Venustiano Carranza, Mexico Ceety

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Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza athin the Federal Destrict
Venustiano Carranza athin the Federal Destrict
Federal entityD.F.
Named forVenustiano Carranza
SeatColonia Jardín Balbuena
 • Jefe delegacionalAlejandro Piña Medina (PRD)
 • Total33.42 km2 (12.90 sq mi)
 • Total430,978
 • Density13,000/km2 (33,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central Staundart Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (Central Daylicht Time)
Postal codes
15000 – 15990

Venustiano Carranza is ane o the 16 delegaciones (burghs) o Mexico Ceety. The burgh wis shapit in 1970 whan the centre o Mexico Ceety wis subdividit intae fower burghs. Venustiano Carranza extends frae the far eastren portion o the historic centre o Mexico Ceety eastwaird tae the Peñón de los Baños an the mairch dividin the Federal Destrict frae the State o Mexico. Historically, maist o the territory wis unner Loch Texcoco, but ower the colonial period intae the 20t hunderyear, the loch dree'd up an the day the aurie is completely urbanisit. The burgh is hame tae three o Mexico Ceety’s major tradeetional mercats, includin La Merced, the Naitional Airchives o Mexico, the Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro, the TAPO intercity bus terminal an the Mexico Ceety Internaitional Airport.

Geografie an environs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The burgh is locatit in the centre-east o Mexico Ceety. It borders Gustavo A. Madero, Cuauhtémoc an Iztacalco wi the State o Mexico tae the east. The territory measurs 33.42km2 which is 2.24% o the tot o the Federal Destrict. The burgh haes 2,290 blocks an aichty offeecially designatit neebourheids.[1]

It haes a average altitude o 2,240 meters abuin sea level wi maist o the surface flat. The territory is maistly the bed o the umwhile Lake Texcoco wi soils o compressed cley ower saund, wi the exception o the Peñón de los Banos at 2,290 meters abuin sea level, made o basalt .[1][2] Acause it is maistly umwhile lochbed, floodin (especially durin the rainy saison frae Juin tae October) an hailstorms in winter, are no uncommon. Floodin is aften caused or exacerbatit bi the deterioratit drainage seestem.[3] Aside frae the ane elevation, the far wast o the burgh corresponds tae the far east o the umwhile Tenochtitlan island. For this raison, aboot ane quairter o the historic centre o Mexico Ceety belangs tae the burgh.[4] It haes a semi dry, temperate climate wi a average annual temperatur o 16C an a average rainfaw o 600mm.[1]

In the pairks an ither green spaces o the burgh, trees sic as ash, white cedar, cypress, fig an Indian laurel, various scrubs an gresses can be foond. Wildlife is limitit tae birds, rodents, lizards an insects.[3] In 2011, reforestation efforts teuk place in fower auries o the burgh, plantin 15,000 trees.[5]

Neebourheids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ane o the notable neebourheids o the burgh is Magdalena Mixhuca .[2] The commonty wis a smaw island in Loch Texcoco in the pre Hispanic period an eventually became pheesically connectit tae the surroondin auries as the loch dree'd up.[3] Housomeivver, the aurie is still markit bi the existence o smaw ane-story hooses wi leuk vera seemilar aften painted some shade o orange, makkin it leuk lik a smaw toun. The kiosk in the commonty centre is pentit the same colour an aw. Next tae the plaza it is on is the kirk o Santa María Magdalena Mixhuca wi a image o Mary Magdalene inside. The name Mixhuca comes frae Nahuatl an means place o bairnbirth. The aurie is dedicatit tae Mary Magdalene acause the first-born dochhter o Moctezuma II requestit sic frae Hernán Cortés .[6]

Ither notable neebourheids include Colonia Balbuena, namit efter poet Bernardo de Balbuena,[3] La Candelaria de los Patos, which gets its name frae the lairge flocks o ducks that uised tae live here whan the aurie wis still loch, El Parque, Jamaica, Zaragoza, Romero Rubio an Gómez Fárias.[4][7]

Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

View inside La Merced Market

The borough is hame tae fowerty twa tradeetional mercats, wi ower 14,000 individual vendors.[3] This includes three o Mexico Ceety’s lairge tradeetional mercats, La Merced Market, Mercado de Sonora an Mercado Jamaica .[8][9] La Merced is historically an culturally pairt o the historic centre o Mexico Ceety an is the lairgest retail fuid mercat in the ceety. The main biggin is 400 metres lang wi 3,205 staunds maistly sellin produce an groceries, meats an fish. Thare is a smawer section devotit tae baskets, rope an handcrafts wi anither biggin sellin leather, storage conteeners, ornamental plants an prepared fuid. This mercat is locatit in a aurie which haes been a major mercat an receivin aurie syne the colonial period. The entire neebourheid wis filled in informal staunds until the first biggin wis constructit in 1860. Till the mid 20t hunderyear, La Merced wis the main wholesale mercat, but this function wis muivit tae the new Central de Abastos mercat in Iztapalapa. Mercado Jamaica is locatit in the neebourheid o the same name, next tae the metro station namit efter it. It is kent for the sale flouers an ornamental plants, but it sells produce, groceries, meats an a selection o handcrafts an aw. Mercado Sonora wis opened in 1957. It is best kent for the section dedicatit tae herbal medicine an the occult sic as items associated wi Santa Muerte. This section in locatit in the back. Ither items include live ainimals, dishes, pairty favors an plastic items.[9]

The Naitional Archives or Archivo General de la Nación (umwhile kent as the Palacio Negro de Lecumberri) conteen a significant pairt o Mexico’s written history.[7] Lecumberri wis begun in 1885 as a preeson whan then San Lázaro aurie wis at the ceety’s periphery. Construction teuk 15 years an 2.5 million pesos an wis inauguratit in 1900 as the maist modren preeson in Laitin Americae. The preeson wis the scene o the incarceration an execution o Francisco I. Madero an José María Pino Suárez in 1913. Bi the 1970s, the preeson haed as mony as 5,000 preesoners in 1,000 cells. The preeson wis closed bi the end o the decade an renovatit tae its current uise.[10]

The Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro wis constructit on the umwhile steid o the San Lázaro Railroad Station bi José López Portillo in the 1970s, opened in 1981. It wis constructit tae muive the legislative bouk awa frae the Donceles Legislative Palace in the historic centre o Mexico Ceety. The biggin wis nearly destroyed bi a fire in 1989 but wis restored in 1992. The façade is o reid tezontle stane wi white marble in the centre wi the seal o the kintra prominently displayed. The vestibule conteens a collection o murals depictin Mexico’s history done bi Adolfo Mexiac. The main chamber can seat up tae 2000 spectators.[11] When the legislative biggin wis restored, a museum cried “Sentimientos de la nación” Legislative Museum wis instawed. This museum is dedicatit tae the history o Mexico’s govrenment an history up tae the present.[12]

Facade o La Soledad Kirk

The main govrenmental biggin for the burgh is locatit at Avenida Francisco del Paso y Troncoso in Colonia Jardín Balbuena. Thir offices wur opened in 1974 on the steid o the umwhile Balbuena militar airfield. The biggin haes fower murals pentit bi Montury sic as "El canto del cisne", "Quienes somos", "América en llamas" y "Dame una palanca y destruiré el mundo".[2][7]

Major kirks in the aurie include the Sanctuar o Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos in Colonia 20 de Noviembre, Temple o La Soledad y la Santa Cruz in Colonia Merced Balbuena, the Sanctuar o Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe y La Santísima Hostia Sangrante in Colonia El Parque an the Temple o San Antonio Tomatlán in Colonia Morelos.[13] La Soledad de la Santa Cruz Kirk wis biggit bi Augustine monks. This kirk wis expandit atween 1750 an 1789 tae three naves supportit bi pilasters an a new main altar wis instawed. Tae the sooth o this kirk, the Temple o San Jeronimito wis constructit in the La Candelaria de los Patos neebourheid.[4]

