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The main square
The main square
Coat o airms o Birobidzhan
Coat o airms
Location o Birobidzhan
Birobidzhan is locatit in Roushie
Location o Birobidzhan
Birobidzhan is locatit in Roushie
Birobidzhan (Roushie)
Coordinates: 48°48′4.46″N 132°54′4.29″E / 48.8012389°N 132.9011917°E / 48.8012389; 132.9011917Coordinates: 48°48′4.46″N 132°54′4.29″E / 48.8012389°N 132.9011917°E / 48.8012389; 132.9011917
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Foondit 1931[1]
 • Bouk Toun Duma
 • Head Andrey Parkhomenko
 • Total 169.38 km2 (65.40 sq mi)
Elevation 80 m (260 ft)
 • Estimate (2018)[3] 73,623
 • Caipital o Jewish Autonomous Oblast
 • Urban okrug Birobidzhan Urban Okrug
Time zone [4] (UTC+10)
Postal code(s)[5] 679000–679025Eedit this on Wikidata
Dialin code(s) +7 42622
Haliday Last Seturday o Mey[6]
Twin touns Niigata, Beaverton, Hegang, Ma'alot-TarshihaEedit this on Wikidata
OKTMO ID 99701000001

Birobidzhan (Roushie: Биробиджан; Yiddish: ביראָבידזשאַן‎) is a toun an the admeenistrative centre o the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Roushie, locatit on the Trans-Siberian Railway, close tae the border wi Cheenae. Population: 75,413 (2010 Census);[7] 77,250 (2002 Census);[8] 83,667 (1989 Census).[9]

Name an geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The toun is namit efter the twa lairgest rivers in the autonomous oblast: the Bira an the Bidzhan, awtho anerly the Bira flows throu the toun, which lees tae the east o the Bidzhan Valley. Baith rivers are tributars o the Amur.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Planned bi the Swiss airchitect Hannes Meyer, it wis established in 1931[1] an grantit toun status in 1937.

Jewish an Yiddish cultur in Birobidzhan[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae Rabbi Mordechai Scheiner, the Chief Rabbi o Birobidzhan an Chabad Lubavitch representative tae the region, "The day ane can enjoy the benefits o the Yiddish cultur an no be afraid tae return tae their Jewish traditions. It's safe athoot ony anti-Semitism, an we plan tae open the first Jewish day school here." Mordechai Scheiner, an Israeli faither o sax, haes been the rabbi in Birobidzhan for the last five years. He is an aa the host o the Roushie televeesion show, Yiddishkeit. The toun's synagogue opened in 2004.[10] Rabbi Scheiner says thare are 4,000 Jews in Birobidzhan, juist ower 5 percent o the toun's 75,000 population.[11] The Birobidzhan Jewish community wis led bi Lev Toitman, till his daith in September, 2007.[12]

Jewish cultur wis revived in Birobidzhan muckle earlier than elsewhaur in the Soviet Union. Yiddish theaters opened in the 1970s. Yiddish an Jewish tradeetions hae been required components in aw public schools for amaist fifteen years, taught no as Jewish exotica but as pairt o the region's naitional heritage.[13] The Birobidzhan Synagogue, completit in 2004, is next tae a complex hoosin Sunday School classrooms, a leebrar, a museum, an admeenistrative offices. The biggins wur offeecially opened in 2004 tae merk the 70t anniversary o the foondin o the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[14] Concernin the Jewish community o the oblast, Govrenor Nikolay Mikhaylovich Volkov haes statit that he intends tae "support ivery valuable initiative maintained bi oor local Jewish organisations.".[15] In 2007, The First Birobidzhan Internaitional Simmer Program for Yiddish Language an Cultur wis launched bi Yiddish studies professor Boris Kotlerman o Bar-Ilan University. [1] The ceety's main street is named efter the Yiddish leid author an humorist Sholom Aleichem.[16]

For the Chanukah celebration o 2007, offeecials o Birobidzhan in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast claimed tae hae biggit the warld's lairgest chanukia.[17]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Birobidzhan experiences a monsoonal humid continental climate (Köppen climate clessification Dwb) wi vera cauld, dry winters an wairm, vera wet simmers.

