Nizhny Novgorod

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Nizhny Novgorod (Scots)
Нижний Новгород (Roushie)
-  Ceety[1]  -
Ceety o oblast significance[1]
C0315-NN-Kremlin-seen-from-Kanavino-Bridge.jpg
View o Nizhny Novgorod
Map of Russia - Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location o Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Roushie
Nizhny Novgorod is located in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Location o Nizhny Novgorod in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Coordinates: 56°20′N 44°00′E / 56.333°N 44.000°E / 56.333; 44.000
Coat of arms Nizhny Novgorod.png
Flag of Nizhny Novgorod.svg
Coat o airms o Nizhny Novgorod
Flag o Nizhny Novgorod
Ceety Day Seicont Sunday o September[2]
Admeenistrative status (as o Julie 2009)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Nizhny Novgorod Oblast[1]
Admeenistrative center o Nizhny Novgorod Oblast[1]
Municipal status (as o September 2009)
Urban okrug Nizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug[3]
Head[5] Oleg Sorokin[4]
Representative body Ceety Duma[6]
Statistics
Aurie 410.68 km2 (158.56 sq mi)[7]
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
1,250,615 inhabitants[8]
Rank in 2010 5t
Population (2002 Census) 1,311,252 inhabitants[9]
Rank in 2002 4t
Densitie 3,045 /km2 (7,890 /sq mi)[10]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[11]
Founded 1221[12]
Ceety status since 1221[7]
Previous names Nizhny Novgorod (until September 1932),[12]
Gorky (until 22 October 1990)[13]
Postal code(s) in the 603000–603998 range[14]
Dialin code(s) +7 831[7]
Offeecial wabsteid

Nizhny Novgorod (Roushie: Нижний Новгород; IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət]), colloquially shortened tae Nizhny, is, wi the population o 1,250,600, the fift lairgest ceety in Roushie, rankin efter Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, an Yekaterinburg.[8] It is the economic an cultural center o the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, an the admeenistrative centre o Nizhny Novgorod Oblast an Volga Federal Destrict an aw.

Frae 1932 tae 1990, the ceety wis kent as Gorky (Го́рький, IPA: [ˈɡorʲkʲɪj]),[13] efter the writer Maxim Gorky who wis born there.

The ceety is an important economic, transport an cultural centre o the Roushie Federation.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nizhny Novgorod is the admeenistrative centre o the oblast.[15] Athin the framewirk o admeenistrative diveesions, it is, thegither wi ane resort dounset an twal rural localities, incorporatit as the ceety o oblast significance o Nizhny Novgorod—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[15] As a municipal diveesion, the ceety o oblast significance o Nizhny Novgorod is incorporatit as Nizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug.[16]

Ceety layoot an diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

State Bank o Nizhny Novgorod built in 1913

Nizhny Novgorod is dividit bi the Oka River intae twa distinct pairts. The Upper Ceety (Roushie: Нагорная часть‎, Nagornaya chast) is locatit on the hilly eastren (richt) bank o the Oka. It includes three o the aicht ceety destricts intae which the ceety is admeenistratively dividit:

The Lawer Ceety (Roushie: Заречная часть‎, Zarechnaya chast) occupees the law (wastren) side o the Oka, an includes five ceety destricts:

Aw o the day's lawer ceety wis annexed bi Nizhny Novgorod in 1929–1931.

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Population (Jan 2009): 1,272,599 [17]
  • Births (2008): 12,969
  • Daiths (2008): 20,757

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental (Dfb) an it is similar tae the climate in Moscow, although caulder in winter, which lasts frae late November till late Mairch wi a permanent snaw cover. Average temperaturs ranges frae +19 °C (66 °F) in Julie tae −9 °C (16 °F) in Januar.


