Otto IV o Brunswick (1175 – Mey 19, 1218) wis ane o twa rival keengs o the Haly Roman Empire frae 1198 on, sole keeng frae 1208 on, an emperor frae 1209 on. The anly keeng o the Welf dynasty, he incurred the wrath o Pape Innocent III an wis excommunicated in 1215.
↑Althou Frederick II wis crouned Keeng o the Romans, Keeng o Sicily, Keeng o Jerusalem an Haly Roman Emperor, he never crouned Keeng o Italy at Pavia, Monza or Milan during his lifetime - see Sismondi's History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages, (1906), pg. 143; 147 and Kington-Oliphant's, History of Frederick the Second, Emperor of the Romans, Vol I, (1862), pg. 195 which speceefically state that the Milanese refused tae croun Frederick wi the Iron Croun. Neither is his coronation as Keeng o Italy mentioned in ony modren soorce, such as Abulafia's, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V: c. 1198-c. 1300, (1999)