Cuauhtémoc, Mexico Ceety

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Cuauhtémoc
Delegación
Historic centre o Mexico Ceety
Cuauhtémoc athin the Federal Destrict
Cuauhtémoc athin the Federal Destrict
Coordinates: 19°26′35″N 99°08′40″W / 19.44306°N 99.14444°W / 19.44306; -99.14444
Kintra Mexico
Federal entity D.F.
Establisht 29 Dizember 1970
Named for Cuauhtémoc
Seat Aldama y Mina s/n Colonia Buenavista, C.P. 06350
Govrenment
 • Jefe delegacional Agustín Torres Pérez (PRD)
Aurie[1]
 • Total 32.44 km2 (12.53 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 2,244 m (7,362 ft)
Population 2010 [3]
 • Tot 531,831
 • Density 16,000/km2 (42,000/sq mi)
Time zone Central Staundart Time (UTC-6)
 • Simmer (DST) Central Daylicht Time (UTC-5)
Postal codes 06000 – 06995
Aurie code(s) 55
Wabsteid http://www.cuauhtemoc.df.gob.mx/

Cuauhtémoc, namit efter the umwhile Aztec leader, is ane o the 16 boroughs o the Federal destrict o Mexico Ceety. It consists o the auldest pairts o the ceety, extendin ower wha wis the entire ceety in the 1920s. This aurie is the historic an cultur centre o the ceety, awtho it is no the geografical centre. While it ranks anerlie saxt in population, it generates aboot a third o the entire ceety's GDP, maistly throu commerce an services. It is hame tae the Mexican Stock Exchynge, the important tourist attractions o the historic centre an Zona Rosa, an various skyscrapers sic as the Torre Mayor an the Mexican heidquairters o HSBC. It contains numerous museums an aw, libraries, govrenment offices, mercats an ither commercial centres wi can brin in as mony as 5 million fowk each day tae wirk, shop or veesit cultural steids. This aurie haes haed problems wi urban decay, especially in the historic centre. Efforts tae revitalize historic centre an some ither auries hae been ongoin syne the 1990s, bi baith govrenment an private entities.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Model o the mercatplace o Tlatelolco wi the Templo Mayor in the backgrund

The early history o the delegation coincides wi the history o Aztec Tenochtitlan an colonial Mexico Ceety. Tenochitlan wis foondit on a mairshy island in Loch Texcoco. It wis dividit intae fower capuillis or neebourheids centerin on the Templo Mayor. This temple's ruins are locatit vera close tae the modren main square or Zocalo the day.[4]

When the Spainyie conquered Tenochtitlan in 1521, thay destroyed maist o the auld Aztec public biggins but kept the basic layoot o the ceety, which roughly extends ower what is nou kent as the historic centre or Colonia Centro. The Cathedral wis biggit ower a portion o the sacred precinct (teocalli) o the destroyed Templo Mayor, the Naitional Palace wis biggit ower Moctezuma's New Palace an the Zocalo wis biggit ower wha wis a open space near the sacred temple space. Ower the early colonial period, European-style construction wad replace Aztec anes ower the entire island ceety, wi the maist important public biggins concentratit on the blocks adjynin the Zocalo. As the centre o New Spain, the ceety held the greatest prestige, promptin those who haed made thair fortunes throu conquest, minin, commerce an ither means tae hae hames in the ceety, as close tae the Zocalo as possible. The ceety suin became filled wi mansions, lairge kirks an monasteries an monumental public biggins which wad eventually earn it the elk-name o "Ceety o Palaces."[4]

At the beginnin o the 19t century, this ceety remained maistly athin wha is nou cried the historic centre awtho various drainage projects haed been enlairgin the island. The ceety proper conteened 397 streets an alleys, 12 brigs, 78 plazas, 14 pairish kirks, 41 monasteries, 10 colleges, 7 hospitals, a poorhoose, a cigar factory, 19 restaurants, 2 inns, 28 corrals for horse an 2 offeecial neebourheids. Efter Mexico gained its unthirldom, the ceety wis designatit as the caipital o the new kintra in 1824, the ceety an a quantity o laund surroondin it totally 11.5km2 wis designatit as the "Federal Destrict," separate frae the ither states.[4]

Mexico Ceety circa 1628 still surroondit bi Loch Texcoco
19t hunderyear Porfirian airchitectur in Colonia Roma, Cuauhtémoc.