Climate data for Nizhny Novgorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
7.0
(44.6)
17.3
(63.1)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.3
(100.9)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.5
(47.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average heich °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−5.3
(22.5)
1.2
(34.2)
10.9
(51.6)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
24.7
(76.5)
22.1
(71.8)
15.7
(60.3)
8.0
(46.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.6
(23.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.9
(16.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.1
(43.0)
12.9
(55.2)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
16.9
(62.4)
11.1
(52.0)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.4
(18.7)
4.8
(40.6)
Average laich °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
2.1
(35.8)
7.9
(46.2)
12.6
(54.7)
14.8
(58.6)
12.6
(54.7)
7.6
(45.7)
2.1
(35.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
1.3
(34.3)
Record laich °C (°F) −41.2
(−42.2)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.1
(41.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−16
(3.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−41.4
(−42.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.85)
38
(1.5)
37
(1.46)
36
(1.42)
46
(1.81)
76
(2.99)
73
(2.87)
69
(2.72)
61
(2.4)
64
(2.52)
55
(2.17)
55
(2.17)
657
(25.87)
humidity 85 81 75 65 62 70 71 75 79 82 86 85 76
Avg. rainy days 4 3 5 12 15 18 16 16 17 17 10 6 139
Avg. snawy days 27 22 16 6 1 0.1 0 0 0.4 7 18 25 123
Mean monthly sunshine hours 40.0 77.1 146.1 203.8 278.3 289.6 290.1 239.4 152.2 81.3 38.5 24.4 1,860.9
Source no. 1: Pogoda.ru.net[18]
Source no. 2: Weatherbase (sun only)[19]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Information technologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nizhny Novgorod is ane o the centres o the IT Industry in Roushie. It ranks amang the leading Roushie ceeties in terms o the quantity o software R&D providers. Intel has a big software R&D centre wi mair than 500 ingineers in the ceety, as well as a major datacenter. In Nizhny Novgorod thare is a nummer o affshore ootsourcin software developers an aw, includin Itseez, Tecom, Luximax Systems Ltd., MERA Networks, RealEast Networks, Auriga, SoftDrom, an Teleca, an mony ither smawer anes that specialise in deliverin services tae telecommunication vendors.

There are twinty-five scientific R&D institutions focusin on telecommunications, radio technologie, theoretical an appleed pheesics, an thirty-three heicher educational institutions, amang them are Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod Technical University, as well as Nizhny Novgorod Institute o Information Technologies (umwhile MERA Networks trainin centre), that focuses on information technologies, software development, seestem admeenistration, telecommunications, cellular netwirks, Internet technologies, an IT management.

Nizhny Novgorod haes been chosen as ane o fower steids for biggin an IT-orientit technologie park—a special zone that haes an established infrastructur an enjoys a favorable tax an customs policy.

Ingineerin industrie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ingineerin industrie is the leadin industrie o Nizhny Novgorod economy. It is mainly orientit towards transportation, i.e., the auto industrie, shipbiggin, diesel iengines, aircraft manufactur, an machine tuils, wi the auto industrie bein the leadin sector (50%). Lairgest plants include:

  • JSC "Gorky Automobile Plant" - personal caurs, larries, armored personnel carriers, an ither autos;
  • JSC "Krasnoye Sormovo" - river an sea ships, submarines;
  • JSC "Sokol" - airplanes, jets;
  • JSC "Hydromash"- hydraulic actuators, landin gears
  • JSC "Nitel" - TV sets;
  • JSC "RUMO" - diesel generators;
  • JSC "Krasny yakor" - anchor chains;

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

OO gauge Model railwey o the heich speed Sapsan railwey frae Moscow – Saunt Petersburg Railwey an Moscow tae Nizhny Novgorod railwey in the Museum o the Moscow Railwey, Moscow
Construction o metro brig, Aprile 2008
ane o the three brigs spannin the Oka
Riverside terminal

Railwey[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Gorkovskaya Railroad, a Russian Railways depairtment which operates some 5,700 kilometers (3,500 mi) o rail lines throuout the Middle Volga region an 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, is heidquairtered in Nizhny Novgorod. Syne 1862, thare is an railwey connection atween Nizhny Novgorod an Moscow.[20] Owernicht trains provide access tae Nizhny Novgorod frae Moscow, Saunt Petersburg, Kazan, Yaroslavl an ithers. Syne Dizember 2002, a fast train transports passengers atween Nizhny Novgorod an Moscow in less than five oors. Ane can continue frae Nizhny Novgorod eastwaird alang the Trans-Siberian Railway, wi direct trains tae major ceeties in the Urals an Siberie, as well as tae Beijing, Pyongyang, an Ulan-Bator.

The first heich-speed rail Sapsan train tae Moscow] (Kursky Rail Terminal) an Saunt Petersburg (Moskovsky Rail Terminal) wis launched on 30 Julie 2010.[21]

Suburban commuter trains (elektrichka) connect Nizhny Novgorod wi Vladimir, Dzerzhinsk, Murom, Kirov, Arzamas, Zavolzhye, Balakhna, an ithers.