The auldest sports facility o Mexico Ceety wis biggit in the Balbuena aurie wi the name o Venustiano Carranza, inauguratit in 1929.[3][4] Ither sports facilities include Centro Deportivo Moctezuma, Centro Deportivo Ramón López Velarde, Centro Deportivo Felipe "Tibio Muñoz,” Centro Deportivo Ing. Eduardo Molina, Centro deportivo José Ma. Pino Suárez, Centro Deportivo Velódromo Olímpico, Centro Deportivo Plutarco Elías Calles an Centro Deportivo Oceanía.[3]

The Centro Cultural Carranza wis inauguratit in 2011 in Colonia Jardín Balbuena wi the aim o makkin it the maist important recreational an cultural centre in the centre east o the Federal Destrict.[14]

In addeetion, the burgh conteens aboot ane hunder statues, plazas, biggins an gardens which function as monuments tae the history o the burgh an o Mexico. Thir include the monument tae General Carranza in front o the burgh haw, a monument tae Simón Bolívar in Jardín Simón Bolívar, a plaque an medallions markin the place whaur Francisco I. Madero an José María Pino Suárez war executit, an ane tae Mahatma Gandhi .[3]

Reenactment o the Battle o Puebla[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Battle o Puebla haes been reenactit each year at the Peñón de los Baños syne 1930. Residents o this aurie dress as the Mexican forces, cried Zacapoaxtlas an the French airmy an even includes the firin o cannons wi blanks for effect.[15] The reenactment is performit bi hunders o residents o three neebourheids aroond Peñón de los Baños, wi the event occurrin in the neebourheid o that name. The divide tae represent the French airmy an the baund o peasants cried Zacapoaxtlas alang wi Mexican sodgers which won the historical battle. The event begins early in the fore-nuin on 5 Mey wi a salute tae the Mexican banner an a parade tae the Peñón de los Baños muntain. The first act occurs in Barrio del Carmen, then anither act tae commemorate the Treaty o Loreto an the Treaty o Guadalupe on Hidalgo an Chihualcan Streets. Efter this, thare is a lairge shared banquet wi fuid providit bi aurie residents tae the mock sodgers. Then thare is an inspection o the troops bi ane playin General Zaragoza, wi a tradeetion o cuttin the hair o a new member o the troops for “lice.” The last battle occurs in the fore-nicht wi the French troops climbin on airport side an the Mexican troops on the Río Consulado side. It is at this time that cannons wi blanks are fired. When the French are defeatit, thay run doun the muntain an throu the Barrio del Carmen whaur thay are chasit an then “executit” at the aurie cemetery.[16] Efter the day’s events, thare is a festival, dance and carnival.[15]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pre Hispanic era[eedit | eedit soorce]

The emblem o the burgh is the umwhile Aztec glyph uised tae merk a veelage name Xochicán as it appears in the Mendocino Codex. The flouer image means “place o fragrant flouers.”[4]

Except for the far wast which wis pairt o the island o Tenochtitlan, the Peñón de los Baños an a couple o vera smaw islands in-atween, the territory o the burgh wis covered bi Loch Texcoco frae the pre Hispanic period intae the colonial period.[2][4] The auldest human dounsets in the aurie wur locatit in the Mixuhca an Peñón de los Baños, which wur baith oreeginally islands in Loch Texcoco.[3] The eastren end o Tenochtitlan wis associatit wi docks an mercats that handled the produce an ither items that came ower the Loch’s watters intae the ceety frae ither pairts o the Valley o Mexico sic as Texcoco, Chalco an Xochimilco. The loch in this aurie conteened pairt o the Nezahualcoyotl Dike an aw, biggit tae separate the shallae watters.[4]