Climate data for Birobidzhan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) −16.6
Average law °C (°F) −29.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6
Average precipitation days 2 2 4 6 10 12 13 13 10 5 4 3 84
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [18]

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Birobidzhan Jewish National University wirks in cooperation wi the local releegious commonty. The varsity is unique in the Roushie Far East. The basis o the trainin course is study o the Ebreu leid, history an classic Jewish texts.[19] The toun nou boasts several state-run schools that teach Yiddish, as well as an Anglo-Yiddish faculty at its heicher eddication college, a Yiddish school for releegious instruction an a kindergarten. The five tae seien year-aulds spend twa lessons a week learnin tae speak Yiddish, as well as bein taught Jewish sangs, dance an tradeetions.[20] The school menorah wis creatit in 1991. It is a public school that affers a hauf-day Yiddish an Jewish curriculum for those parents who choose it. Aboot hauf the school’s 120 pupils are enrolled in the Yiddish course. Mony o them continue on tae Public School No. 2, which affers the same hauf-day Yiddish/Jewish curriculum frae first throu 12t grade. Yiddish is an aa affered at Birobidzhan’s Pedagogical Institute, ane o the anerlie varsity-level Yiddish courses in the kintra.[21] The day, the ceety’s 14 public schuils must teach Yiddish an Jewish tradeetion.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

The bandy club Nadezhda [2] plays in the 2nt heichest diveesion o the Roushie Bandy League.

Mass media[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • "Birobidzhanscaya Nedelya" newspaper
  • "Birobidzhaner Shtern", newspaper (in Roushie an Yiddish)
  • "Di Vokh" newspaper
  • "Birobidzhanscaya Zvezda" newspaper
  • Taiga-Vostok Radio
  • FM Биробиджан Radio
  • "Bira" TV (unner Federal Broadcasting Corporation (GTRK))
  • «BestVideo» TV

L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin![eedit | eedit soorce]

A documentary film, L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin![22] on Stalin's creation o the Jewish Autonomous Oblast an its pairtial dounset bi thoosans o Roushie an Yiddish-speakin Jews wis released in 2003. As well as relatin the history o the creation o the proposed Jewish hameland, the film features scenes o life in contemporary Birobidzhan an interviews wi Jewish residents.

Accordin tae The New York Times, Stalin promotit the ceety as a hame for secular Jews.[23]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Birobidzhan is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 47. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  3. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved 23 Januar 2019.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  4. "Об исчислении времени" [On the calculation of time]. Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Roushie). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019. 
  5. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Roushie)
  6. Charter of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Birobidzhan, adopted on July 24, 1997, with subsequent amendments
  7. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 Aw-Roushie Population Census) (in Roushie). Federal State Stateestics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. Roushie Federal State Stateestics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population o Roushie, Its Federal Destricts, Federal Subjects, Destricts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Admeenistrative Centres, an Rural Localities wi Population o Ower 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [Aw-Roushie Population Census o 2002] (in Roushie). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [Aw Union Population Census o 1989: Present Population o Union an Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts an Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Destricts, Urban Settlements, an Veelages Servin as Destrict Admeenistrative Centres]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [Aw-Union Population Census o 1989] (in Roushie). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute o Demografie at the Naitional Resairch Varsity: Heicher Schuil o Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. FJC | News | Far East Community Prepares for 70th Anniversary of Jewish Autonomous Republic
  11. FJC | News | From Tractors to Torah in Russia's Jewish Land
  12. Far East Jewish Community Chairman Passes Away Federation of Jewish Communities
  13. NCSJ - Profiles: Birobidzhan Jewish Community
  14. FJC | News | Birobidzhan - New Rabbi, New Synagogue
  15. Governor Voices Support for Growing Far East Jewish Community Federation of Jewish Communities
  16. Back to Birobidjan. By Rebecca Raskin. Jerusalem Post
  17. Breaking News - JTA, Jewish & Israel News
  18. "World Weather Information Service – Birobidzan". United Nations. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  19. Religion
  20. Kulanu: Birobidzhan: Soviety-era Jewish homeland struggles on
  21. NCSJ - Profiles: Birobidzhan Jewish Community
  22. L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin!
  23. William J. Broad, "A Spy’s Path: Iowa to A-Bomb to Kremlin Honor", The New York Times (November 12, 2007), p. A19

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]