Bi the late, 19t hunderyear, the ceety began tae break its tradeetional confines wi the construction o new neebourheids, cried colonias, in the still dryin lochbed. This wis especially true in the auries wast o the historic aurie, wi the creation o “modren” colonias for the walthy alang the Paseo de la Reforma, biggit earlier bi Maximilian I. Thir colonias include Colonia Juárez, Colonia Roma, Colonia Cuauhtémoc an Colonia San Rafael.[5] Colonias for poorer an wirkin-cless fowk wur biggit maistly north an sooth o the ceety sic as Colonia Morelos, an Colonia Doctores.[6][7]

In 1928, Preses Álvaro Obregón dividit the rapidly growin Federal Destrict aurie intae thirteen burghs (delegaciones), wi what wis then the ceety proper designatit as the Cuauhtémoc burgh.[4] While the burgh still remained the centre o ceety's commerce, politics, academia an cultur durin the first hauf o the 20t hunderyear, this historic centre began goin intae decline as the walthy muivit oot intae the new wastren colonias as early as the end o 19t hunderyear. Bi the 1950s, the kintra's main varsity UNAM muivit amaist aw o its facilities oot o the burgh an intae the newly biggit Ciudad Universitaria in the sooth o the ceety.[5] In the 1940s, the ceety govrenment froze rents in the burgh an bi the late 1990s, when this wis feenally repealed, mony tenants wur payin the same prices thay wur in the 1950s. Wi nae financial incentive tae keep up thair properties, landlairds let thair biggins disintegrate.[8] Maist o this occurred in the historic centre, but this phenomenon presentit itsel in ither auries sic as Colonia San Rafael[9] an the Centro Urbano Benito Juárez as well.[10]

Syne the 1950s, the ceety haes receivit the heichest nummer o migrants frae ither pairts o Mexico. Maist o thir come frae vera landwart auries o the kintra an a significant percentage speak a indigenous leid wi Spainyie as a seicont leid, or dae no speak Spainyie at aw. As o 2005, seiven percent o the burgh's population is made up o thir migrants. Thir migrants hae put strains on services sic as eddication.[11]

Yirdquauk damage in 1985

The burgh wis the hardest hit bi the 1985 yirdquauk wi 258 biggins completely crumbled, 143 pairtially collapsed an 181 wur seriously damagit.[12] The result wis the loss o 100,000 residents, juist in the historic centre.[8] Anither aurie wi major damage wis Colonia Roma wi a nummer o biggins collapsin completely.[13] Even auries that did no suffer significant damage, sic as Colonia San Rafael, wur affectit when hameless frae ither pairts o the burgh muivit in,[9] or Colonia Condesa, when walthier residents muivit oit.[14] Acause o the rent situation, maist o the damagit structurs wur niver fixed or rebuilt, leadin tae slums or garbage-strewn vacant lots.[8] As late as the 2000s, biggins damagit frae the event hae collapsed.[15][16] In 2003, the ceety govrenment expropriatit saxty fower properties thocht tae be in danger o suddent collapse due tae damage suffered nearly 20 years earlier efter a collapse o a apairtment biggin in Colonia Vista Alegre,[16] but in 2010 a apairtment biggin pairtially collapsed in Colonia San Rafael, due tae the same cause.[15] Syne the quauk, the burgh haes investit in its awn early warnin seestem, which wis creatit for it bi UNAM.[17]

Between the flight of wealthier residents frae the historic centre an the colonias that immediately surroond it an the damage frae the 1985 yirdquauk, pairts o the burgh became desertit at nicht.[8] Former mansions haed been convertit intae tenements for the poor,[5][18][19] an the sidewalks an streets wur taken ower bi pickpockets an street vendors, especially in the historic centre.[8][18] This made the aurie unpalatable for tourists. As the historic centre is the ceety's main tourist attraction, the ceety lost its staundin as a destination for internaitional visitors, insteid becomin a airport connection for ither auries o the kintra.[18] Till recently, mony o the restaurants o the aurie, even the best, wad close early tae allou employees time tae get hame acause the aurie wis no pairticularly safe at nicht.[20]

Stairtin in the late 1990s, the ceety an federal govrenments, alang wi some private associations hae wirkit tae revitalize the burgh, especially the historic centre. Stairtin in the early 2000s, the govrenment infused 500 million pesos (55 million USD) intae the Historic Center Trust[8] an entered intae a pairtnership wi a business group led bi Carlos Slim, tae buy dozens o hunderyears-auld biggins an ither real estate tae rehabilitate.[18] A nummer o the auldest streets near the Zocalo hae been made intae pedestrian anerly an maist street vendors hae been forcit tae muive oot o the historic centre.[5] This pavit the wey for the openin o upscale eateries, bars an fashionable stores.[5] An aw, young fowk are muivin intae dountoun lofts. Tae attract mair tourists, thare are new reid dooble-decker buses.[18] Thare hae been ither efforts in ither pairts o the burgh sic as in Colonia Juarez an Colonia Obrera but wi mixed results.[21][22]