The smaw islands on the loch wur inhabitit an aw. Ane o thir wis Mexicaltzingo, whaur the leader o Culhuacán alloued the Mexica tae live for a while in exchynge for militar service. The day this aurie is at the intersection o Calzada de la Viga an Ermita Iztapalapa. Anither aurie, Mixuhca, wis a vera smaw island in the loch an whaur it is said that ane o the sons o Moctezuma II wis born. The name is derivit frae Mixiuhtlán, which means “place o birth” for this raison. The Cerro el Peñón de los Baños wis a recreational aurie for Aztec emperors. It conteenit a nummer o het springs wi heich mineral content believit tae be curative.[4]

Colonial era[eedit | eedit soorce]

La Viga canal 1902

Efter the Spainyie conquest o the Aztec Empire, the Spainyie laid oot thair awn caipital ower the ruins o Tenochtitlán. The eastren end o this ceety corresponds tae the La Merced, San Lázaro and Candelario de los Patos neebourheids. Housomeivver, thir auries wur owerpopulatit an un-hygienic acause o the law, muddy condeetion o the land here next tae the loch, constantly subject tae floodin.[3]

In the 17t hunderyear, the San Lazaro dike continued tae define the mairch o Loch Texcoco wi firm laund. Housomeivver, the process o the loch’s desiccation wis already evident, expandin the island tae allou Mexico Ceety tae grow eastwaird. The dryin o the loch lead tae the creation o a netwirk o canals, o which the Jamaica an La Viga Canals wur maist important frae the colonial period tae the early 20t hunderyear. The La Viga Canal linkit the La Merced mercat aurie tae agricultural aurie sootheast o the ceety, wi docks for the canoes cried “trajineras” right next tae the mercat.[4]

In the 18t hunderyear, the San Antonio Tomatlán an La Candelaria kirks wur biggit in the neebourheids o San Lázaro an Candelaria de los Patos.[4]

Unthirldom tae the present[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the 19t hunderyear, the loch continued tae dry up, expandin Mexico Ceety east. Ane o the roads biggit on this “new” laund wis Calzada Ignacio Zaragoza, which the day leads tae the highway tae Puebla an Veracruz. Whether covered in loch or no, the territory o the burgh became pairt o the Federal Destrict o Mexico Ceety whan it wis creatit in 1824 an haes remained syne. In the latter pairt o the hunderyear, a nummer o Mexico’s new rail lines terminatit at the San Lázaro station, connectin Mexico Ceety wi Cuautla an Cuernavaca .[3][4] The urbanisit aurie extendit tae wha is nou the Avenida Congreso de la Unión, wi the formation o neebourheids sic as San Lázaro, Santo Tómas, Manzanares, La Soledad, Morelos an Moctezuma.[4] Housomeivver, hintle o the laund in the 19t hunderyear wis still swampy wi the exception o the far wast an the Peñón de los Baños. Bi 1885, the aurie wis drier but wis spairsely populatit.[3] A preeson wis biggit in a neebourheid cried Lecumberri atween 1885 an 1900 an aw.[4]

At the end o the 19t hunderyear, Mexico Ceety grew east wi the establishment o Colonia Morelos, Colonia Penitenciaría an Romero Rubio. Maist o the development wis wirkin cless hoosin an industrial facilities. Maist o the industries wur initially connectit wi fuid processin an ither activities relatit tae the La Merced an Jamaica mercats.[3] This wad bring the ceety’s leemits tae Eduardo Molina an Avenida Congreso de la Unión bi the beginnin o the 20t hunderyear. Avenida Circunvalación, next tae the La Merced Mercat, still connectit tae the La Viga Canal. Wha is nou the burgh then belangit tae twa destricts: Mexico Ceety proper an the municipality o Guadalupe Hidalgo.[4]

Francisco I. Madero an Pino Suárez wur executit next tae Lecumberri preeson in 1913.[3]

In the 1920s, Calzada Ignacio Zarragoza wis biggit tae connect tae the ceety centre tae the Puebla heich-gate. This main road spurred the development o mair subdiveesions expandin the urban sprawl east. A lairge amoont o laund in this aurie belangit tae a man namit Alberto Braniff, who providit it tae establish Mexico Ceety’s first private airstrip in 1909, which became the Aeropuerto Central de la Ciudad de México in 1943. In 1954, the airport relocatit, expandit an wis recondeetioned for internaitional flichts tae acome the Mexico Ceety Internaitional Airport. This airport promptit the development o warehooses, hotels, an offices in the aurie.[3]