Airport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Nizhny Novgorod Internaitional Airport haes direct flichts tae major Roushie ceeties, as well as tae Frankfurt (five flichts a week bi Lufthansa), Dubai, Prague. The air base Sormovo wis an important militar airlift facility, an Pravdinsk air base wis an interceptor aircraft base durin the Cauld War. S7 Airlines, UTair Aviation goes tae Moscow's Domodedovo an Vnukovo Airports daily.

Waterweys[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nizhny Novgorod is an important centre o Volga cargo an passenger shippin. In the simmer, cruise vessels operate atween Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Saunt Petersburg, an Astrakhan. In 2006 a sma nummer o Meteor-class hydrofoils resumit operations on the Volga river.

Heich-gates[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is servit bi Roushie heich-gate M-7 (Moscow – Nizhny Novgorod – Kazan – Ufa), an is a hub o the regional heich-gate netwirk.

Public transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Public transportation athin the ceety is providit bi a sma subwey seestem (Nizhny Novgorod Metro), tramways, marshrutkas (routit taxis), buses, an trolleybuses. Electric an diesel commuter trains run tae suburbs in several directions.

Free shuttle buses run frae several points in the ceety tae the MEGA shoppin complex, which opened in October 2006 in Fedyakovo, a few kilometres tae the east o the Nizhny Novgorod ceety line.[22]

Aerial tramway[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Nizhny Novgorod Volga Aerial Tramway frae Nizhny Novgorod tae Bor athort Volga river, wis opened in 2012.

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Hintle o the ceety dountoun is built in the Roushie Revival an Stalin Empire styles. The dominatin featur o the ceety skyline is the grand Kremlin (1500–1511), wi its red-brick touers. Efter Bolshevik devastation, the anerlie auncient edifice left athin the kremlin waws is the tent-like Archangel Cathedral (1624–31), first built in stane in the 13t century.

Cultural featurs[eedit | eedit soorce]

Planetarium and circus

Thare are mair than sax hunder unique historic, airchitectural, an cultural monuments in the ceety.

Thare are aboot twa hunder municipal an regional airt an cultural institutions athin Nizhny Novgorod. Amang these institutions thare are aicht theatres, five concert haws, ninety-seiven libraries (wi branches), seiventeen movie theatres (includin five movie theatres for childer), twinty-five institutions o childer optional education, aicht museums (saxteen includin branches), an seiven pairks.

Nizhny Novgorod airt gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

The airt gallery in Nizhny Novgorod is a lairge an important airt gallery an museums o human history an cultur.

Nizhny Novgorod haes a great an extraordinary airt gallery wi mair than 12,000 exhibits, an enormous collection o wirks bi Roushie airtists such as Viktor Vasnetsov, Karl Briullov, Ivan Shishkin, Ivan Kramskoi, Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Isaak Iljitsch Lewitan, Vasily Surikov, Ivan Aivazovsky, thare are greater collections o wirks bi Boris Kustodiev an Nicholas Roerich an aw, no anerlie Roushie airt is pairt o the exhibition it include an aw a vast accumulation o Wastren European airt like wirks bi David Teniers the Younger, Bernardo Bellotto, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Pieter de Grebber, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, and lot more.

Feenally what maks this gallery extremely important is the amazin collection Russian avant-garde wi wirks bi Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov an so on. Thare is collection o East Asie airt an aw.

Hooses o wirship[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pechersky Ascension Monastery
New Fair Cathedral (Alexander Nevsky Cathedral)
Savior (Auld Fair) Cathedral

Ither notable landmarks are the twa great medieval abbeys. The Pechersky Ascension Monastery featurs the austere five-domit cathedral (1632) an twa rare kirks surmoontit bi tent ruifs, datin frae the 1640s. The Annunciation monastery, likewise surroondit bi strang waws, has anither five-domit cathedral (1649) an the Assumption kirk (1678). The anerlie private hoose preservit frae that epoch umwhile belangit tae the merchant Pushnikov.

There can be little dout that the maist oreeginal an delichtful kirks in the ceety wur built bi the Stroganovs in the nascent Baroque style. O these, the Virgin's Nativity Kirk (1719) graces ane o the central streets, whareas the Kirk o Oor Lady o Smolensk (1694–97) survives in the umwhile veelage o Gordeyevka (nou, pairt o the ceety's Kanavinsky Destrict), whaur the Stroganov palace ance stuid.

