

Local govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Awtho the metropolitan coonty cooncil wis abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist tae run certaint services on a coonty-wide basis. Maist notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Throu its passenger transport executive, kent as Nexus, it awns an operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail seestem, an the Shields ferry service an the Tyne Tunnel, linkin commonties on aither side o the River Tyne. An aw throu Nexus, the authority subsidises socially-necessar transport services (includin taxis) an operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly an disabled.

The Passenger Transport Authority is a "preceptin authority", raisin funds bi imposin a levy on the Cooncil Tax o the five constituent authorities o Tyne an Wear.

Ither joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service an Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which wis creatit frae the merger o the Tyne and Wear Archives Service an Tyne and Wear Museums. Thir joint bodies are admeenistered bi representatives o aw five o the constituent cooncils. In addition the Northumbria Police force, which covers the whole o Northumberland an Tyne an Wear, is ane o several joint forces in Ingland spannin twa or mair coonties. The force wis creatit in 1974, an sae is no a bi-product o the abolition o the coonty cooncil.

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tyne an Wear is dividit intae 12 Parliamentary constituencies. In Julie 2005, aw thir constituencies wur representit bi Labour. Historically, the aurie haes been a Labour stranghauld: for ensaumple, South Shields is the anerlie Parliamentary constituency that haes niver returned a Conservative Member o Parliament (MP) tae the Hoose o Commons syne the Reform Act o 1832.

Reviews bi the Boundary Commission mey lead tae a chynge in the nummer o parliamentary constituencies in Tyne an Wear, reducin them bi ane. This coud see a constituency returnin a Conservative MP as the reorganisation o constituencies in the City of Sunderland haes creatit a Sunderland Central constituency, encompassin the Conservative-held wairds north an sooth o the River Wear. Washington an Sunderland West an Houghton an Sunderland South are the ither new constituencies, awtho thare haes been criticism that Sunderland daes no share the same cultural an historical links that Washington an Houghton-le-Spring dae, which wis reflected in the auld Houghton an Washington East constituency. The smaw pairt o the Gateshead East an Washington West constituency that lees athin the City of Sunderland will be includit in the Sunderland North an Washington constituency.

At the level o local govrenment, three o the region's five unitary authorities wur controlled bi Labour in 2005, the exceptions bein Newcastle City Council an North Tyneside Council. Syne an upset result in the local elections o 2004, the umwhile haes been controlled bi the Leeberal Democrats. Nae ane pairty haes oweraw control o North Tyneside Council: while the Conservatives hauld the greatest nummer o seats, 28, thay lack an oweraw majority, thare are 32 ither cooncillors. North Tyneside is the anerlie authority in the aurie wi a directly electit Mayor. Currently a Conservative member.

Settlements[eedit | eedit soorce]

For a complete leet o aw veelages, touns an ceeties see the leet o places in Tyne an Wear.

Burgh/Ceety Locality Authority
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead Low Fell

Sheriff Hill
Rowlands Gill

Gateshead Metropolitian Borough Council
City of Newcastle upon Tyne Byker

North Kenton
West Moor
Newcastle upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne City Council
Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside Backworth

Benton Cullercoats
Forest Hall Killingworth
North Shields
Whitley Bay

North Tyneside Metropolitian Borough Council Archived 2020-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside Boldon

South Shields

South Tyneside Metropolitian Borough Council
City of Sunderland Castletown

Hylton Red House
Shiney Row
South Hylton
Springwell Village
Warden Law
Ashbrooke Tunstall

Sunderland City Council

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Privy Council Office-APPOINTMENT OF SHERIFFS". London Gazette. Retrieved 17 Apryle 2019.
  2. "2011 census: Ethnic group (detailed)". Office for National Statistics. Archived frae the original on 20 Mey 2018. Retrieved 19 Mey 2018. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  3. Office of National Statistics - Gazetteer of the old and new geographies of the United Kingdom, p48. URL accessed March 12, 2007.
  4. Metropolitan Counties and Districts, Beginners' Guide to UK Geography, Office for National Statistics, September 17, 2004. URL accessed March 12, 2007.
  5. North East England Counties, The Boundary Commission for England. URL accessed March 12, 2007.
  6. London Gazette, 10 May 1935
  7. Local Government in the Tyneside Area (Cmd.5402)
  8. Government of Tyneside : a Regional Council. The Times. March 19, 1937.
  9. Local Government on Tyneside. Sir K. Wood and Report of Commission. The Times. September 22, 1937.
  10. Hansard, 6 July 1972, column 909

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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