In the 1950s Viaducto Miguel Aleman wis constructit efter encasin the Tacubaya, Piedadad an Becerra rivers in concrete. The La Merced mercat wis expandit an the Mercado Sonora wis biggit.[4] In the mid 20t hunderyear, the process o loch dryin an new subdiveesions wis still ongoin, wi Colonia Cuatro Arboles begun in 1945, anerly five years efter the loch in this aurie disappeared.[3]

The modren burgh wis creatit in 1970, whan the centre o Mexico Ceety wis split intae a fower burghs wi the ither three bein Benito Juárez, Cuauhtémoc an Miguel Hidalgo .[2][4] The burgh wis namit tae honour Mexican Revolution General Venustiano Carranza . Bi the end o the decade, the entire territory o the burgh wis urbanisit wi the exception o the Peñón de los Baños an a reservoir aurie cried the Bordo de Xochiaca, which is nou maistly green space.[3]

Bi 1982, informal staws aroond the La Merced Mercat haed invadit ower 530,000m2 an wis threatenin tae increase indefinitely. This promptit the end o the mercat as the ceety’s main retail centre in favor o a new mercat, Central de Abastos in Iztapalapa. La Merced remains the lairgest retail mercat for fuidstuffs in Mexico Ceety.[3]

In 2011, the burgh breuk the record for the warld’s lairgest torta sandwich, which measured fifty metres lang, wichtit 650 kg an wis put thegither in three minutes 57 seiconts wi seiventy different ingredients. The sandwich wis creatit as pairt o the annual Feria de la Torta.[17]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne the 1990s, the burgh haes haed a decrease in population, doun frae 462,806 frae 2000. The borough’s population accoontit for 10.4% o the Destrict’s tot in 1970. It accoontit for 5.4% in 2000. Ane main raison for the decrease is the conversion o laund frae residential tae commercial uise.[3]

The dominant releegion is Roman Catholicism wi ower 90% o the population professin this faith. As o 2005, 4,489 fowk spoke a indigenous leid, 1.1% o the tot.[3]

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are 456 schuils in the burgh: 156 preschuils, 200 primar schuils, 73 seicontar schuils, 8 vocational heich schuils an 19 heich schuils. Housomeivver, Aboot aichty percent o the population haes a eddication o less nor heich schuil level.[3]

Public heich schuils o the Instituto de Educación Media Superior del Distrito Federal (IEMS) include:[18]

  • Escuela Preparatoria Venustiano Carranza "José Revueltas Sánchez"

Socioeconomics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aboot 54% o the tot population twal or ower is economically active. Maist wirkers are atween 35 an 39 years o age. As o 2000, ower 98% o the wirkin population wis employed in aither the formal or informal economies. Juist unner 80% are employed in commerce, 17.5% are employed in manufacturin an construction an .1% in agricultur.[3]

The nummer o hoosin units in the burgh haes risen frae 112200 units wi a average occupancy o 3.3 in 1950 tae 117800 units wi 4.4 occupants in 1990. As o 1995, the average residential biggin wis fifty year auld. Frae 1990 tae 2005, the nummers chyngit anerly slichtly wi 118400 units an 3.9 fowk per hoosehaud. The impruivement haes hintle tae wi the decreasin population. Sewerage an electricity is available in ower 97% o residential units but runnin watter exists in juist unner 87%. Those athoot runnin watter in the apairtment hae shared soorce o supply.[3]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

TAPO[eedit | eedit soorce]

View o dome frae inside the bus station

The Terminal de Autobuses de Pasajeros de Oriente, better kent as TAPO is the main bus terminal for interstate traivel tae the east an sootheast.[4] It is locatit next tae Metro San Lázaro an markit bi its vera lairge dome coverin the structur. It wis constructit bi airchitect Juan José Díaz Infance an inauguratit in 1978. The outer rim o the circular interior conteens ticket coonters an buirdin auries for bus lines sic as Autobuses Unidos. The centre conteens a fuid court an ither businesses.[19]