Ither notable kirks include:

There is a mosque in Sennaya Square an aw, whaur the Muslim populations o the ceety go for Friday prayers, Islamic activities an activities which are organisit bi the mosque. Thare is a sma shop tae buy halal meats an aw. Maist o the Muslims in this ceety are Tatars.

The centrally located Nizhny Novgorod Synagogue was built in 1881-1883; disused during the Soviet era, it was renovated and reopened ca. 1991.

Ither[eedit | eedit soorce]

A singular monument o industrial airchitectur is a 128-metre-heich open-wirk hyperboloid touer built on the bank o the Oka near Dzerzhinsk as pairt o a pouerline river crossin bi the eminent ingineer an scientist Vladimir Shukhov in 1929.

A staircase connectin the Kremlin wi the Volga river affers a panoramic view o the surroondins. The staircase itsel wis constructit in the late 1940s bi German preesoners o war forcit tae labor aroond Gorky.

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nizhny Novgorod is hame tae the follaein educational facilities:

There are twinty research institutes locatit in the ceety an aw.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety ice hockey team Torpedo Nizhny Novgorod play in the KHL. The ceety is representit at fitbaa bi FC Volga Nizhny Novgorod which plays in the Roushie Premier League. FC Nizhny Novgorod plays in the Roushie First Diveesion. The ither fitbaa team frae Nizhny Novgorod, FC Lokomotiv Nizhny Novgorod which haed played in the Roushie Premier League an Intertoto Cup became defunct in 2006. The ceety field hockey team are HC Start. The ceety bandy team Start plays in the heichest diveesion o the Roushie Bandy League.[25] In 2002 they reached the feenal against Vodnik. Baith matches wur played in Arkhangelsk due tae wairm weather. Efter that a new arena, wi an airtificial ice an a capacity o 20079, wis built.[1]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nizhny Novgorod is twinned wi:

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental (Dfb) an it is similar tae the climate in Moscow, although caulder in winter, which lasts frae late November till late Mairch wi a permanent snaow cover.


Climate data for Nizhny Novgorod (1971 - 2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
7.0
(44.6)
17.3
(63.1)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.3
(100.9)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.5
(47.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Average heich °C (°F) −6.6
(20.1)
−5.7
(21.7)
0.7
(33.3)
10.5
(50.9)
17.4
(63.3)
22.5
(72.5)
23.4
(74.1)
21.2
(70.2)
14.8
(58.6)
6.9
(44.4)
−1.1
(30.0)
−4.6
(23.7)
8.3
(46.9)
Average laich °C (°F) −13
(8.6)
−12.2
(10.0)
−6.3
(20.7)
2.3
(36.1)
7.6
(45.7)
12.5
(54.5)
14.1
(57.4)
11.9
(53.4)
6.8
(44.2)
1.2
(34.2)
−5.8
(21.6)
−10.3
(13.5)
0.7
(33.3)
Record laich °C (°F) −41.2
(−42.2)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.1
(41.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−16
(3.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−41.4
(−42.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
36
(1.42)
52
(2.05)
64
(2.52)
76
(2.99)
67
(2.64)
57
(2.24)
59
(2.32)
56
(2.2)
50
(1.97)
618
(24.33)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[18]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Order #1-od, Article 3.2
  2. Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 2.2
  3. Resolution #670, Urban Okrugs, Item 1
  4. Official website of Nizhny Novgorod. Vadim Yevgenyevich Bulavinov, Head of the Administration of Nizhny Novgorod (Roushie)
  5. Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 26.1.2
  6. Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 26.1.1
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Offeecial wabsteid o Nizhny Novgorod. Owerview o the ceety (Roushie)
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года" [Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  11. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  12. 12.0 12.1 Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 1.2
  13. 13.0 13.1 Decree of October 22, 1990, Article 1
  14. Russian Post. Postal Code Search (Roushie)
  15. 15.0 15.1 Law #184-Z
  16. Law #205-Z
  17. "НТА-Приволжье :: В Н.Новгороде в 2008 году уровень смертности превысил рождаемость в 1,6 раза – Нижегородстат" (in (Roushie)). Nta-nn.ru. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  19. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Nizhny-Novgorod, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  20. Train Station in Nizhny Novgorod (Roushie)
  21. "Russian Railways Sapsan to Nizhny Novgorod press release". 
  22. How to get to MEGA
  23. http://www.nntu.sci-nnov.ru/nstu.html
  24. http://www.vvags.ru/
  25. Video frae a gemme in the Roushie Cup against Zorky frae Krasnogorsk: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhwJxkrosd4
  26. "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". © 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]