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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (in Scots)
Южно-Сахалинск (Roushie)
-  Ceety[1]  -
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk overview.jpg
View ower a residential aurie o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Map of Russia - Sakhalin Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location o Sakhalin Oblast in Roushie
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is locatit in Sakhalin Oblast
Location of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in Sakhalin Oblast
Coordinates: 46°58′N 142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733Coordinates: 46°58′N 142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733
Coat of Arms of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.png
Coat o airms
Admeenistrative status (as o December 2011)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast[1]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk[1]
Admeenistrative centre o Sakhalin Oblast,[1] ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk[1]
Municipal status (as of Mey 2010)
Urban okrug Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug[2]
Admeenistrative centre o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug[2]
Heid[citation needit] Andrey Lobkin[citation needit]
Population (2010 Census) 181,728 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 99th
Time zone MAGT (UTC+11:00)[4]
Foondit 1882[citation needit]
Ceety status syne 1946[citation needit]
Previous names Vladimirovka (until 1882),[citation needit]
Toyohara (until 1946)[citation needit]
Postal code(s)[5] 693000
Dialin code(s) +7 4242[citation needit]
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk on Wikimedia Commons

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Roushie: Ю́жно-Сахали́нск) is a ceety an the admeenistrative center o Sakhalin Oblast, Roushie. It wis formerly cried Vladimirovka (Влади́мировка) frae 1882 tae 1905, then Toyohara (Japanese: 豊原市, Hepburn: Toyohara-shi)) frae 1905 tae 1946. Population: 181,728 (2010 Census);[3] 175,085 (2002 Census);[6] 159,299 (1989 Census).[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early days o Vladimirovka
This Japanese D51 steam locomotive staunds ootside the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railwey Station

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk began as a smaa Roushie dounset cried Vladimirovka, foondit bi convicts in 1882. The Treaty o Portsmouth in 1905, which broucht an end tae the Russo-Japanese War o 1904–1905, awairded the soothren hauf o the Sakhalin Island tae Japan. Vladimirovka wis renamed Toyohara (meanin "boontiful plain"), an wis the prefect caipital o Japanese Karafuto Prefectur.

Efter the end o Warld War II, the Japanese portion o Sakhalin island wis occupied bi Soviet troops. Awnership o the ceety transferred back tae the Soviet Union an it wis renamed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Toun status wis grantit tae it in 1946.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is the admeenistrative center o the oblast.[1] Within the framework o admeenistrative divisions, it is, thegither wi ten rural localities, incorporatit as the ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk—an administrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[1] As a municipal diveesion, the ceety o oblast signeeficance o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is incorporatit as Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy an infrastructur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk museum in Japanese days
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk museum in 2012

Due tae significant investment frae ile companies lik ExxonMobil an Shell, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk haes experienced substantial economic growthe. Awtho this growthe haes primarily occurred in the northren pairt o the island, baith companies maintain heidquarters an residential complexes in the ceety o Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk itself. The demand for naitural resoorces bi the Japanese, Cheenese, an Sooth Koreans haes ensured continued prosperity in the foreseeable futur for the entire island.

Thare haes been significant criticism, includin frae Presidential Envoy Kamil Iskhakov, that Sakhalin is nae carin for its ceetizens. Despite sizable gas deposits an incomin investments frae gas companies, the regional admeenistration daes nae yet hae plans for the installation o gas services on the island. The oblast an aa continues tae hae the heichest rate o juvenile crime in aw o Roushie, an mair nor 40% o its businesses are unprofitable.[8]

Oot o very few remainin Japanese biggins in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ane nou functions as the local museum.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is served bi the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport. The ceety is an aa the hub for the island's narrow gauge railwey network, the Sakhalin Railwey, biggit unner the Japanese admeenistration in the early 20t century.

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Institutes o heicher eddication in the ceety include Sakhalin State Varsity an Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk institute o economics, law an informatics. An aa thare are some branches o ither heich schuils:

  • Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk institute (branch) o Roushie State tred-economics varsity
  • Branch o Far East State varsity o railways
  • Branch o Modren Academy o the humanities
  • Branch o The Paceefic State economics varsity
  • Branch o Roushie economics academy named efter G.V. Plekhanov
  • Branch o Far East law institute

Geografie an climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is locatit on the Susuya River. It is the lairgest ceety on the island, an the anly ane wi mair nor 100,000 indwallers. The straicht-line distance tae Moscow is 6,662 kilometers (4,140 mi).

Due tae restreections, foreigners within tae leave Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in order tae traivel tae ony ither pairt o the Sakhalin Oblast an its internal an territorial watters are required tae seek permission frae the Federal Security Service (FSB) an the Border Guard. Scuba divin an recreatin on the seacoast is permitted anly in places defined bi the Border Guard.[9]

The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb) wi mild simmers an cauld winters. Maritime influences can be seen in that precipitation is much heicher than in interior Roushie an that simmers are distinctly cuiler than in Khabarovsk or Irkutsk, while winters are much milder. Simmers are frequently foggy, reducin the amoont o sunshine.

Climate data for Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 4.3
Average heich °C (°F) −6.7
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.2
Average law °C (°F) −17.0
Record law °C (°F) −31.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 49
Average rainy days 0.3 0.4 2 9 17 17 20 19 19 18 9 2 132.7
Average snowy days 25 24 24 13 3 0.1 0 0 0 4 20 26 139.1
Average relative humidity (%) 83 81 78 76 77 83 86 86 83 80 81 83 82
Mean monthly sunshine oors 133.9 142.3 186.0 194.4 200.9 208.3 171.1 156.2 187.2 163.7 115.2 100.8 1,960
Soorce #1: Pogoda.ru.net[10]
Soorce #2: [11]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maist residents are ethnic Roushies, but thare an aa exists a sizable population o Koreans. O the 43,000 Sakhalin Koreans, hauf are estimatit tae live in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, comprisin roughly 12% o the ceety's population. An aa smawer nummers o indeegenous minorities, sic as Ainu, Nivkhs, an Oroks can be foond.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is twinned wi:

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Travel guide tae Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk frae Wikivoyage

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #25-ZO
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Law #524
  3. 3.0 3.1 Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census) (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  5. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Roushie Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Roushie)
  6. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. Vostokmedia.ru - PolPred Iskhakov visits Sakhalin Oblast
  9. Freedom of movement for foreigners on Sakhalin restricted
  10. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  11. http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=32150&Units=metric Seasonal Weather Averages

Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №25-ЗО от 23 марта 2011 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №141-ЗО от 27 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Сахалинской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 9 апреля 2011 г.. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №55(3742), 29 марта 2011 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #25-ZO of March 23, 2011 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #141-ZO of December 27, 2011 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of April 9, 2011.).
  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №524 от 21 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №120-ЗО от 24 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Сахалинской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области" и Закон Сахалинской области "О внесении изменений в Закон Сахалинской области "О муниципальных выборах в Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №175–176(2111–2112), 31 июля 2004 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #524 of July 21, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #120-ZO of December 24, 2012 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast" and the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Municipal Elections in Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).