Mexico Ceety airport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mexico Ceety Internaitional Airport, kent offeecially as Aeropuerto Internacional de Benito Juárez, is the main airport for Mexico Ceety. It wis formally namit efter the 19t hunderyear preses Benito Juárez in 2006. The airport is awned bi Grupo Aeroportuario de la Ciudad de México an operatit bi Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares, the govrenment-awned corporation, who operates 21 ithers airports throu Mexico. It is the kintra’s busiest airport wi 32 domestic an internaitional airlines an affers direct flichts tae mair nor 100 destinations warldwide. In 2010, the airport servit 24,130,535 passengers.

Ither transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

In tot, the burgh haes 4,958 roads, 5.1% o the tot o the Federal Destrict. The maist important roads include Anillo Periférico, Circuito Interior, Calzada Ignazio Zaragoza an Viaducto Miguel Aleman. Next in importance are Fray Servando Teresa de Mier, Eje 1 Oeste, Eje 2 Oeste (Avenida Congreso de la Unión ), Eje 3 Oeste, Eje 3 Sur, Eje 2 Sur, Eje 1 Norte, Eje 2 Norte.[3][7]

The heich concentration o fowk an businesses haes resultit in an extensive public transportation netwirk which includes the Mexico Ceety Metro, trolleybuses an various bus lines. The Metro lines that cross the burgh are Line 1, Line 4, an Line 7, Line B wi thirty sax stations wi burgh leemits.[3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b c "Geografía" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Venustiano Carranza. Archived frae the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  2. a b c d e "Demarcación Territorial Venustiano Carranza (delegación)" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Secretaria de Turismo Distrito Federal. Archived frae the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Venustiano Carranza". Enciclopedia de Los Municipios y Delegaciones de México - Distrito Federal (in Spanish). Mexico: INAFED. 2010. Archived frae the original on 21 Mey 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "La Delegación a Través de la Historia" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Venustiano Carranza. Archived frae the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  5. "Reforestan con 15 mil árboles la delegación Venustiano Carranza". Excelsior (in Spanish). Mexico City. 4 Julie 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. "Magdalena Mixhuca" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Secretaria de Turismo Distrito Federal. Archived frae the original on 6 Apryle 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  7. a b c d "Venustiano Carranza" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Secretaria de Turismo Distrito Federal. Archived frae the original on 6 Julie 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  8. "Turismo" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Venustiano Carranza. Archived frae the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  9. a b "Mercados Populares" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Venustiano Carranza. Archived frae the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  10. "Lecumberri, el palacio negro". El Sol de Zacatecas (in Spanish). Zacatecas. 25 Januar 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  11. "Palacio Legislativo San Lázaro – México" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Grupo ArqHys. Archived frae the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  12. "Museo Legislativo" (in Spanish). Mexico: Cámara de Diputados. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  13. "Santuarios Religiosos" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Venustiano Carranza. Archived frae the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  14. "Inaugura Venustiano Carranza nuevo centro cultural". El Universal (in Spanish). Mexico City. 4 Februar 2011. Archived frae the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  15. a b "Tradiciones" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Borough of Venustiano Carranza. Archived frae the original on 25 Apryle 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  16. José Carlos Aviña (5 Mey 2008). "Rememoran Batalla de Puebla en Peñón de los Baños". El Sol de México (in Spanish). Mexico City. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  17. "Rompen récord mundial con la torta más grande". El Economista (in Spanish). Mexico City. 27 Julie 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  18. "Planteles Venustanio Carranza." Instituto de Educación Media Superior del Distrito Federal. Retrieved on May 28, 2014.
  19. "Terminal de Autobuses de Pasajeros de Oriente" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Secretaria de Turismo Distrito Federal. Archived frae the original on 6 Apryle 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 19°25′00″N 99°06′50″W / 19.41667°N 99.11389°W / 19.41667; -99.11389