Colonias[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cuauhtémoc, D.F. contains the follaein colonias an neebourheids:

Colonia Centro • Colonia Doctores • Colonia Obrera • Colonia Roma • Tepito • Colonia Algarín • Colonia Ampliación Asturias • Colonia Asturias • Colonia Atlampa • Colonia Buenavista • Colonia Buenos Aires • Centro Urbano Benito Juárez • Colonia Condesa • Colonia Cuauhtémoc • Colonia Esperanza • Colonia Exhipódromo de Peralvillo • Colonia Felipe Pescador • Colonia Guerrero • Colonia Hipódromo • Colonia Hipódromo Condesa • Colonia Juárez • Colonia Maza • Colonia Morelos • Colonia Paulino Navarro • Colonia Peralvillo • Colonia San Rafael • Colonia San Simón Tolnahuac • Colonia Santa María Insurgentes • Colonia Santa María la Ribera • Unidad Habitacional Nonoalco-Tlatelolco • Colonia Tabacalera • Colonia Tránsito • Colonia Valle Gómez • Colonia Vista Alegre • Zona Rosa

Foreign govrenment operations[eedit | eedit soorce]

The U.S. Embassy an the Breetish Embassy is in Colonia Cuauhtémoc, Cuauhtémoc.[23]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Skyscrapers linin Paseo de la Reforma leukin wast frae the Angel o Unthirldom monument

This burgh alane accoonts for 35.1% o Mexico Ceety's entire GDP,[24] an bi itsel, haes the seivent lairgest economy in Mexico.[25] Maist o the burgh's economy is based on commerce (52.2%), follaeed bi services (39.4%).[24] The burgh is hame tae a lairge nummer o federal an ceety govrenment biggins, especially in the historic centre, Colonia Tabacalera an Colonia Doctores.[26][27]

Paseo de la Reforma, especially the section which divides Colonia Juárez frae Colonia Cuauhtémoc, is the maist modren an still developin pairt o the burgh. It is hame tae the Mexican Stock Exchynge, the heidquairters o HSBC in Mexico an the kintra's tawest skyscraper, the Torre Mayor. Construction o office biggins an heich rise apairtments continue in the aurie, causin it tae be considered a kynd o a neeebourheid o its awn, as the biggin that face the avenue are vera distinct frae the aulder anes ahint thaim, which are maistly uised for mair tradeetional hoosin an smaw businesses. Ane o the newest major projects in the mid-2000s wis Reforma 222, twa touers combinin office space wi "Sky Residences."[27][28][29]

Food vendors in the Abelardo L. Rodriguez Mercat

In the rest o the burgh, commerce is mair tradeetional wi numerous public mercats, informal mercats cried tianguis an street peddlin. Public mercats are biggins constructit an maintained bi a ceety or municipal govrenment, which rents staunds tae private vendors. The lairgest is La Lagunilla Mercat, wi nearly 2,000 vendors dividit amang three lairge warehoose teep biggins. It is kent for its lairge furnitur an shae mercat but maist o the vendors sell fuid an iveryday items.[30][31] Designed tae "modrenize" the tradeetion o tianguis or street mercats, some wur even promotit throu airt, sic as the Abelardo L. Rodriguez Mercat.[32] Tianguis still survive an can be foond in maist pairts o the burgh as well as in hintle o the rest o Mexico.[33] In the burgh, the best kent tianguis is locatit in Tepito in which 12,000 fowk dae business on the streets.[34]

The burgh is the maist visitit aurie o the ceety bi tourists, wi maist visitin the historic centre an Zona Rosa.[25][35] The burgh haes the best developit hotel infrastructur wi 389 hotels oot o the 6,464 in the ceety. Aboot hauf o aw fower an five-starn hotels are locatit here.[24]

The heidquairters o Aeroméxico

Athin Cuauhtémoc, Aeroméxico an HSBC Mexico hae thair heidquairters in Colonia Cuauhtémoc.[36][37] Cablemás an Magnicharters hae thair heidquairters in Colonia Juárez.[38][39]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Metrobus on Avenida Insurgentes, Colonia Tabacalera

