Birobidzhan

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Birobidzhan (in Scots)
Биробиджан (Roushie)
-  Inhabited locality  -
Birobidjan mainsquare.jpg
The main square
Birobidzhan is locatit in Roushie
Birobidzhan
Birobidzhan
Location o Birobidzhan in Roushie
Coordinates: 48°48′4.46″N 132°54′4.29″E / 48.8012389°N 132.9011917°E / 48.8012389; 132.9011917Coordinates: 48°48′4.46″N 132°54′4.29″E / 48.8012389°N 132.9011917°E / 48.8012389; 132.9011917
Coat of Arms of Birobidzhan.png
Coat o airms
Holiday Last Seturday o Mey[1]
Admeenistrative status
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Admeenistrative centre o Jewish Autonomous Oblast[citation needit]
Municipal status
Urban okrug Birobidzhan Urban Okrug[citation needit]
Head[citation needit] Andrey Parkhomenko[citation needit]
Representative bouk Toun Duma[citation needit]
Statistics
Aurie 169.38 km2 (65.40 sq mi)[citation needit]
Population (2002 Census) 75,413 inhabitants[2]
Rank in 2002 215t
Density 445/km2 (1,150/sq mi)[3]
Time zone [4]
Foondit 1931[5]
Dialin code(s) +7 42622[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid
Birobidzhan on Wikimedia Commons

Birobidzhan (Roushie: Биробиджан; Yiddish: ביראָבידזשאַן‎) is a toun an the admeenistrative centre o the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Roushie, locatit on the Trans-Siberian Railway, close tae the border wi Cheenae. Population: 75,413 (2010 Census);[6] 77,250 (2002 Census);[2] 83,667 (1989 Census).[7]

Name an geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The toun is namit efter the twa lairgest rivers in the autonomous oblast: the Bira an the Bidzhan, awtho anerly the Bira flows throu the toun, which lees tae the east o the Bidzhan Valley. Baith rivers are tributars o the Amur.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Planned bi the Swiss airchitect Hannes Meyer, it wis established in 1931[5] an grantit toun status in 1937.

Jewish an Yiddish cultur in Birobidzhan[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae Rabbi Mordechai Scheiner, the Chief Rabbi o Birobidzhan an Chabad Lubavitch representative tae the region, "The day ane can enjoy the benefits o the Yiddish cultur an no be afraid tae return tae their Jewish traditions. It's safe athoot ony anti-Semitism, an we plan tae open the first Jewish day school here." Mordechai Scheiner, an Israeli faither o sax, haes been the rabbi in Birobidzhan for the last five years. He is an aa the host o the Roushie televeesion show, Yiddishkeit. The toun's synagogue opened in 2004.[8] Rabbi Scheiner says thare are 4,000 Jews in Birobidzhan, juist ower 5 percent o the toun's 75,000 population.[9] The Birobidzhan Jewish community wis led bi Lev Toitman, till his daith in September, 2007.[10]

Jewish cultur wis revived in Birobidzhan muckle earlier than elsewhaur in the Soviet Union. Yiddish theaters opened in the 1970s. Yiddish an Jewish tradeetions hae been required components in aw public schools for amaist fifteen years, taught no as Jewish exotica but as pairt o the region's naitional heritage.[11] The Birobidzhan Synagogue, completit in 2004, is next tae a complex hoosin Sunday School classrooms, a leebrar, a museum, an admeenistrative offices. The biggins wur offeecially opened in 2004 tae merk the 70t anniversary o the foondin o the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[12] Concernin the Jewish community o the oblast, Govrenor Nikolay Mikhaylovich Volkov haes statit that he intends tae "support ivery valuable initiative maintained bi oor local Jewish organisations.".[13] In 2007, The First Birobidzhan Internaitional Simmer Program for Yiddish Language an Cultur wis launched bi Yiddish studies professor Boris Kotlerman o Bar-Ilan University. [1] The ceety's main street is named efter the Yiddish leid author an humorist Sholom Aleichem.[14]

For the Chanukah celebration o 2007, offeecials o Birobidzhan in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast claimed tae hae biggit the warld's lairgest chanukia.[15]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Birobidzhan experiences a monsoonal humid continental climate (Köppen climate clessification Dwb) wi vera cauld, dry winters an wairm, vera wet simmers.