The burgh haes 14 million metres o roadweys wi 314 main intersections. The vast majority o thir are current an umwhile residential streets, but thare are three heich-gate lik airteries an various "ejes" (axis) roads for throu traffec an aw.[40] The three main airteries are the Circuito Interior, Viaducto Miguel Alemán an San Antonio Abad, which wur biggit for traffec passin bi the centre o the ceety. The Circuito Interior is a circular bipass an is the seicont maist important roadwey in the ceety efter the Anillo Periférico .[41] Somewha smawer are a series o north-sooth an east-wast roads cried "ejes."[40] Thir wur biggit bi Carlos Hank González in the 1950s tae mak Mexico Ceety mair automobile-friendly. The lairgest o thir is the Eje Central which runs north-sooth an divides the historic centre in hauf. Due tae the lairge nummer o fowk who enter an leave this burgh each day, up tae 800,000 vehicles circulate the streets each day, makkin traffec jams, especially in the historic centre, a frequent occurrence.[25]

The buggh haes the lairgest nummer o Metro lines runnin throu it.[25] Thir include Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 5, Line 8, Line 9 an Line B. Thare are trolleybus lines runnin north-sooth an east-wast, Lines 1 an 3 o the Metrobus as well as numerous bus routes.[42] Anither important public transportation service is the Tren Suburbano commuter railwey, which haes its soothren terminal in Colonia Buenavista wi service north as far as Cuautitlán in the State o Mexico.[43]

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Escuela Secundaria Diurna No. 102 General Francisco L. Urquizo in Colonia Doctores

In the 2007-2008 schuil year, thare wur 22,651 K-12 students, aboot 6.36% o the tot for the Federal Destrict. 70.64% attend public schuils an 29.14% attend private schuils.[11] Thare are 264 public an private preschuils, 116 middle schuils, 102 technical an regular heich schuils an 13 teachers’ colleges.[44] The burgh haes the lawest level o illeeteracy an the heichest percentage o students who hae feenished primar an middle schuils, in pairt acause thare is a heicher than average percentage o private schuils, which tend tae hae better results. The dropoot rate, at 7.54%, is better than average.[11]

In 2009, thare wur 1,737 students receivin special eddication full or pairt-time accoontin for 4.66% o aw special eddication students in the Federal Destrict. Ower 97% o thir students get thair services frae public institutions. Housomeivver, the burgh haes limitit facility for adult eddication, especially for those who dae no speak Spainyie as thair first leid or are undereducated. This is problematic due tae the influx o indigenous fowk frae landwart pairts o Mexico.[11]

Private schuils:

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Cuauhtémoc, D.F (1951-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
32.5
(90.5)
34.5
(94.1)
35.5
(95.9)
33.5
(92.3)
29.5
(85.1)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86)
30.0
(86)
30.5
(86.9)
30.5
(86.9)
35.5
(95.9)
Average heich °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
24.8
(76.6)
27.3
(81.1)
28.1
(82.6)
27.7
(81.9)
26.1
(79)
24.9
(76.8)
25.1
(77.2)
24.3
(75.7)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
22.8
(73)
25.2
(77.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
15.6
(60.1)
18.2
(64.8)
19.6
(67.3)
20.1
(68.2)
19.7
(67.5)
18.8
(65.8)
18.9
(66)
18.4
(65.1)
17.4
(63.3)
15.8
(60.4)
14.6
(58.3)
17.6
(63.7)
Average law °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
6.5
(43.7)
9.0
(48.2)
11.1
(52)
12.5
(54.5)
13.3
(55.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.6
(54.7)
10.7
(51.3)
7.9
(46.2)
6.3
(43.3)
10.1
(50.2)
Record law °C (°F) −4.5
(23.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.5
(38.3)
6.5
(43.7)
7.5
(45.5)
7.5
(45.5)
6.0
(42.8)
4.5
(40.1)
2.5
(36.5)
−1.5
(29.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.9
(0.311)
3.7
(0.146)
8.1
(0.319)
28.0
(1.102)
58.7
(2.311)
118.0
(4.646)
127.1
(5.004)
110.9
(4.366)
105.1
(4.138)
48.2
(1.898)
8.2
(0.323)
4.5
(0.177)
628.4
(24.74)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.5 1.9 2.8 7.3 11.5 16.3 20.1 18.5 15.4 8.0 2.9 1.6 107.8
Soorce: Servicio Meteorológico National[46]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

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  3. 2010 census tables: INEGI
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  10. Blair Allen Paltridge (1992). Carlos Merida's integration of art, architecture and ideology in the Multifamiliar Juarez (PhD thesis). University of California, Los Angeles. p. 130. Docket AAT 9224132. 
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  12. Haber, Paul Lawrence (1995). "Earthquake of 1985". Concise Encyclopedia of Mexico. Taylor & Frances Ltd. pp. 179–184. 
  13. Yunnuen Campos (September 17, 2005). "A 20 años del sismo del 85". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). Mexico City. Retrieved November 5, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  14. David Lida (February 2002). "Mexico City's Colonia Condesa, The War Between the Trendy and The Traditional". Mexico Files Newsletter. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Se derrumba edificio en la colonia San Rafael". Noticias Televisa (in Spanish). Mexico City. NOTIMEX. September 17, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  16. 16.0 16.1 Jesus Alberto Hernandez (April 9, 2003). "Expropia el GDF predios en riesgo". Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 1.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  17. Arlette Gutiérrez (April 9, 2010). "Delegación Cuauhtémoc contará con su alerta sísmica". Sol de Mexico (in Spanish). Mexico City. Retrieved November 5, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Smith, Geri (May 2004). "Mexico City gets a face-lift". Business Week (3884). 00077135.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "facelift" defined multiple times wi different content
  19. Corona, Juan (8 November 2009). "Es Tlaxcoaque zona olvidada". Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 5.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  20. Butler, Ron (Nov–Dec 1999). "A New Face for the Zocalo". Americas. 51 (6): 4–6. 03790940. 
  21. "Colonia Juárez" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Mexico City-Guide.com. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  22. CONACULTA. "Buscan en la colonia obrera alternativas de vivienda económica". Artes e Historia (in Spanish). Mexico. Retrieved July 11, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  23. "Mexico Country Specific Information." United States Department of State. Retrieved on March 22, 2012. "Embassy Location: The U.S. Embassy is located in Mexico City at Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc;"
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named desecon
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named conflictivas
  26. Arturo Paramo (November 21, 2008). "La Tabacalera,una centuria de deterioro" (PDF). Excelsior (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 4. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on December 31, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Colonia Cuautémoc" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Cuauhtémoc. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  28. Jesus Alberto Hernandez (August 25, 2002). "Hacen 'pequeno barrio'". Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 6.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  29. Alejandra Bordon. (March 3, 2006). "Cumple un siglo la Juarez historico". Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 2.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  30. Ernesto Osorio (May 3, 2010). "Intentan salvar La Lagunilla". Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 2.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  31. "Mercados" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Cuauhtémoc. Retrieved November 5, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  32. Gomez Florez, Laura (2008-05-19). "Remodelan el histórico mercado Abelardo L. Rodríguez como parte del rescate del Centro" (in Spanish). Mexico City: La Jornada. Retrieved June 3, 2009. 
  33. Orihuela, Gabriel (February 12, 2001). "El Comercio Informal: entre negocio y cultura". Mural (in Spanish). Guadalajara, Mexico. p. 1.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  34. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named rico
  35. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tercerdel
  36. "Report on Actions of Social Responsibility." Aeroméxico. 4/44. Retrieved on December 4, 2010. "Paseo de la Reforma 445, Col. Cuauhtémoc. C.P. 06500 México D.F."
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  38. "Contact us." Cablemás. Retrieved on March 6, 2011. "Corporate Headquarters Cablemás S.A. de C.V. Sevilla No. 4, Colonia Juárez 06600 México, D.F. México"
  39. "Application of Grupo Aereo Monterrey, S.A. de C.V. d/b/a Magnicharters for an exemption from 49 U.S.C. 3 41301 (U.S./Mexico Charter Air Transportation)." regulations.gov. 2 (3/53). Retrieved on January 23, 2011. "The full name and corporate address of the applicant is: Grupo Aereo Monterrey, S.A. de CV Paseo de la Reforma No. 20-308 Col. Juárez México D.F., CP 06040 MÉXICO"
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  42. "Transportes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Cuauhtémoc. Retrieved November 5, 2010.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  43. "Metro Buenavista" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Mexico City Metro. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  44. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named gobedu
  45. "Contacto." Colegio Liceo Mexicano. Retrieved on June 18, 2014. CÓRDOBA #167, COLONIA ROMA, MÉXICO, D.F. CUAUHTÉMOC. CP: 06700, ENTRE ZACATECAS Y QUERÉTARO"
  46. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010". Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 

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