Climate data for Birobidzhan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−10.9
(12.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
9.5
(49.1)
18.2
(64.8)
23.5
(74.3)
26.1
(79)
24.0
(75.2)
18.1
(64.6)
8.5
(47.3)
−5.1
(22.8)
−15.2
(4.6)
6.57
(43.83)
Average law °C (°F) −29.4
(−20.9)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−16.5
(2.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
3.0
(37.4)
9.5
(49.1)
14.1
(57.4)
12.4
(54.3)
4.9
(40.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
−16.9
(1.6)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−6.63
(20.07)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6
(0.24)
5
(0.2)
13
(0.51)
35
(1.38)
61
(2.4)
108
(4.25)
147
(5.79)
154
(6.06)
88
(3.46)
35
(1.38)
19
(0.75)
11
(0.43)
682
(26.85)
Average precipitation days 2 2 4 6 10 12 13 13 10 5 4 3 84
Soorce: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [16]

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Birobidzhan Jewish National University wirks in cooperation wi the local releegious commonty. The varsity is unique in the Roushie Far East. The basis o the trainin course is study o the Ebreu leid, history an classic Jewish texts.[17] The toun nou boasts several state-run schools that teach Yiddish, as well as an Anglo-Yiddish faculty at its heicher eddication college, a Yiddish school for releegious instruction an a kindergarten. The five tae seien year-aulds spend twa lessons a week learnin tae speak Yiddish, as well as bein taught Jewish sangs, dance an tradeetions.[18] The school menorah wis creatit in 1991. It is a public school that affers a hauf-day Yiddish an Jewish curriculum for those parents who choose it. Aboot hauf the school’s 120 pupils are enrolled in the Yiddish course. Mony o them continue on tae Public School No. 2, which affers the same hauf-day Yiddish/Jewish curriculum frae first throu 12t grade. Yiddish is an aa affered at Birobidzhan’s Pedagogical Institute, ane o the anerlie varsity-level Yiddish courses in the kintra.[19] The day, the ceety’s 14 public schuils must teach Yiddish an Jewish tradeetion.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

The bandy club Nadezhda [2] plays in the 2nt heichest diveesion o the Roushie Bandy League.

Mass media[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • "Birobidzhanscaya Nedelya" newspaper
  • "Birobidzhaner Shtern", newspaper (in Roushie an Yiddish)
  • "Di Vokh" newspaper
  • "Birobidzhanscaya Zvezda" newspaper
  • Taiga-Vostok Radio
  • FM Биробиджан Radio
  • "Bira" TV (unner Federal Broadcasting Corporation (GTRK))
  • «BestVideo» TV

L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin![eedit | eedit soorce]

A documentary film, L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin![20] on Stalin's creation o the Jewish Autonomous Oblast an its pairtial dounset bi thoosans o Roushie an Yiddish-speakin Jews wis released in 2003. As well as relatin the history o the creation o the proposed Jewish hameland, the film features scenes o life in contemporary Birobidzhan an interviews wi Jewish residents.

Accordin tae The New York Times, Stalin promotit the ceety as a hame for secular Jews.[21]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Birobidzhan is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Charter of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Birobidzhan, adopted on July 24, 1997, with subsequent amendments
  2. 2.0 2.1 Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census) (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PopCensus" defined multiple times wi different content
  3. The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  4. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Govrenment o the Roushie Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of Juin 31, 2011 On Calculatin Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of Julie 03, 2016 On Amendin Federal Law "On Calculatin Time". Effective as of efter saxty days follaein the day o the offeecial publication.).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 47. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census) (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. FJC | News | Far East Community Prepares for 70th Anniversary of Jewish Autonomous Republic
  9. FJC | News | From Tractors to Torah in Russia's Jewish Land
  10. Far East Jewish Community Chairman Passes Away Federation of Jewish Communities
  11. NCSJ - Profiles: Birobidzhan Jewish Community
  12. FJC | News | Birobidzhan - New Rabbi, New Synagogue
  13. Governor Voices Support for Growing Far East Jewish Community Federation of Jewish Communities
  14. Back to Birobidjan. By Rebecca Raskin. Jerusalem Post
  15. Breaking News - JTA, Jewish & Israel News
  16. "World Weather Information Service – Birobidzan". United Nations. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  17. Religion
  18. Kulanu: Birobidzhan: Soviety-era Jewish homeland struggles on
  19. NCSJ - Profiles: Birobidzhan Jewish Community
  20. L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin!
  21. William J. Broad, "A Spy’s Path: Iowa to A-Bomb to Kremlin Honor", The New York Times (November 12, 2007), p. A19

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]